A Time Line within a Time Line

                                 The Six Books of the Kings of Israel

          (I & II Samuel; I & II Kings; I & II Chronicles)

                                                July 3, 2022

 

 

God is Eternal.  I surmise that time, per se, means nothing to Him.

He is the same yesterday, today and forever.”   Would it startle you if I said so

are you?  We get sidetracked because we allow the body to overwhelm

our soul and spirit.  In God’s design of you and me, He meant for the spirit

to control the body!  Did not when God breathed into us the

breath o life, you became a living soul?  Thus like Him, we shall exist

forever!  Like it or not, this cannot be changed.

 

Explain the title of the lesson.

SANDS OF TIME as a saying.

The accumulated tiny amounts of time; time represented by the sand in an hourglass.

The sands of time will make you grow old like everyone else. My only enemy is the

sands of time.

McGraw-Hill Dictionary of American Idioms

 

 

The steady, unstoppable advancement of time. Some people despair to see themselves

aging in the mirror as the sands of time slip by, but I relish growing older and seeing

myself change along with the rest of the world.For all that we've learned about these

ancient structures, their true purpose has been lost in the sands of time.

 

Farlex Dictionary of Idioms.

 

Depictions of an hourglass as a symbol of the passage of time are found in art,

especially on tombstones or other monuments, from antiquity to the present day.

The form of a winged hourglass has been used as a literal depiction of the

well-known idiom "time flies".    Wikipedia

 

In life’s struggles, we often wonder how circumstances can change. A simple phrase such as “This Too Shall Pass” can bring comfort and sometimes resolution. But why do we find peace and comfort in such a simple phrase? Most people believe that this phrase came directly from the Bible itself. Unfortunately, that is not the case at all.

 

 

History and Origin: This Too Shall Pass'

According to Rabbi Lisa Rubin, “King Solomon was trying to humble his wisest servant,

so he asked him to perform a seemingly impossible task: to find something that did not exist. He requested a magic ring — one that, if a sad man wore it, he would become happy and if a happy man wore it, he would become sad.” The story suggests that the servant could not find anything of such nature. So, King Solomon decided upon himself to go to a jeweler and design a ring with the inscription in Hebrew saying, “Gam ze ya’avor,” which means, “This, too, shall pass.”

Over the years, this phrase has been widely used, even by Abraham Lincoln himself. This phrase has apparently been made famous because he used it in his speeches. “It is said an Eastern monarch once charged his wise men to invent him a sentence, to be ever in view, and which should be true and appropriate in all times and situations. They presented him the words: "And this, too, shall pass away” (Roy P. Basler et al.).

A Case of Mistaken Biblical Identity

Although this information is great, this does not seem to explain why people believe “This Too Shall Pass” is in the Bible. So, I conducted a search in the Bible to see where people may see that phrase. 

In Deuteronomy 28, the phrase, “It shall come to pass” is repeated twice. “Now it shall come to pass, if you diligently obey the voice of the Lord your God, to observe carefully all His commandments which I command you today, that the Lord your God will set you high above all nations of the earth” (Deuteronomy 28:1). God clearly states that if you obey His commands then all of these blessings will come to pass. 

But God also states in Deuteronomy 28:15, “But it shall come to pass, if you do not obey the voice of the Lord your God, to observe carefully all His commandments and His statutes which I command you today, that all these curses will come upon you and overtake you…”   Christianity.com

 

 

                        Moral Ruin in a Religious Home (1:6)

 

It is a notorious fact that the sons of devout men sometimes prove a curse

to their parents, and bring dishonor on the cause of God. When sin entered

the world, it caused the earth, on which flowers had aforetime blossomed,

to bring forth thorns and briars. This is a picture of a sad truth, known in

the first home, and in many another since. Eve rejoiced over the fair child

she had “gotten from the Lord,” and did not suspect that passions were

sleeping within him which would nerve his arm to strike the fatal blow

which slew his brother and destroyed his mother’s peace. Such sorrow has

been experienced in subsequent history. Isaac’s heart was rent by the deceit

of Jacob and the self will of Esau. Jacob found his own sin repeated against

himself, for he who had deceived his father when he was old and blind,

suffered an agony of grief for years, because he was falsely told by his sons

that Joseph was dead.

 

Probably few have had more domestic sorrow than

David. He experienced, in its bitterest form, the grief of a parent who has

wished that before his son had brought such dishonor on the home, he

had been, in the innocence of his childhood, laid to rest beneath the daisies.

Of David’s sons, Amnon, the eldest, after committing a hideous sin, had

been assassinated by the order of Absalom, his brother. Absalom himself

had rebelled against his father, and had been killed by Joab, as he hung

helpless in the oak. Chileab (or Daniel) was dead. And now of the fourth

son, the eldest surviving, Adonijah, this sad story is told. Adonijah’s sin

seems so unnatural at first sight that we must try and discover the sources

whence so bitter and desolating a stream flowed. We shall find them in

THREE ADVERSE INFLUENCES AROUND HIM AT HOME, which

are hinted at in our text.

 

·         ADONIJAH INHERITED A CONSTITUTIONAL TENDENCY TO

AMBITION AND SELF CONCEIT. His association with Absalom is not

without significance. The two brothers were alike in their sin and in the

tendencies which led to it. These were inherited,

 

Ø      The law that like produces like, which is proved to demonstration in

the breeding of lower animals (illustrations from horses bred for speed or

endurance, dogs for fleetness or scent, pigeons for swiftness or beauty,

etc.), asserts itself in man. Not only are physical qualities inherited, so that

we recognize a “family likeness” between children of the same parents; but

mental qualities are inherited too; statesmanship, heroism, or artistic gift,

reappearing in the same family for generations. Moral tendencies are

transmitted too; and Scripture exemplifies it. If Isaac is so luxurious that he

must have his savoury dish, we do not so much wonder that Esau, his son

sells his birthright for a mess of pottage. If Rebekah, like Laban her

brother, is greedy and cunning, her son Jacob inherits her tendency, and

must live a life of suffering, and present many an agonizing prayer before

he is set free from his besetting sin. So is it still. The drunkard gives to his

offspring a craving for drink, which is a disease. In more senses than one,

“The evil that men do lives after them.” Surely, then, when not only future

happiness, but the destiny of children depends on the choice of a life

partner, there should be regard paid not merely to physical beauty, or

mental endowment, or social position, but, above all these, to moral and

spiritual worth.

 

Ø      It is argued that this law of moral heritage affects personal

responsibility; that it is hardly fair to condemn a man for a sin to which he

is naturally prone. But “shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?”

(Genesis 18:25)  Whatever your parentage, you are not “committed to do these

abominations.” If the disposition be evil, it need never become the habit of

life. It is something you may yield to, but it is something you may resist; for

He is faithful who will not suffer you to be tempted above what you are

able to bear.” Rather should any tendencies to evil be recognized as God’s

voice calling attention to the weak places of character, that there we may

keep most eager watch and ward. And because we are weak, He has sent

His Son to bring deliverance to the captives, that through Him we may be

inspired with hope, and fitted with strength, and rejoice in the liberty

wherewith Christ makes His people free.

________________________________________

·         ADONIJAH WAS MISLED BY ADULATION. He was also a very

goodly man.” Physically, as well as morally, he was a repetition of

Absalom. His parents were guilty of partiality. David loved him the more

because (like the lost boy) Adonijah was so fair, so noble in mien, so

princely in stature. Courtiers and soldiers (who looked, as they did in

Saul’s time, for a noble-looking king) flattered him. Joab and Abiathar

joined the adulators. Intoxicated with vanity, Adonijah set up a royal court,

as Absalom had done (see v. 5). Every position in life has its own

temptations. The ill-favored child who is the butt at school and the

scapegoat at home is tempted to bitterness and revenge. His character is

likely to be unsightly, as a plant would be, which grows in a damp, dark

vault. There can be little beauty if there is no sunshine. On the other hand, if

the gift of physical beauty attracts attention and wins admiration, or if

conversational power be brilliant, etc., it is a source of peril. Many a one

has thus been befooled into sin and misery, or entrapped into an unhappy

marriage, and by lifelong sadness paid the penalty of folly, or venturing too

far, prompted by ambition, has fallen, like Icarus when his waxen wings

melted in the sunshine. When that time of disappointment and

disenchantment comes, happy is it when such an one, like the prodigal,

comes to himself, and says, “I will arise, and go to my father!”

 

·         ADONIJAH WAS UNDISCIPLINED AT HOME. His father had

not displeased him at any time in saying, Why hast thou done so? This

refers not only to the special act of rebellion, but to the tendencies and

habits leading up to it, which David had not checked, for fear of vexing the

high spirited lad. The weak indulgence of children (such as that which Eli

exhibited) is the cause of untold misery. Not many parents blazon abroad

the story of their domestic grief. Loyal hands draw down the veil over the

discord at home, and that agony of prayer which is heard by “the Father

who seeth in secret.” You do not see the girl who mars the beauty of her

early womanhood by a flippant disregard of her parents, and whose own

pleasure seems to be the only law of her life. You do not see the child

whose hasty passion and uncontrolled temper are the dread of the

household; who, by his sudden outbursts of rage, gets what he

wishes, till authority is disregarded and trodden underfoot. You do not see

the son who thinks it manly to be callous to a mother’s anxiety and a father’s

counsels, who likes to forget home associations, and is sinking in haunts of

evil, where you may weep over him as a wreck. But, though you see them

not, they exist. Far otherwise, in some of these sad experiences, it might

have been. Suppose there had been firm resolution instead of habitual

indulgence; suppose that authority had been asserted and used in days

before these evil habits were formed; suppose that, instead of leaving the

future to chance, counsels and prayers had molded character during

molding time —(Catholic Church says give me a child till seven years

old and you can have him)  might there not have been joy where now there

is grief? Heavy are our responsibilities as parents. Yet splendid are our

possibilities!   “Train up a child in the way he should go and when he

is old,  he will not depart from it.”   (Proverbs 22:6)  “And thou shalt teach

them diligently (exert thyself) unto thy children, and shalt talk of them

when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and

when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.”  Deuteronomy 6:7)

These children who may prove our curses may, with God’s blessing on our

fidelity, grow up to be wise, pure hearted, courageous men of God, who

will sweeten the atmosphere of the home, and purge this nation of its sins,

and make the name of “the King of saints” honored and praised

throughout the world! “Train them up in the nurture and admonition of the

Lord.”  (Ephesians 6:4)

 

 

                                    I Kings 2:15

 

15 And he said, Thou knowest that the kingdom was mine, and that all Israel

set their faces on me, that I should reign:”   And he said, Thou knowest that the

kingdom was mine Adonijah evidently made much of the right of primogeniture

(compare v. 22), which was not unrecognized amongst the Jews. There is possibly

in these words, too, a hint at the part Bathsheba had taken in defeating his claims]

and that all Israel set their faces [i.e., eyes] upon me that I should reign [Hebrew:

upon me all Israel set, etc. The me” is emphatic by its position. So is the “mine

just before used. Several commentators remark that Adonijah’s words were not

strictly true. But we hardly expect to find truth on such an occasion. Adonijah

was adroit and diplomatic, and puts the case as it best serves his purpose. In order to

propitiate Bathsheba, he exaggerates his loss and disappointment, just as in

the next words, in order to put her off her guard, he plays the saint and

obtrudes his piety and resignation ]: howbeit [literally, and], the kingdom is

turned about and is become my brother’s, for it was his from the

Lord. (So why does Adonijah pursue this? as well as people of all ages

and especially in our time, do the same? CY  - 2022) [This verse shows pretty

clearly that Adonijah had not renounced his pretensions to the throne.

Despite the pitiful failure of his first conspiracy, and notwithstanding

Solomon’s generous condonation (the condoning or overlooking of an offense)

of his treason, he cannot forget that he was, and is, the eldest surviving son, and

had been very near the throne. And as to the kingdom being his brother’s

by Divine appointment, he cannot have been ignorant of that long ago

(II Samuel 12:25), yet he conspired all the same. And it is not difficult

to read here between the lines, that he has not relinquished his hopes, and

does not acquiesce in Solomon’s supremacy!

 

 

 

17 “And he said, Speak, I pray thee, unto Solomon the king, (for he

will not say thee nay,) that he give me Abishag the Shunammite to wife.”

And he said, Speak, I pray thee, unto Solomon the ring; for he will not say thee nay,

[will not repulse thee. Same words as v. 16. There is a spice of flattery in these words.

He now exaggerates her influence with the king] that he may give me Abishag the

Shunammite to wife. [We are hardly justified in concluding, as some commentators

have done, that love had nothing to do with this request. It is not improbable, on

the contrary, that a passion for the beautiful Shunamnite, perhaps the

fairest woman of her time, may have first given a powerful impulse to

Adonijah’s ambition (see on ch. 1:5). At the same time, he must

have had ulterior motives (see on v. 22).

 

play off of Genesis 4 -  pre-flood emphasis on beauty and today

 

 

      vs. 17-26 - the decline of civilization before the Flood - I

      remember studying this when I first came to Hopkinsville

      in reference to Christ's words about the end of time being

      like in the days before the Great Deluge!

 

v. 19 - Lamech was the first polygamist of whom mention is

            made, the first by whom "the ethical aspect of marriage,

            as ordained by God, was turned into the lust of the eye

            and lust of the flesh. 

 

 

 

 

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Materials are reproduced by permission."

 

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FOR THE ADVANCED BIBLE STUDENT:

                                   

                                    The Brothers (vs. 22-25)

 

It may be instructive if, after the manner of ancient writers, we draw out a

comparison between the two brothers whose history is recorded in part in

this section, and who here appear as rivals. Their careers were very

different. The one reigned with almost unparalleled magnificence for forty

years; the other fell in the very May-morn (freshness; vigor) of his life by the

sword of the executioner. What were the causes which produced such different

results? Let us consider some few of them.

 

·         ADONIJAH WAS ENDUED WITH BEAUTY, SOLOMON WITH

WISDOM. The first had goodliness; the second goodness. Men admired

Adonijah; the Lord loved Solomon (II Samuel 12:24). To the elder

brother the All-wise Providence allotted the gifts of face and form —

exterior advantages — to the latter He gave “wisdom and understanding

exceeding much, and largeness of heart” the quiet, unobtrusive

adornment of the spirit. Wisdom is better than rubies; yes, and better than

beauties.

 

·         ADONIJAH WAS AMBITIOUS; SOLOMON WAS PIOUS. The first

loved self, and sought his own advancement. The second “loved the

LORD” (ch. 3:3). Adonijah, by his own showing, resisted and

defied the will of Heaven (ch. 2:15); Solomon “walked in the

statutes of David his father.” Adonijah desired riches, honors, the life of

his enemies; Solomon asked for none of these things, but for an

understanding heart (ch. 3:9, 11). Their lives consequently were

regulated on totally different principles. Adonijah acted as if he were

master (ch. 1:5); Solomon remembered he was but a servant (v. 9).

And Adonijah lost everything, even his life, while Solomon gained

everything — the wisdom for which he asked; the “riches and honor”

for which he did not ask.  (To each of us Jesus Christ says, “Seek ye

first the kingdom of God and His righteousness and all these things

will be added unto thee.”  Matthew 6:33 - CY - 2022)  Verily “... godliness

is profitable unto all things, having the promise of the life than now is,

and of that which is to come.” (1 Timothy 4:8).

 

·         ADONIJAH SOUGHT TO FORCE EVENTS; SOLOMON

WAITED PATIENTLY FOR THE LORD. Adonijah would not wait till

his father was dead; he would snatch the sceptre from the old man’s feeble

grasp; he would be king at any cost, and at once. (There are a lot of things

in this world which CAN’T WAIT brings on - especially sex - CY - 2022)

It is worth noticing that Solomon on the other hand took no part in the

measures which placed him on the throne. “He that believeth shall not

make haste.”  Adonijah sought to frustrate the designs of Providence,

Solomon “committed himself to Him that judgeth righteously.”

Solomon was crowned and Adonijah was executed.

 

·         ADONIJAH REBELLED AGAINST HIS FATHER; SOLOMON

REVERENCED HIS MOTHER. Treatment of parents is a test of

character. To honor father and mother is “the first commandment with

promise.” Adonijah repaid his father’s indulgence with treason against his

throne; Solomon, when seated on his throne, had a throne set for his

mother. If he were king, his mother should be queen. He received her with

the profoundest respect, though she was his subject; for he “counted her

uncrowned womanhood to be the royal thing.” The fortunes of these two

brothers were not more diverse than their characters, as revealed by their

treatment of their eiders. And their histories accorded with their principles;

their lives and deaths illustrated the commandment.

 

·         GOD CHOSE SOLOMON AND REFUSED ADONIJAH. As in the

case of Esau and Jacob, as in the case of Manasseh and Ephraim, the

younger is preferred to the elder. And yet the elder was apparently the

popular favorite. “Man looketh on the outward appearance, but the Load

looketh on the heart.” (I Samuel 16:7)  It is the case of David and his brethren

over again.  In all these cases “the Lord hath set apart him that’s godly for

Himself.” (Psalm 4:3)   The meek, pacific Solomon, the rejected of Joab

and Abiathar, is the accepted of Jehovah. And the brilliant and beautiful

Adonijah, his advantages, his influence, his efforts, ALL THESE

AVAILED HIM NOTHING  for “the proud”and we may add, the

selfish, the disobedient“the LORD knoweth afar off” (ibid. 138:6),

            while “the wicked and him that loveth violence His soul hateth  (ibid.  11:5).

 

 

 

 

 

There are nine men and three women in chapters 1 and 2 of I Kings that

I purpose to look at in this study over the next few weeks: 

 

Ø      Joab,   The following taken from Got Questions.com

 

Joab was a son of Zeruiah, King David’s sister (1 Chronicles 2:13–17) and was

therefore one of David’s nephews. Joab’s brothers were two of David’s brave

warriors, Abishai and Asahel. Joab was positioned as commander of David’s

armies because of his victory over the Jebusites, resulting in the possession

of the city of Jerusalem. It was through this victory that Jerusalem became

the city of David” (1 Chronicles 11:4–9).

Joab fought and won many battles for the king,
but his personal lack

of self-control was problematic. In a war against the forces of Ish-Bosheth,

Joab’s brother Asahel was killed by Abner, the commander of Ish-Bosheth’s

armies. Joab was furious and pursued Abner to kill him, but Abner escaped

(2 Samuel 2:12–32). Later, after Abner swore allegiance to David, Joab’s fuse

blew, and his desire to avenge his brother’s blood drove him to deceive and

murder Abner (verses 26–27). This action deeply grieved David, but the king

felt unable to bring justice against the mighty Joab (verse 39). Instead, David

pronounced a curse over Joab and his future descendants: “May his blood

fall on the head of Joab and on his whole family! May Joab’s family never

be without someone who has a running sore or leprosy or who leans on a

crutch or who falls by the sword or who lacks food” (verse 29).

As the commander of David’s armies, Joab was provided many victories

by God, but Joab caused much grief to the king and to Israel. His anger and

perhaps the power of his position drove him to poor decisions at times. In

addition to his murder of Abner, Joab killed his own cousin, Amasa—and his

betrayal was Judas-style, accompanied by a kiss: “Joab said to Amasa, ‘How

are you, my brother?’ Then Joab took Amasa by the beard with his right hand

to kiss him. Amasa was not on his guard against the dagger in Joab’s hand,

and Joab plunged it into his belly, and his intestines spilled out on the ground.

Without being stabbed again, Amasa died” (2 Samuel 20:9–10). Joab disobeyed

King David’s command to spare Absalom’s life, himself striking Absalom with

three javelins (2 Samuel 18). David mourned the death of his son Absalom,

a response that was sternly reprimanded by Joab (2 Samuel 19:1–8). It was

also Joab who, in accordance with David’s command, placed Uriah the Hittite

at the front of the battle to be killed, so that David could feel justified in

marrying Uriah’s widow (2 Samuel 11).

 

Ø      Abiathar - the following from Got Questions. com.

 

Along with Zadok, Abiathar served as one of the chief priests during

David’s reign as king. Abiathar’s name means “father of excellence”

or “father of abundance” in Hebrew.

Abiathar was the son of Ahimelech, who served as a priest at Nob

(1 Samuel 21:1Mark 2:26) until he and the other priests were

murdered by King Saul (1 Samuel 21:1–19). Being the only son

of Ahimelech to escape the massacre at Nob, Abiathar fled to

David and was promised protection by the future king

(1 Samuel 21:20–23).

Because Abiathar served David and acted as priest for all of

David’s men in hiding, he was made high priest along with

Zadok once David began his reign as king (1 Chronicles 15:11).

This was a natural role for him to take on, as he had kept the

ephod and administered the Urim and Thummin when David

sought direction from the Lord (1 Samuel 23:630:7).

When 
Absalom rebelled against his father and attempted to usurp

the throne, Abiathar remained loyal to David. Abiathar was

among those who fled the capital city with David

(2 Samuel 15:24). Zadok and the Levites carried the ark

of the covenant, “and Abiathar offered sacrifices until all

the people had finished leaving the city” (2 Samuel 15:24).

Although David admired the loyalty and faithfulness of the

priests, he ordered them to return to the city with the ark.

This proved helpful because they were then able to send

word to David about Absalom’s plans

(2 Samuel 15:27–2917:15–16). David was restored to his

throne and Abiathar to his priestly office.

Things changed as David’s son Solomon took the throne.

Abiathar was not loyal to the new king. Adonijah, another

one of David’s sons, put himself forward as king with the help

of Joab (one of David’s nephews) and Abiathar (1 Kings 1:57).

Once the threat from Adonijah was neutralized, King Solomon

dealt with the conspirators. One of Solomon’s actions was to

remove Abiathar from the priestly office. This fulfilled the

Lord’s word of judgment over Eli and his descendants,

which impacted Abiathar since he was related to Eli

(1 Samuel 3:12–14;  In that day I will perform against Eli all things

which I have spoken concerning his house: when I begin, I will also make an

end. For I have told him that I will judge his house for ever for the

iniquity which he knoweth; because his sons made themselves vile,

and he restrained them not. And therefore I have sworn unto the house of Eli,

that the iniquity of Eli’s house shall not be purged with sacrifice nor offering

for ever.

 

 

Abishag - the following from Got Questions.com

 

 

Abishag was a Shunammite woman, a virgin and an exceptionally

beautiful woman whose account can be found in 1 Kings 1 and 2.

She was connected to King David in a very interesting manner.

As David advanced in years, his health declined. Eventually,

whether through declining faculties or an illness, he was unable

to keep warm, even when fully clothed. It seems this ailment

was a particular problem during the night, so David’s servants

devised a plan to keep him warm. They presented their idea

to David: “Let us look for a young virgin to serve the king

and take care of him. She can lie beside him so that our lord

the king may keep warm” (1 Kings 1:2). King David agreed,

and, in searching for an, they found Abishag, who was brought

to live at the palace. There she saw to King David’s needs and

warmed him with her body at night. The Bible states there was

no sexual relationship between the two of them; it was a matter

of a caregiver attending her charge (1 Kings 1:4), although it

was assumed that Abishag would become a de facto member

of David’s harem—a concubine or secondary wife.

Abishag’s story continues after David’s death and Solomon

began his rule, Adonijah approached Bathsheba and requested

that she go before King Solomon and ask him to give Abishag

 as a wife (1 Kings 2:13–17). She relayed the request, but

Solomon saw through Adonijah’s plot. To marry a former

king’s wife was to lay claim to the throne, and, since Abishag

was considered one of David’s concubines (even though they

had never been intimate), Adonijah’s request to marry Abishag

was full of intrigue. In short, Adonijah was renewing his bid

for Solomon’s throne. This was the last straw, and Solomon

ordered that Adonijah be executed immediately (vs. 19–25).

 

 

Bathsheba - taken from Christianity.com

 

Bathsheba Was a Woman Who Suffered Greatly

 

Bathsheba suffered the loss of her husband. When Bathsheba found

herself pregnant, she sent word to the king, likely in a panic. Not long

after this, her husband was reported dead. It isn’t clear whether

Bathsheba knew that David killed her husband or not. But whoever

killed him, her husband was dead, and she was now a pregnant widow.

Grieving the loss of her husband was likely augmented by the hormones

raging from her pregnancy. (this I don’t know much about - CY - 2022)

In her devastated state, King David took her again, this time as his wife.

There’s no evidence she had a choice. Her life as she knew it before

her ceremonial bath was gone forever.

 

Bathsheba’s parentage

 

A man named Ahitophel is also mentioned in 2 Samuel 23:34,

and he is said to be the father of Eliam. Since 2 Samuel 11:3

notes that Eliam is the father of Bathsheba, some scholars

suggest that the Ahitophel of 2 Samuel 15 may in fact be

Bathsheba's grandfather.

 

 

HAGGITH - the following taken from

https://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07106a.htm

 

Haggith was one of David's wives (2 Samuel 3:4). Whose daughter she was,

we are not told. The Bible records only that she bore to him Adonijah, the

fourth of his sons, in Hebron, before he was king over all Israel. That she

was an uncommonly remarkable woman, seems to be suggested from the 

custom of Biblical writers to speak usually of Adonijah as "the son of

Haggith". Although harem intrigues have ever played a great part in the

East, nothing indicates, however, that Haggith had anything to do either

with the attempt of her son to secure for himself the crown of Israel 

(1 Kings 1:5-53), or with his fatal request, likely also prompted by

political motives, to obtain his father's Sunamite concubine, Abisag,

from Solomon (1 Kings 2:13-25).

 

 

 

BENAIAH - the following taken from GotQuestions.com

 

Several men in the Bible bear the name Benaiah, but one stands out from

the rest. Benaiah, son of the chief priest Jehoiada, was one of David’s

mighty men”—his toughest military troop. The Bible describes Benaiah

as a fearless warrior noted for his heroic exploits. This Benaiah is the

brilliant fighter who famously “went down into a pit on a snowy day

and killed a lion” (1 Chronicles 11:22).

 

Benaiah was from the southern Judean city of Kabzeel. Before David 

became king, Benaiah was making a name for himself through numerous

daring military achievements: “He struck down Moab’s two mightiest

warriors. He also went down into a pit on a snowy day and killed a lion.

And he struck down a huge Egyptian. Although the Egyptian had a

spear in his hand, Benaiah went against him with a club. He snatched

the spear from the Egyptian’s hand and killed him with his own spear.

Such were the exploits of Benaiah son of Jehoiada; he too was as

famous as the three mighty warriors” (2 Samuel 23:20–22).

 

When David fled from King Saul, he placed Benaiah in command of

the thirty” (1 Chronicles 27:6), a select group of warriors second

only to “the three” of highest rank and bravery. Later, when Joab was

made commander-in-chief, Benaiah was appointed to a high place in

David’s armed forces as commander of the Cherethites and Pelethites,

an elite mercenary company in David’s bodyguard from Crete and

Philistia (2 Samuel 8:1820:2323:231 Chronicles 18:17).

 

Benaiah’s loyalty to King David earned him the rank of third army

commander, with 24,000 men in his division. This troop served as

part of the army rotation system established by King David

(1 Chronicles 27:1–6). Benaiah remained devoted to David

during Absalom’s rebellion (2 Samuel 20:23; see also 15:18)

and also when Adonijah attempted to take control of David’s

throne (1 Kings 1:8).

 

Benaiah was instrumental in safeguarding the passing of the royal

succession to Solomon after David’s death and thus gained the

honor of assisting in Solomon’s coronation at Gihon

(1 Kings 1:32–40). As Solomon’s supreme army commander

and chief bodyguard, Benaiah was responsible for executing

those who opposed the new king, including Adonijah, Joab,

and Shimei (1 Kings 2:253446).

 

 

ZADOK - taken from GotQuestions.com.

 

Zadok son of Ahitub was a Levite priest during the time of King David.

For a long time, he was co-high priest with Abiathar. Zadok was a

descendant of Aaron and a leader over his family of Levites

(1 Chronicles 27:17).

When Absalom conspired against his father, David, David was forced

to flee from Jerusalem (2 Samuel 15:13–14). Zadok and his son Ahimaaz,

and his co-priest Abiathar and his son Jonathan accompanied David, with

Zadok leading a procession of Levites who carried the ark of the covenant.

As the people exited the city, Zadok’s Levites set down the ark, and

Abiathar offered sacrifices (verse 24). Once the people had vacated

Jerusalem, David ordered Zadok and Abiathar, along with their sons,

to return with the ark to Jerusalem (verse 25). Zadok was to send word

to David with any news of what was happening in the kingdom under

Absalom.

David had also sent his friend Hushai back to Jerusalem to listen in on

Absalom’s plans, and it was through him that Zadok and Abiathar heard

that Absalom planned to seek out David and destroy him and the people

who were with him. Hushai, Zadok, and Abiathar sent Ahimaaz and

Jonathan to find David. After hiding in a well from Absalom’s men,

Amimaaz and Jonathan were able to escape the city and bring the

message to David: “Do not spend the night at the fords in the wilderness;

cross over without fail, or the king and all the people with him will be

swallowed up” (2 Samuel 17:16). David escaped, and it wasn’t much

longer before David’s commander, Joab, killed Absalom

(2 Samuel 18:1–15). Heartbroken at the death of his son, David

returned to Jerusalem.

When Adonijah set himself up as king, even though David’s other

son Solomon was to take the throne at David’s death (1 Kings 1:5).

Adonijah had some supporters, including Abiathar the priest, but Zadok,

Nathan the prophet, and several other important men supported David’s

choice and opposed Adonijah (verse 8). Nathan told David’s wife

Bathsheba what Adonijah was planning and advised her to apprise

King David of the situation. She did so, and David ordered that

Zadok and Nathan immediately take Solomon to Gihon and anoint

him as king (verses 32–34).

When Zadok the priest anointed Solomon’s head with oil at Gihon,

a trumpet was sounded, and all the people assembled began to shout

and rejoice (1 Kings 1:39–40).

 

Even though Abiathar had spurned King David’s wishes and

supported Adonijah, Zadok stayed true to David and supported

Solomon. Abiathar lost his priesthood as a result, but Zadok was

rewarded with a position as one of Solomon’s chief officials

(1 Kings 4:4) as well as being recognized as the sole high priest.

Politics - support - to what end?

 

 

Ø      Shimei -

Ø      David

Ø      Solomon - all like you and me Players in History

 

 

 

 

And then there are mentioned:

 

Ø      Nathan

Ø      Rei

 

The following is from J. Vernon McGee’s Walk Thru the Bible

II Samuel 23:8-39 - Commentary:

 

But before I do this, this comes from Spurgeon:

 

DAVID’S MIGHTY MEN

 

We are given a catalog of David’s mighty men in II Samuel 23:8-39

 

IN David’s muster-roll we find the names of many mighties, and they are

honored by being found there. These men came to David when his fortunes

were at the lowest ebb, and he himself was regarded as a rebel and an

outlaw, and they remained faithful to him throughout their lives. Happy are

they who can follow a good cause in its worst estate, for theirs is true

glory. Weary of the evil government of Saul, they struck out a path for

themselves, in which they could best serve their country and their God, and

though this entailed great risks, they were amply rewarded by the honors

which in due time they shared with their leader. When David came to the

throne, how glad their hearts must have been; and when he went on

conquering and to conquer, how they must have rejoiced, each one of them

remembering with intense delight, the privations which they had shared

with their captain. Brethren, we do not ourselves aspire to be numbered

with the warlike, the roll of battle does not contain our names, and we do

not wish that it should; but there is a roll which is now being made up, a

roll of heroes who do and dare for Christ, who go without the camp, and

take up his reproach, and with confidence in God contend earnestly for the

faith once delivered to the saints, and venture all for Jesus Christ; and there

will come a day when it will be infinitely more honorable to find one’s

name in the lowest place, in this list of Christ’s faithful disciples than to be

numbered with princes and kings. Blessed is he who can this day cast in his

lot with the Son of David, and share his reproach, for the day shall come

when the Master’s glory shall be reflected upon all his followers.

 

Charles Spurgeon

 

The spiritual condition of these men is not stated, however they too,

like you and me must stand before God someday and be judged by

how we used our lives.  God is Judge - with Him is no variableness,

neither shadow of turning.

 

We know that of David it is said he “....served his own generation.”

(Acts 13:36)

 

 

 

              Back to  McGee’s Walk Thru the Bible

                 II Samuel 23:8-39 - Commentary:

 

8 These be the names of the mighty men whom David had:

The Tachmonite that sat in the seat, chief among the captains;

the same was Adino the Eznite: he lift up his spear against

eight hundred, whom he slew at one time

 

These men, you will recall, came to David during the time that he was in

exile. When David was being driven by Saul, he was an outcast, hunted

like a partridge. He had to hide in the dens of the earth. (Hebrews

11:38-40; Revelation 6:12-17))  It was during this time that those who were

in distress came to him. They were persecuted and oppressed by Saul, and

they fled to David. Others  also came to him: those who had gotten into debt

and could not pay, those who were discontented, and those who were bitter

of soul. In this same way men come to Christ. They are in distress.

According to their letters, many young rebels were once in distress.

They write to me and tell me about their experiences with the Lord.

They came to Christ with debts of sin, and He cancelled those debts.

Are you discontented with life? If you are living a fulfilling life and

doing all right, I guess I don’t have any message for you at all. But if you

are discontented down deep in your soul, and you want to be saved and

have fellowship with God, come to Christ. He will remove your guilt

and give you satisfaction in your life. These men who came to David were

outstanding men in many ways. They did many remarkable things.

Let us look at a few of them.

 

In Rabbinical Literature:

According to a Haggadah, Adino the Eznite - this name is only a designation of

David to denote two of his principal virtues. On account of his modesty he is called

'Adino ("pliant like a worm") because he bowed down and crawled in the dust

before pious men and scholars. For his heroic deeds and his strength in battle

he is called Ha-'Eẓni ("the man as strong as a tree []"; M. Ḳ. 16b). 

 

9 And after him was Eleazar the son of Dodo the Ahohite, one of the

three mighty men with David, when they defied the Philistines that

were there gathered together to battle, and the men of Israel were

gone away:  10 He arose, and smote the Philistines until his hand was weary,

and his hand clave unto the sword: and the LORD wrought a great

victory that day; and the people returned after him only to spoil.

 

 

                                   

    The following came from website of Calvary Chapel of Jonesboro, Arkansas

 

One of the problems that every one of us faces in life is weariness.  That universal

problem is exacerbated even more when we are facing battles in life.  This week

I want to encourage you with the actions of a guy with an interesting name –

but an awesome example.  He is an example of how we all need to respond to a

battle that seems to be more than we can handle – and yet it was meant to be a

situation where we watch God bring about a great victory.

In 2 Samuel we read about a guy named Eleazar the son of Dodo.  He was one of

the three greatest of David’s mighty men – and a wonderful example of how to face

a battle that brings you to a point of great weariness.  Let’s take a look at Eleazar and

see how he responded to weariness in the midst of battle.

“ . . . and after him was Eleazar the son of Dodo the Ahohite, one of the three mighty

men with David when they defied the Philistines who were gathered there to battle

and the men of Israel had withdrawn.  He arose and struck the Philistines until his

hand was weary and clung to the sword, and the LORD brought about a great victory

that day . . . ” 2 Samuel 23:9-10 (NASB)   

The first thing we learn from Eleazar is that everyone, even mighty men of God,

grow weary in battle.  God did not rebuke him for growing weary in battle. 

That is normal – whether it is a physical battle or a spiritual one.  The real issue

is what we do when we face that weariness.

Eleazar was wielding a sword in the battle against the Philistines that day.  Swords are heavy –

and when you get weary – you just want to drop your sword.  Whether you completely drop

it to the ground – or just drop it and no longer use it, as a weapon in the battle really doesn’t

matter.  The worst thing you could do in the midst of a battle is to drop your sword.  Eleazar

didn’t drop his sword.  In fact as he fought that day he found that as the battle raged – he

clung to the sword that was in his hand.  The word clung means that he held tightly to it. 

The imagery of that verse is that he held so tightly to it that it would have been difficult to

know where hand ended and sword began.  It was as if he was fused with the sword he

drew and held that day.  No matter how weary he was – he clung to the sword and

continued to use it to decimate his enemies.  The result that day was a great victory –

one that was granted by Jehovah Himself!

Whether you realize it or not, you face a sword fight every day.  The way to victory

in your battles is in fighting with the Word of God, which is referred to in Ephesians

 6 as the “Sword of the Spirit.”  The lesson that we need to learn from Eleazar about

the use of swords in a time of weariness though, is that we need to cling to our sword

until it fuses with us.  Eleazar clung to his sword in the battle with the Philistines –

and we need to cling to ours in our battles as well.

Our problem is that too often we either drop or lay down our swords when we get weary. 

Either of those two choices, dropping our sword or laying it down, are horrible options

for us.  It is in that moment of weariness that the battle is won or lost.  Consider Jesus,

who after 40 days of fasting experienced a weariness that few if any of us will ever know. 

Yet it was in that weary condition that the devil himself came and tempted Jesus three times. 

Even though weary, Jesus did NOT let go of the sword of the Spirit.  Three times He

unsheathed the sword of the Spirit.  Three times he answered the devil’s temptations and

lies with the Word of God.  And just like Samuel of old, when faced with the wicked,

worldly Agag, He hewed Satan to pieces with that sword.  Every temptation was defeated

and the evil one lay slain at His feet.  Was that because He was the Son of God . . . no. 

Was that because Jesus had something we don’t have . . . no.  It was simply because Jesus

took the sword of the Spirit, the Word of God, and used it against the enemy.  In His

weariness He didn’t drop that sword – He clung to it – fused with it – and one could not

determine where His hand ended and the sword began. 

Oh to have such a strong grasp – to cling to the Word of God.  To do it even

more when we get weary.  To cling to the mighty Sword of God until we cannot see the

end of us and the beginning of Him in us.  To speak that Word with the same confidence

as our Lord – and to hew to pieces every temptation, every lie, every deceitful desire that

seeks to lead us astray. 

The victory in the day of Eleazar was not attributed to him.  You will note in the passage

in 2 Samuel that it says clearly that the LORD brought about a great victory that day. 

We will not be aware of how awesome we are in that day.  We will be glad that we held

fast to the Word of God.  We will be glad that we clung to the sword of the Spirit and

used it as God intended. 

Some may say, “Well, that was another day – a much different time.”  It was a time in the past –

but when we see that Jesus used the perfect tense when He quoted God’s Word – we will see

that the Word He used is just as strong today as it was in the day He used it.  The Greek,

when translated to show the perfect tense, would read this way.  Jesus said, “It stands

written, (having been written at a time in the past with the reality that it is still written

now, and will be forever written and the same in the future) man shall not live by bread

alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God!”  Each time our Lord

quoted the Word of God He quoted it in this way.  He used the perfect tense.  That tense

emphasizes that the Word God gave at whatever point it was given was just as authoritative

in the time Jesus walked the earth – and it speaks with the same authority and power in

every generation that will ever exist – and even will have that authority for all eternity. 

By the way – that means it has just as much power to hew Satan and his temptations

to pieces today. 

Are you weary?  We all get weary in this life.  Something you might want to know as

well is that Satan seems to do his best (or more accurately stated, worst) work when

we are weary.  If you are weary – don’t let go of the Word of God!  Don’t lay

down your sword – no matter how tired and weary you become.  That Word is

your key to victory.  Don’t drop your sword – draw it!  Be ready even in your

most weary moment.  And when the evil one shows up, as he will most likely

show up in those moments, take that sword and by quoting, holding fast, believing,

and becoming fused with (or one with) the Word of God . . . hew him to pieces to

the glory of God!  May the Lord put that sword firmly in your hands – may you

become more and more skillful in wielding it – and may you enjoy times of

worshipping God joyfully for the great victory He gives through it!

 

The above taken from Calvary Chapel of Jonesboro website.

 

Back to McGee:

 

11 And after him was Shammah the son of Agee the Hararite. And the

Philistines were gathered together into a troop, where was a piece of

ground full of lentiles: and the people fled from the Philistines.

12 But he stood in the midst of the ground, and defended it, and

slew the Philistines: and the Lord wrought a great victory [

 

Defending a patch of lentils may not seem very important, but Israel needed

the food. It was the custom of the Philistines to wait until an Israelite’s crop

was ready to harvest, then they would come ravaging, plundering, and

robbing. This year, as usual, everyone ran when they came—except one man,

 Shammah. He stopped, drew his sword, and defended it. One man against a

troop of Philistines! “And the Lord wrought a great victory.”

 

 

                                    The following is from Wikipedia

 

Shammah is a name mentioned several times in the Hebrew Bible.

In the Book of Samuel, Shammah (שַׁמָּה) was the son of Agee,

a Hararite (2 Samuel 23:11) one of King David's three legendary "mighty men".

His greatest deed was the defeat of a troop of Philistines. After the Israelites fled

from the troop of Philistines, Shammah stood alone and defeated them himself.

He is credited with having single-handedly defeated these Philistine soldiers at

a lentil patch.  It is also possible Shammah is mentioned in Judges as Shamgar,

who defeated 600 men of the Philistines with an ox goad. This may have been

the same battle of the lentil field mentioned in the Book of Samuel, though this

event was textually placed several generations before the version in Samuel. 

(Wikipedia)

 

The following is from https://www.gotquestions.org/who-was-Shamgar.html

 

 

Shamgar was the third judge of Israel whose heroic actions led to peace

in Israel for an unspecified period of time. One verse of the Bible summarizes

his period of leadership. Judges 3:31 says, “After Ehud came Shamgar son

of Anath, who struck down six hundred Philistines with an oxgoad.

He too saved Israel.” We are only told that:

 

·         Shamgar’s leadership followed Ehud’s,

·         he was the son of Anath,

·         he killed 600 Philistines with an oxgoad, and

·         he saved Israel.

 

Because the name Anath referred to a Canaanite goddess, some have suggested

Shamgar was a son of a mixed Israelite-Canaanite marriage or had some other

connection with the Canaanites, though the text is unclear.



The Philistines were a sea-faring people who lived in Canaan during

the period of the Judges. Since the Philistines were known as warriors,

the fact that Shamgar killed 600 of them on his own was an amazing—

or even miraculous—accomplishment.

 

An ox goad is a wooden tool, approximately eight feet long, fitted with an iron spike

or point at one end, which was used to spur oxen as they pulled a plow or cart.

It often had an iron scraper at the non-pointed end to clear clods of earth from

the plowshare when it became weighed down.

 

Using this crude instrument,  Shamgar destroyed the enemies of Israel

Judges 3:31 does not specify whether his success came in one battle

or in a series of battles. of Shamgar.



Judges 5:6 also mentions Shamgar and his times. Deborah and Barak’s

song records, “In the days of Shamgar son of Anath,  in the days of Jael,

the highways were abandoned; travelers took to winding paths.”

From these words, we discover that in Shamgar’s time people traveled

carefully and in much fear due to oppression by the Philistines and possibly

other enemies.

 

Shamgar’s use of an ox goad shows how low the men of Judah had been

brought at that time by their oppressors. Later, Israel was disarmed to

the extent that “not a shield or spear was seen among forty thousand in

Israel (Judges 5:8).

 

Ecclesiastes 12:11 refers to a goad, which is synonymous with an ox goad:

“The words of the wise are like goads, and like nails firmly fixed are the

collected sayings; they are given by one Shepherd.” In this verse, a

comparison is made between the Word of God, its doctrines, and its effects

upon the heart of man and an ox goad that pricks, drives, and directs sinners

like oxen. The Shepherd uses the Word to prick our consciences, drive us

to repentance, and direct us to Christ for salvation.

 

When an ox was poked with a goad, its response was sometimes to kick out

at it in resistance. Naturally, kicking back at the goad was futile, not to

mention painful. Jesus used this as an analogy when He confronted Saul on

the Damascus Road (Acts 26:14). Jesus asked Saul why he was persecuting

Him and reminded him that, just as an ox that kicks against the pricking of

the goad can hurt itself, Saul’s continued resistance to the gospel would only

result in danger to himself. Saul wisely submitted to the goad and yielded

himself to Christ.

 

Note the condition of another Saul in I Samuel 13:19-22:

 

19“Now there was no smith found throughout all the land of Israel: for

the Philistines said, Lest the Hebrews make them swords or spears:

20 But all the Israelites went down to the Philistines, to sharpen every

man his share, and his coulter, and his axe, and his mattock.

21 Yet they had a file for the mattocks, and for the coulters, and for

the forks, and for the axes, and to sharpen the goads.

22 So it came to pass in the day of battle, that there was neither sword

nor spear found in the hand of any of the people that were with

Saul and Jonathan: but with Saul and with Jonathan his son was

there found.”

 

I submit to you that the words of Solomon then ring true even now in

contemporary America:  “The thing that hath been, it is that which

shall be; and that which is done is that which shall be done:  and

there  is nothing new under the sun.”

 

Does this not sound familiar?  Israel were disarmed by their enemies

and there are enemies of Christians entering our borders illegally,

and living among us are misguided citizens who are attempting to

disarm us today and relegate us to servitude, if not to prison or

execution as during the Holocaust. 

 

 

13 And three of the thirty chief went down, and came to David in the harvest

time unto the cave of Adullam: and the troop of the Philistines pitched in

the valley of Rephaim.  14 And David was then in an hold, and the garrison of

the Philistines was then in Beth–lehem.  15 And David longed, and said,

Oh that one would give me drinkof the water of the well of Bethlehem,

which is by the gate!

 

David was brought up in Bethlehem, and he thought about the refreshing water

from the well there. I know how David felt. I was raised in a little town in Texas.

My dad built our house and dug our well. The water was “gyp” water. A few years

ago I went back to that place. I could hardly wait to get a drink of that water. I lay

down on the ground by the faucet by the well and lapped up that water. My, it was

delicious! I was raised on it. It took me back to my boyhood. Now David longed for

water from the well at Bethlehem. He never gave a command to anybody to go and get

him water, but three of his mighty men broke through the Philistine lines to get it for

him. That is the way they became mighty men.

 

I think of the command that the Lord Jesus gave in Matthew 28:19–20 to go into all

the world and preach the gospel. Then I think back in the past to the men who broke

through the enemy lines and took the gospel to those who needed to hear. Think

of the pioneer missionaries—I don’t like to mention just one man, but think

of men like the apostle Paul or Martin Luther. A great company of missionaries

followed after them, and they have been breaking through the enemy lines ever

since and getting out the Word of God. These are mighty men of David’s greater

Son, the Lord Jesus Christ.

 

Here is another of David’s mighty men.

 

20 “And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the son of a valiant man, of Kabzeel,

who had done many acts, he slew two lionlike men of Moab: he went down

also and slew a lion in the midst of a pit in time of snow:  21 And he slew an

Egyptian, a goodly man: and the Egyptian had a spear in his hand; but he

went down to him with a staff, and plucked the spear out of the Egyptian’s

hand, and slew him with his own spear. These things did Benaiah the son

of Jehoiada, and had the name among three mighty men.” This fellow

slew a lion. That is not an easy thing to do, and he did it when there was

snow on the ground. I know a lot of people who won’t even come to church

when there is a little rain on the sidewalk. May I say to you, they could not

have much fellowship with a man like Benaiah. He was out there when there

was snow on the ground. He was a tremendous man.

 

39 Uriah the Hittite: thirty and seven in all.” Uriah the Hittite was one of David’s

mighty men. This is the man he sent to the front lines to be killed. This is the blot

on the escutcheon of David.

[1]

 

 

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[1]McGee, J. Vernon: Thru the Bible Commentary: History of Israel (1 and 2 Samuel). electronic ed. Nashville : Thomas Nelson, 1991 (Thru the Bible Commentary 12), S. 300