Living to Do

                                                            Titus 3:1-11

                                                         August 25, 2019




Society has reached no ideal perfection in government, nor has God

Himself laid down any outward form as an ideal. All nations are justified in

variety of choice. There has been government by judges, and governments

monarchical, republican, autocratic, and constitutional. All that we need to

notice is that society needs to be governed. Lawlessness always ends in

anarchy, misery, and desolation.  Let us learn:


  • Subjection to the State.  This is beautiful. Restraint is better than the liberty

of licentiousness. (As America is finding out in the 21st century – CY – 2013)

Compare a river that keeps its bounds to one that overflows its banks. Men

are justified in resisting tyrannies, whether of autocrats or mobs; but they must

not forget that all well-ordered societies exist only by subjection.


  • Self-Conquest.   Controlling the tongue, avoiding all bitterness and “brawling,”

and showing that there is

Ø      a magistracy of the heart as well as

Ø      a magistracy of the state.



3 “For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived,

serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and

hating one another.”  Foolish (ἀνόητοιanoaetoi); a Pauline word

(Galatians 3:1, 3), found also in Luke 24:25 (see I Timothy 6:9); of frequent use

in classical Greek. Disobedient (ἀπειθεῖς) apeitheis unpersuadable;

stubborn); as ch.1:16. In Luke 1:17 it stands, as here, absolutely, meaning

disobedient to God and His Law. Deceived (πλανώμενοιplanomenoi -

led astray, made to wander from the path of truth and right); either by

false systems of religion, or by our own evil affections and appetites (see II Timothy

2:13; I Peter 2:25; II Peter 2:15, etc.). Serving.  (δουλεύοντεςdouleuontes

slaves to); II Peter 2:19 (see above, ch. 2:2). Lusts.  (ἐπιθυμίαιςepithumiais);

not always in a bad sense, as here, though usually so (see Luke 22:15; Philippians 1:23;

I Thessalonians 2:17; Revelation 18:14). Pleasures. (ἡδοναῖςhaedonais

gratificationsthis word is the origin of the idea behind the modern philosophy of

Hedonism [the pursuit of pleasure; sensual self-indulgence] – CY - 2019); always in a

bad sense in the New Testament (Luke 8:14; James 4:1, 3; II Peter 2:13).  Living. 

(διάγοντεςdiagontes); see I Timothy 2:2, where it is followed by βίονbionlife

which is here understood. Διάγειν τὸν βίον αἰῶνα χρόνον σάββατονDiagein ton

bion aiona chronon sabbaton etc., are common phrases both in the Septuagint and

in classical Greek for passing or spending one’s life, time, age, etc. But it is only  

(Romans 6:21) found in the New Testament here and in I Timothy 2:2. Malice

(κακίᾳ - kakia ). This word is sometimes used of wickedness generally, as Acts 8:22;

James 1:21; I Corinthians 5:8; and probably Romans 1:29; and even of badness in

things, as Matthew 6:34. But it frequently in the New Testament denotes malice,

 the desire to do harm to others, as Ephesians 4:31; Colossians 3:8, etc.

Envy (φθόνῳ phthono|); almost always found in Paul’s enumeration of sins

(Romans 1:29; Galatians 5:21; I Timothy 6:4, etc.). Hateful.  (στυγητοί

stugaetoi); only here in the New Testament, not found in the Septuagint

(though the verb στυγέω - stugeo – to hate - occurs once or twice in the

Maccabees), but used in good classical Greek. The above is a sad but too

true picture of human life WITHOUT  the sweetening influences of





                                                Duty (vs. 1-3)


“Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers,” etc.

Paul’s warnings and exhortations, to men and women of different ages, on the subject

of their home life, written with a reference generally to Christian life among Christians.

But there was then a great life outside the little Christian world: how were the people

of Christ to regulate their behavior in their dealings with the vast pagan world

outside? Paul goes to the root of the matter at once when he says, ‘Put them in mind,’

etc.” We have here duty in a threefold relation — in relation to civil

government, in relation to general society, and in relation to moral self.

Here is duty:


·         IN RELATION TO CIVIL GOVERNMENT. “Put them in mind to be

subject [in subjection] to principalities [rulers] and powers [authorities], to

obey magistrates [to be obedient].” It is here implied, and fully taught

elsewhere (Romans 13:1-13), that civil government is of DIVINE

APPOINTMENT!   “There is no power but of God,” says Paul.

That the principle of civil government is Divine is not only revealed

but implied in the very constitution of society.


Ø      Mans social tendencies indicate it. Some men are royal in their instincts

and powers, and are evidently made to rule. Others are servile, cringing in

tendency, feeble in faculty, and made to obey. There is a vast gradation of

instinct and power in human society, and it is an eternal principle in God’s

government that the lesser shall serve the greater.


Ø      Mans social needs indicate it. Every community, to be kept in

order, must have a recognized head — one who shall be allowed to rule,

either by his own will or the organized will of the whole. Hence man, in his

most savage state, has some recognized chief. The principle of civil

government is, therefore, manifestly of Divine appointment. We may rest

assured that, civil government being of Divine appointment, it is for good

and good only. Indeed, we learn that Paul’s idea of a civil ruler is that he is

a “minister of God to thee for good.” But what is good? The answer in

which all will agree is this obedience to the Divine will. What is the

standard of virtue? Not the decree of an autocrat, not public sentiment,

even when organized into constitutional law; but the will of God. “Whether

it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you more than unto God,

judge ye.” (Acts 4:19)  The civil government, therefore, that does not

harmonize with His will, as revealed by Christ the infallible Logos, is not

the government of which Paul speaks. Taking Christ as the Revealer of God’s

will, we may infer that the infringement of human rights is not in

accordance with the will of God, and therefore not good. Also that

the promotion of injustice, impurity, and error is not according to

the will of God, and therefore not good. The Bible never teaches, nor

does moral philosophy, that we are bound to obey laws that are not righteous,

to honor persons that are not honor-worthy. If we are commanded to honor

the king, the precept implies that the kings character is worthy of his office;

Some kings it is religious to despise and loathe. If we are commanded to

honor our parents, the language implies that our parents are honor-worthy.

Some parents display attributes of character suited to awaken the

utmost hatred and contempt.  In like manner we are commanded to be

subject to the higher powers, and the injunction implies that what these

higher powers enact is right. The obligation of obedience is ever dependent

upon the righteousness of the command.


·         IN RELATION TO GENERAL SOCIETY. There are three duties here

indicated which every man owes to his fellows.


Ø      Usefulness. “Be ready to every good work.” The law of universal

benevolence which we see in nature, our own instincts and faculties, as

well as the written Word, teach us that man was made to serve his brother;

the grand end of each is to promote the happiness of others. No man fulfills

his mission or realizes his destiny who is not an altruist, who is not ever

actuated by regard for the happiness of others. Altruism is God’s social law

and is binding on every one; disregard to it is the source of all social

disorders and miseries. “The soul of the truly benevolent man does not

seem to reside much in its own body. Its life, to a great extent, is a mere

reflex of the lives of others. It migrates into their bodies, and, identifying its

existence with their existence, finds its own happiness in increasing and

prolonging their pleasures, in extinguishing or solacing their pains.”


Ø      Charitableness. “To speak evil of no man.” “This,” says a modern

author, “imports more than to speak evil in the ordinary sense: it is to act

the part of a reviler or slanderer; and when used of conduct from one man

towards another, always betokens the exercise of a very bitter and

malignant spirit. Titus was to charge the Christians of Crete to give no

exhibition towards any one of such a spirit, nor to show a quarrelsome

disposition, but, on the contrary, to cultivate a mild, placable, and gentle

temper.” There are evils of some sort or other attaching to all men, and in

some men they are of the most hideous and heinous character. To ignore

them, if possible, would be wrong; to feel them is natural to the pure, and

to denounce them is right. But to speak of them before others, to parade

them before the eyes of others, argues a base and malignant nature. Should

occasion require us to speak of them, it should be in the saddest tones of

tenderness, and even with compassionate indignation.


Ø      Courteousness. “To be no brawlers [not to be contentious], but gentle,

showing all meekness unto all men.” How much there is in society, how

much in every department of life — mercantile, mechanical, and mental —

one meets with to annoy and irritate, especially those fated with an irascible

nature. Still, amidst the strongest provocations, courtesy is our duty, yes,

and our dignity too.


·         IN RELATION TO OUR MORAL SELF. The apostle urges the duty

of forbearance to what was wrong in government and society, by

reminding them of the wrong in their own past lives. “We ourselves also

were sometimes foolish “ — we had no proper understanding of the true.

“Disobedient”indisposed to do what is right. “Deceived” — swerving

from the true mode of life. “Serving divers lusts and pleasures slaves

of impure passions, reveling in the sensual and the gross. “Living in malice

and envy, hateful, and hating one another “ — we once spent our days in

the atmosphere of hate and malign passions. It is a duty which every man

owes to himself to remember all the wrong of his past life — remember it:


Ø      That he may be charitable towards others.

Ø      That he may be stimulated to efforts of self-improvement.

Ø      That he may adore the forbearance of God in His past dealings.

Ø      That he may devoutly appreciate the morally redemptive agency of


Ø      That he may realize the necessity of seeking the moral restoration of

others. Two things may be inferred from Paul’s language concerning the

past moral condition of himself and others.


o       The possibility of the moral improvement of souls. The

     rough stone can be polished, the unfertile soil can be made

fertile, the wilderness can blossom as the rose.

o       The obligation of the moral improvement of souls.


·         CONCLUSION. Let us find out our duty and follow it, through storm as

well as sunshine, even unto death. “After all,” says Canon Kingsley, “what

is speculation to practice? What does God require of us but to do justly, to

love mercy, and to walk humbly with him? (Micah 6:8)  The longer I live

this seems to me more important, and all other questions less so. If we can but

live the simple, right life, do the work that’s nearest, though it’s dull at whiles,

helping, when we meet them, lame dogs over stiles.” In the realization of

our duty is our strength, our nobleness, our heaven.


“Yet do thy work: it shall succeed.

In thine or in another’s day;

And if denied the victor’s meed,

Thou shalt not lack the toiler’s pay.

“Then faint not, falter not, nor plead

Thy weakness: truth itself is strong;

The lion’s strength, the eagle’s speed,

Are not alone vouchsafed to wrong.”







                        Salvation, Not of Works, But of Grace (vs, 4-7)


“But after that the kindness and love of God our Savior toward man

appeared,” etc. The great subject here is salvation. This includes the

restoration of the soul to the knowledge, the image, the fellowship, and the

service of the great God. The passage leads us to offer two remarks on the





in] righteousness which we have done [which we did ourselves].” What are

righteous works? Condensely defined, works inspired ever by supreme

sympathy with THE SUPREMELY GOOD!   No other works, whatever

their sacred semblance, whatever their popular appreciation, are righteous.

Now, such righteous works we cannot render IN OUR UNRENEWED

STATE  because we have lost this affection, and the loss of this is THE



Ø      Could we render such works they would save us. They secure the

blessedness of the unfallen angels.


Ø      Without rendering such works we cannot be saved. Moral salvation

consists in holiness of character. Character is made up of habits,

habits made up of acts, and the acts, to be of any worth, must be righteous.



US, AND THEREFORE WE MAY BE SAVED. “According to His mercy

He saved us.” Observe:


Ø      The special work of this redemptive mercy. What is the work?


o       Cleansing. “The washing of regeneration,” or the “laver of

regeneration,” as some render it. Sin is represented as a moral

defiler, and deliverance from sin, therefore, is a cleansing.

o       Renewal. “Renewing.” Sin is represented as death, and

      deliverance from it is, therefore, a quickening, a renewal.


Ø      The Divine Administrator of this redemptive mercy. “The Holy Ghost.”

No agency BUT THAT OF GOD can either morally cleanse or renew.

That Divine Agent which of old brooded over the face of the deep

CAN ALONE morally recreate.


Ø      The glorious Medium of this redemptive mercy. “Through Jesus Christ

our Savior.” Christ our Savior is the Medium.


o       Through Him the Spirit came,

o       by Him the Spirit works,

o       in Him the Spirit is abundant.


Ø      The sublime result of this redemptive mercy. “That being justified by his

grace, we should [might] be made heirs according to the hope of eternal

life.” The word “justified” means to be made right:


o       right in heart,

o       right in life,

o       right in relation to:


§         self,

§         the universe, and

§         God.

What is it to be made right? To be put in possession of that spirit of love

to God which is the spring of all “works of righteousness.”  This



o       Inspires with the highest hope. “Hope of eternal life.” What a

      blessing is hope! But the “hope of eternal life,” WHAT HOPE

      LIKE THIS?


o       Inaugurates the highest relationship. “Heirs.” We are

      heirs of God, and joint heirs with Jesus Christ.”

 (Romans 8:17)




The Worthless, the Pernicious, and the Desirable in Social Life (vs. 9-15)


“But avoid foolish questions,” etc. The text brings under our attention

three things.



“Avoid foolish questions and genealogies.” The “questions” and

genealogies are referred to in I Timothy 1:4. The apostle

characterizes them as foolish because they were of an utterly impractical

nature, and consumed time and powers which were needed for other and

better things. “Genealogies as found in the Books of the Pentateuch, and to

which wild allegorical interpretations had been assigned. Such purely

fanciful meanings had been already developed by Philo, whose religious

writings were becoming at this time known and popular in many of the

Jewish schools. Such teaching, if allowed in the Christian Churches, Paul

saw, would effectually put a stop to the growth of Gentile Christendom. It

would inculcate an undue and exaggerated and, for the ordinary Gentile

convert, an impossible reverence for Jewish forms and ceremonies.” Old

was the habit and strong was the tendency of the Hebrews to concern

themselves about their ancestry or genealogy. A truly contemptible state of

mind, this! What matters it whether we were born of kings or of paupers?

“And contentions, and strivings about the Law.” The ceremonial law is

here meant, evidently — the law concerning meats and drinks and holy

days. “For they are unprofitable and vain.” How rife in Christendom have

been in past ages, and still are, these miserable discussions, which are

generated for the most part by the most ignorant and narrow-minded of the

human race — mere “unfeathered bipeds” that Christianity has not

converted into true manhood. The grand end of every member of the social

realm should be “charity, that of a pure heart and of a good conscience.”

(ibid. v. 5)The only true Christianity in social life is altruism.



      harmful) FROM SOCIAL LIFE. The former class — the irritating

disputants about genealogies and ceremonies — are described as

unprofitable and vain.” They are a worthless class, doing no good

whatever, but otherwise. The class we have here, however, is represented

as pernicious, and to be rejected. “A man that is an heretic after the first

and second admonition  reject.” The word “heretic” (αἱρετικόν - hairetikon

sectarian) occurs  nowhere else in the New Testament. separatist · dissenter ·

dissident · nonconformist · free thinker · renegade · disruptor · recusant ·

schismatic · revisionist · unbeliever · skeptic · agnostic · atheist · nontheist ·

zealot · Young Turk · extremist · radical · activist · militant · bigot ·

dogmatist · partisan · devotee.  All heretics may be  divided into three classes.


Ø      The theoretical unbeliever. They do not believe what others believe to

be true and orthodox. Though bigots denounce this as the worst of sins,

true wisdom justifies it. It says that uniformity of opinion is an

impossibilityan impossibility arising from a variety in the faculties,

education, and external circumstances of men. And not only an

impossibility, but an inexpediency. Did all men think alike, all minds

would sink into a dead monotony. “Every man should be fully

persuaded in his own mind.”  (Romans 14:5)  That, therefore, which

the Church most fiercely denounces it should encourage and develop.

There is more good in honest doubt than in half the creeds.


Ø      The professional believer. A heretic more execrable know I not than he

who every Sunday in the great congregation declares his faith in creeds,

and every day, not only ignores them, but denies them in his life. These

heretics make our laws, rule our commerce, fill our temples, create wars,

and swindle the millions.


Ø      The practical disbeliever. These are insincere. They do not act

according to their innate convictions, their intuitive beliefs. They

believe — and they cannot help it — that the greatest Being should

have the most reverence, the best Being the most love, the kindest

Being the most gratitude; and yet, forsooth, they live lives of

irreverence, unlovingness, and ingratitude. These are the worst

kind of heretics. And how are they to be treated? They are to be

excommunicated. “After the first and second admonition reject.”

They should be morally ostracized. “Knowing that  he that is such

is subverted, and sinneth, being condemned of himself.” They are

insincere men, and not to be accepted or continued in the circle of

brotherhood. Whilst you have no authority to persecute them or crush

them by force, you are bound to treat them as insincere men. Their

own conscience condemns; they are self-condemned.



changes in social companionship and scene of residence to which the

apostle here points, he urges the aiming at one thing, viz. to “maintain

good works for necessary uses, that they be not unfruitful.” What the

good works” are I have intimated in my remarks on the preceding verses.

They are works that have:


o       a right motive,

o       a right standard, and

o       a right influence.


The grand end in the life of all rational and moral beings should

be THE MAINTENANCE OF GOOD WORKS!   The apostle intimates

that this should be the aim:


Ø      IN ALL THE EVENTS OF LIFE.  He was now dispatching to Titus

      from his society two dear friends and fellow-workers, Artemas and           

Tychicus, inviting him to come at once to Nicopolis, where he had,

in the use of his discretionary power, determined to remain through

the winter.  Moreover, he had requested Titus to bring with him Zenas

the lawyer and Apollos.  Apollos was a man, not only of distinguished

learning and influence, but Paul’s intimate friend and fellow-laborer.

In all this Paul keeps the one end in view, viz. that they should

maintain good works. “Good works,” the culmination of all good

ideas, good impressions,  good emotions, and good resolves.

“Show me your faith by your works.”  (James 2:18)  In a good

character man can alone find his heaven and from good works

alone can man produce a good character.


Ø      In the presiding spirit of life. “All that are with me salute thee,” etc.

Brotherly love was to animate, direct, and rule all their social

                        movements and activities.




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