A Time Line within a Time Line V

                          The Six Books of the Kings of Israel

                     (I & II Samuel; I & II Kings; I & II Chronicles)

                                                             July 31, 2022



Many of the people in the timeline I am discussing and their

deeds were a part of the reason that Israel went into captivity.

Their world came crashing down upon their heads.  It took

time but known unto God has this been from the beginning!


Do you think there is anyone in the world, or the United States

today whose ambitions, life’s work, who also are bringing

their world crashing down upon their heads?


In Revelation 11:18 are the words “....them which destroy

the earth.”  The question today is whether you are one

of those?


Jesus said in Luke 12:15


“Take heed and beware of covetousness:  for a man’s life consisteth not

in the abundance of the things which he possesseth.” 


Jesus is first warning about the danger of covetousness

( to envy, be obsessed with or greedily desire that which does not belong

to someone, or is not needed)  Adonijah’s problem, which started off

this series on ambition,  is much our problem.


I have discovered in life that it is a characteristic of man to

want what he can’t get and when he gets it only to find

that was not what he wanted after all!


It would be very sad, as Jesus said, “to gain the whole world and

lose your own soul.”


ὑπαρχόντων - things, belongings, possessions.


What is your life?


What it is not!  things, belongings, possessions.



“For what is your life? It is evcn a vapor, that appeareth for a little time,

and then vanisheth away.”  James 4:14





Last week I ended the lesson:


Those who are familiar with the child Samuel and his residence

with Eli, the High Priest, remember that long before, God had

warned Eli that this would happen (II Samuel 2:27-36 - (circa. 1165

B. C.) compare ibid. ch. 4:10-22 - around 24 years later - ) 

The start of the fulfillment


369 years Ark at Shiloh  Jesus showed the people that our security

would not come from the Tabernacle in Shiloh or Jerusalem but

through Christ Himself.


Read Jeremiah 7:12-16



“The gifts and callings of God are without repentance.”

“Known unto God are all His works from the beginning.”

“The Lord is longsuffering to usward, not willing that any

should perish but that all should come to repentance.”


Now since we are using kings and priests as our examples,

it is not so far-fetched as one might think, since the

Revelation of Jesus Christ says 1:4:


4 John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace be unto you,

and peace, from him which is, and which was, and which is to

come; and from the seven Spirits which are before his throne;

5 And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first

begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto

him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,

6And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to

him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

7 Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and

they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail

because of him. Even so, Amen.

8 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the

Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty


1 Samuel 22:16-19 records an absolutely terrible incident where

Saul ordered the deaths of many innocent people. It gives us a

shock to realize that Saul had become so wicked.

However, it was not the only time when Saul did such a thing. 

II Samuel 21:1 records how he carried out a similar attack against

the inhabitants of Gibeon.


The incident in 1 Samuel 22:7-23 was against the most important

priests in Israel. Even Ahimelech, the chief priest, died in that

incident. In fact, nearly everyone who came from the family of

Eli died then. Long before, God had warned Eli that this would

happen (ibid. 2:27-36 - compare ch. 4:10-22)  The continuance

of the fulfillment.


The Ark of the Covenant was one of the most instrumental symbols of faith and God’s presence. The contents of which included the tables of the Mosaic law, a pot of manna, and the rod of Aaron. The Ark’s origin stemmed from o when Moses was commanded by God to “make an ark of acacia wood.”

                                                (Taken from Christianity.com)


This is not the first time that a High Priest’s sons had gotten

into trouble.  I recommend the account given on Chabad.org.


Nadab and Abihu offered “strange fire before the Lord “

(Leviticus 10:1-11)  



Saul’s excuse for this attack was that the priests were plotting

against him (22:13). That was completely untrue. Even David

was not plotting against Saul. Ahimelech had helped David;

but Ahimelech did not know that Saul was angry with David.

The other priests and their families did not even know what

Ahimelech had done.


Probably even Saul knew that his excuse was untrue. The reality

was that Saul always tried to control people by fear. He wanted

people to be afraid of him because then they would obey him.

Saul would make people very afraid if he killed the chief priest.

That was what Saul thought. By that action, Saul would show

everyone that he was not even afraid of God. Then people

would not dare to support David. They would have to do

whatever Saul wanted them to do. However, even the death of

such an important and holy man as the chief priest did not satisfy

Saul’s anger. Really, of course, Saul wanted to kill David.

However, in the meantime, he ordered the deaths of 85 priests

from Ahimelech’s family. (Taken from:  Useful Bible Studies.




                                      Doeg the Edomite


Doeg the Edomite is first mentioned in 1 Samuel 21:7 and described as a servant of King Saul. Doeg is called Saul’s chief shepherd, which probably means he was in charge of all the servants tending Saul’s animals. Doeg was an Edomite, not a Hebrew. Israel had been at war with Edom, so Doeg may have entered Saul’s service as either a captive or a traitor to his people

Doeg was an evil man. Although he pretended to serve Israel,

he served only himself. One day while David was running from

Saul, he stopped to seek assistance at the tabernacle in Nob, and

it so happened that Doeg was also at the tabernacle that day,

“detained before the Lord” (1 Samuel 21:7). It could be that

Doeg was at the tabernacle because it was the sabbath day,

and he could travel no farther without breaking the law; or it

could be that he was there to offer a sacrifice to complete a vow

or to be ceremonially cleansed. Regardless of why Doeg was there,

this was a fateful encounter with David.   (Got Questions.org.)

Abiathar was the son of Ahimelech, who served as a priest at Nob

(1 Samuel 21:1Mark 2:26) until he and the other priests were

murdered by King Saul (1 Samuel 21:1–19). Being the only son

of Ahimelech to escape the massacre at Nob, Abiathar fled to

David and was promised protection by the future king

(1 Samuel 22:20–23).

Because Abiathar served David and acted as priest for all of

David’s men in hiding, he was made high priest along with

Zadok once David began his reign as king (1 Chronicles 15:11).

This was a natural role for him to take on, as he had kept the

ephod and administered the Urim and Thummin when David

sought direction from the Lord (1 Samuel 23:630:7).

When Absalom rebelled against his father and attempted to usurp

the throne, Abiathar remained loyal to David. Abiathar was

among those who fled the capital city with David

(II Samuel 15:24). Zadok and the Levites carried the ark

of the covenant, “and Abiathar offered sacrifices until all

the people had finished leaving the city”  (ibid.).


Although David admired the loyalty and faithfulness of the

priests, he ordered them to return to the city with the ark.

This proved helpful because they were then able to send

word to David about Absalom’s plans  (II Samuel 15:27–29

17:15–16). David was restored to his throne and Abiathar to

his priestly office.


Solomon exiled Abithar to Anathoth - read I Kings 2:25-27




Absalom, (flourished circa. 1020 BC, Palestine), was the third and favorite

son of David, king of Israel and Judah. “But in all Israel, there was none

to be so much praised as Absalom for his beauty:  from the sole of

his foot to the crown of his head there was no blemish in him.” 

(II Samuel 14:25)  


The picture of Absalom that is presented in 2 Samuel 13–19 suggests that he

was the Alcibiades of the Old Testament, alike in his personal attractiveness,

his lawless insolence, and his tragic fate. He is first mentioned as murdering

his half brother Amnon, David’s eldest son, in revenge for the rape of his full

sister Tamar. For this he was driven into banishment, but he was eventually

restored to favor through the good offices of his cousin Joab. Later, when

some uncertainty seems to have arisen as to the succession, Absalom

organized a revolt. For a time he seemed completely successful; David,

with a few followers and his personal guard, fled across the Jordan,

leaving to Absalom Jerusalem and the main portion of the kingdom.

The usurper pursued the fugitives with his forces but was completely

defeated in “the forest of Ephraim” (apparently west of Jordan) and

killed by Joab, who found him caught by the hair in an oak tree.

To the affectionate, chivalrous heart of David, the loss of his son,

worthless and treacherous as he was, brought grief that more

than outweighed his own safety and restoration.

Things changed as David’s son Solomon took the throne.

Abiathar was not loyal to the new king. Adonijah, another

one of David’s sons, put himself forward as king with the help

of Joab (one of David’s nephews) and Abiathar (1 Kings 1:57).

Once the threat from Adonijah was neutralized, King Solomon

dealt with the conspirators. One of Solomon’s actions was to

remove Abiathar from the priestly office. This fulfilled the

Lord’s word of judgment over Eli and his descendants,

which impacted Abiathar since he was related to Eli

(1 Samuel 3:12–14   In that day I will perform against Eli all things

which I have spoken concerning his house: when I begin, I will also make an

end. For I have told him that I will judge his house for ever for the

iniquity which he knoweth; because his sons made themselves vile,

and he restrained them not. And therefore I have sworn unto the house of Eli,

that the iniquity of Eli’s house shall not be purged with sacrifice nor offering

for ever.  (The final installment)




Bathsheba - taken from Christianity.com


Bathsheba Was a Woman Who Suffered Greatly


Bathsheba suffered the loss of her husband. When Bathsheba found

herself pregnant, she sent word to the king, likely in a panic. Not long

after this, her husband was reported dead. It isn’t clear whether

Bathsheba knew that David killed her husband or not. But whoever

killed him, her husband was dead, and she was now a pregnant widow.

Grieving the loss of her husband was likely augmented by the hormones

raging from her pregnancy. (this I don’t know much about - CY - 2022)

In her devastated state, King David took her again, this time as his wife.

There’s no evidence she had a choice. Her life as she knew it before

her ceremonial bath was gone forever.  (That is why we should rejoice

everyday and give thanks to God daily in appreciation.


Bathsheba’s parentage


A man named Ahitophel is also mentioned in II Samuel 23:34,

and he is said to be the father of Eliam. Since II Samuel 11:3

notes that Eliam is the father of Bathsheba, some scholars

suggest that the Ahitophel of II                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Samuel 15 may in fact be

Bathsheba's grandfather.



HAGGITH - the following taken from



Haggith was one of David's wives (II Samuel 3:4). Whose daughter she was,

we are not told. The Bible records only that she bore to him Adonijah, the

fourth of his sons, in Hebron, before he was king over all Israel. That she

was an uncommonly remarkable woman, seems to be suggested from the 

custom of Biblical writers to speak usually of Adonijah as "the son of

Haggith". Although harem intrigues have ever played a great part in the

East, nothing indicates, however, that Haggith had anything to do either

with the attempt of her son to secure for himself the crown of Israel 

(1 Kings 1:5-53), or with his fatal request, likely also prompted by

political motives, to obtain his father's Sunamite concubine, Abisag,

from Solomon (1 Kings 2:13-25).




BENAIAH - the following taken from GotQuestions.com


Several men in the Bible bear the name Benaiah, but one stands out from

the rest. Benaiah, son of the chief priest Jehoiada, was one of David’s

mighty men”—his toughest military troop. The Bible describes Benaiah

as a fearless warrior noted for his heroic exploits. This Benaiah is the

brilliant fighter who famously “went down into a pit on a snowy day

and killed a lion” (1 Chronicles 11:22).


Benaiah was from the southern Judean city of Kabzeel. Before David 

became king, Benaiah was making a name for himself through numerous

daring military achievements: “He struck down Moab’s two mightiest

warriors. He also went down into a pit on a snowy day and killed a lion.

And he struck down a huge Egyptian. Although the Egyptian had a

spear in his hand, Benaiah went against him with a club. He snatched

the spear from the Egyptian’s hand and killed him with his own spear.

Such were the exploits of Benaiah son of Jehoiada; he too was as

famous as the three mighty warriors” (2 Samuel 23:20–22).


When David fled from King Saul, he placed Benaiah in command of

“the thirty” (1 Chronicles 27:6), a select group of warriors second

only to “the three” of highest rank and bravery. Later, when Joab was

made commander-in-chief, Benaiah was appointed to a high place in

David’s armed forces as commander of the Cherethites and Pelethites,

an elite mercenary company in David’s bodyguard from Crete and

Philistia (2 Samuel 8:1820:2323:231 Chronicles 18:17).



Second Samuel 23:8–39 and 1 Chronicles 11:10–47 list a group

of people known as mighty men of David or David’s mighty men.

They are also referred to as the “thirty chiefs” (1 Chronicles 11:15)

and simply “the Thirty” (1 Chronicles 12:4). These mighty men

of David were a group of David’s toughest military warriors

who were credited with heroic feats, including Josheb-basshebeth,

who killed 800 men in one battle with a spear (2 Samuel 23:8).

Additional notable actions listed include the deeds of a man

named Eleazar, who stayed on the battlefield when other warriors

fled and killed Philistines until his hand was stuck clenched

around his sword (2 Samuel 23:9–10); and the exploits of

Abishai, the leader of the mighty men, who killed 300 men

with a spear (23:18).

Benaiah was known for going into a pit on a snowy day and

killing a lion and for killing a powerful Egyptian man with

the man’s own spear (2 Samuel 23:20–21). He also served

as leader of David’s bodyguards (23:23).

Within this list of mighty men are three men who served

as a special elite group: Josheb-basshebeth, Eleazar, and

Shammah. Their exact roles are not made clear, but they

were certainly seen as stand-outs among David’s mighty men.

Although the mighty men are called “the Thirty,” a total of 37

men are listed, meaning that not all of these men were on

the team the entire time. Some of them, like Uriah, were

killed in battle during David’s reign. Another explanation

may be that David’s elite group of mighty men numbered

approximately 30, a figure not meant to be exact.

Some of these mighty men of David had considerable

military skill and the blessing of God. David’s mighty men

served an important role in protecting the king and fighting

for the freedom of their nation, the land of Israel.

The full list of the mighty men of David is located in 
II Samuel 23 

                     and includes the following names:

1. Josheb-basshebeth, a Tahchemonite
2. Eleazar, the son of Dodo
3. Shammah, the son of Agee the Hararite
4. Abishai
5. Benaiah
6. Asahel
8. Shammah of Harod
9. Elika of Harod
10. Helez the Paltite
11. Ira, the son of Ikkesh of Tekoa
12. Abiezer of Anthoth
13. Mebunnai the Hushathite
14. Zalmon the Ahohite
15. Maharai of Netophah
16. Heleb, the son of Baanah of Netophah
17. Ittai, the son of Ribai of Gibeah of the people of Benjamin
18. Benaiah of Pirathon
19. Hiddai of the brooks of Gaash
20. Abi-albon the Arbathite
21. Azmaveth of Bahurim
22. Eliahba the Shaalbonite
23. The sons of Jashen
24. Jonathan
25. Shammah the Hararite
26. Ahiam, the son of Sharar the Hararite
27. Eliphelet, the son of Ahasbai of Maacha
28. Eliam, the son of Ahithophel of Gilo
29. Hezro of Carmel
30. Paarai the Arbite
31. Igal, the son of Nathan of Zobah
32. Bani the Gadite
33. Zelek the Ammonite
34. Naharai of Beeroth
35. Ira the Ithrite
36. Gareb the Ithrite
Uriah the Hittite



Benaiah’s loyalty to King David earned him the rank of third army

commander, with 24,000 men in his division. This troop served as

part of the army rotation system established by King David

(1 Chronicles 27:1–6). Benaiah remained devoted to David

during Absalom’s rebellion (2 Samuel 20:23; see also 15:18)

and also when Adonijah attempted to take control of David’s

throne (1 Kings 1:8).


Benaiah was instrumental in safeguarding the passing of the royal

succession to Solomon after David’s death and thus gained the

honor of assisting in Solomon’s coronation at Gihon

(1 Kings 1:32–40). As Solomon’s supreme army commander

and chief bodyguard, Benaiah was responsible for executing

those who opposed the new king, including Adonijah, Joab,

and Shimei (1 Kings 2:253446).

II Samuel 23:13-17



The following I got from:





The Israelite army that David commanded as king was attempting to

capture the city of Bethlehem, where David had been born and raised,

but which had been taken over and surrounded by the Philistines.


David made a comment expressing the wish that the soldiers who were

besieging Bethlehem would bring him water to drink from the well

there (from which David himself apparently used to drink).


(I personally don't think that this was because of any special quality

of the water itself (such as its taste), but because of its association

with David's personal memories of his time growing up in Bethlehem.

Also, in my opinion (and I think as shown by David's action in later

pouring the water out), David was speaking these words in a wistful

or rhetorical manner, rather than intending them as a command, or as

indicating that he wanted to literally drink water from the well. His

main desire was that all of Bethlehem (including its well) should

once again be under Israel's control.)


However, David's three "mighty men" (Joseb-basshebeth, Eleazar,

and Shammah) took the king's words as an order, and, despite the

dangers involved, fought their way through the Philistines, obtained

water from the well at Bethlehem, and brought it back to David.


When David knew what they had done and why they had done it,

he realized that, if he were to drink the water, it would appear that

he placed greater value on it than on the men who had risked their

lives to obtain it (even though they had done so willingly).


He therefore refused to drink it, but "poured it out to the Lord".

(Whether he would have done this in a formal sense (as in the Tabernacle),

or by simply emptying the container of water on the ground and dedicating

it to God with his words, is not clear from the Biblical account.) However,

it was appropriate that God be involved in the process, since it would

have been through His protection that the three men had been able

to get the water and bring it back.






We are given a catalog of David’s mighty men in II Samuel 23:8-39


IN David’s muster-roll we find the names of many mighties, and they are

honored by being found there. These men came to David when his fortunes

were at the lowest ebb, and he himself was regarded as a rebel and an

outlaw, and they remained faithful to him throughout their lives. Happy are

they who can follow a good cause in its worst estate, for theirs is true

glory. Weary of the evil government of Saul, they struck out a path for

themselves, in which they could best serve their country and their God, and

though this entailed great risks, they were amply rewarded by the honors

which in due time they shared with their leader. When David came to the

throne, how glad their hearts must have been; and when he went on

conquering and to conquer, how they must have rejoiced, each one of them

remembering with intense delight, the privations which they had shared

with their captain. Brethren, we do not ourselves aspire to be numbered

with the warlike, the roll of battle does not contain our names, and we do

not wish that it should; but there is a roll which is now being made up, a

roll of heroes who do and dare for Christ, who go without the camp, and

take up His reproach, and with confidence in God contend earnestly for the

faith once delivered to the saints, and venture all for Jesus Christ; and there

will come a day when it will be infinitely more honorable to find one’s

name in the lowest place, in this list of Christ’s faithful disciples than to be

numbered with princes and kings. Blessed is he who can this day cast in his

lot with the Son of David, and share His reproach, for the day shall come

when the Master’s glory shall be reflected upon all his followers.


Charles Spurgeon


The spiritual condition of these men is not stated, however they too,

like you and me must stand before God someday and be judged by

how we used our lives.  God is Judge - with Him is no variableness,

neither shadow of turning.


We know that of David it is said he “....served his own generation.”

(Acts 13:36)




ZADOK - taken from GotQuestions.com.


Zadok son of Ahitub was a Levite priest during the time of King David.

For a long time, he was co-high priest with Abiathar. Zadok was a

descendant of Aaron and a leader over his family of Levites

(1 Chronicles 27:17).

When Absalom conspired against his father, David, David was forced

to flee from Jerusalem (2 Samuel 15:13–14). Zadok and his son Ahimaaz,

and his co-priest Abiathar and his son Jonathan accompanied David, with

Zadok leading a procession of Levites who carried the ark of the covenant.

As the people exited the city, Zadok’s Levites set down the ark, and

Abiathar offered sacrifices (verse 24). Once the people had vacated

Jerusalem, David ordered Zadok and Abiathar, along with their sons,

to return with the ark to Jerusalem (verse 25). Zadok was to send word

to David with any news of what was happening in the kingdom under


David had also sent his friend Hushai back to Jerusalem to listen in on

Absalom’s plans, and it was through him that Zadok and Abiathar heard

that Absalom planned to seek out David and destroy him and the people

who were with him. Hushai, Zadok, and Abiathar sent Ahimaaz and

Jonathan to find David. After hiding in a well from Absalom’s men,

Amimaaz and Jonathan were able to escape the city and bring the

message to David: “Do not spend the night at the fords in the wilderness;

cross over without fail, or the king and all the people with him will be

swallowed up” (2 Samuel 17:16). David escaped, and it wasn’t much

longer before David’s commander, Joab, killed Absalom

(2 Samuel 18:1–15). Heartbroken at the death of his son, David

returned to Jerusalem.

When Adonijah set himself up as king, even though David’s other

son Solomon was to take the throne at David’s death (1 Kings 1:5).

Adonijah had some supporters, including Abiathar the priest, but Zadok,

Nathan the prophet, and several other important men supported David’s

choice and opposed Adonijah (verse 8). Nathan told David’s wife

Bathsheba what Adonijah was planning and advised her to apprise

King David of the situation. She did so, and David ordered that

Zadok and Nathan immediately take Solomon to Gihon and anoint

him as king (verses 32–34).

When Zadok the priest anointed Solomon’s head with oil at Gihon,

a trumpet was sounded, and all the people assembled began to shout

and rejoice (1 Kings 1:39–40).


Even though Abiathar had spurned King David’s wishes and

supported Adonijah, Zadok stayed true to David and supported

Solomon. Abiathar lost his priesthood as a result, but Zadok was

rewarded with a position as one of Solomon’s chief officials

(1 Kings 4:4) as well as being recognized as the sole high priest.

Politics - support - to what end?



Ø      Shimei -

Ø      David

Ø      Solomon - all like you and me Players in History





And then there are mentioned:


Ø      Nathan



Nathan was a prophet in the Bible who lived during the reign of King David 

in Israel. God spoke to David through Nathan on several occasions. Nathan was a

member of David’s royal court and one of his closest advisers. Nathan apparently

also knew Bathsheba well enough to speak to her about Adonijah’s attempt to usurp

David’s throne from her son, Solomon (1 Kings 1:11) and to enlist her help in

bringing the matter to the king. There are three or four stories in the Bible

featuring Nathan that occurred during some of the darkest and most emotional

times in David’s life.


The first mention of Nathan is when David planned to build God a house.establishes

his relationship with David as a trusted adviser. David decides to build God a house,

because the king is living in a beautiful cedar palace and thinks it wrong that the

Ark of the Covenant should be housed in a lowly tent (the tabernacle). David tells

Nathan about his plans to build a house for God, and Nathan says he should go

ahead and do it because the Lord is with him (II Samuel 7:2–3). Then God visits

Nathan in a vision and tells him to return to David and inform him that God doesn’t

need the king to build him a house; rather, God would establish David’s dynasty,

through his son, forever. His son Solomon would be the one to build God’s

house (ibid. vs. 4–17). Nathan relays this important message to the king,

and David utters a grateful and beautiful prayer to God for His grace

(ibid. vs, 18–29)


The next time Nathan is mentioned, it is after David had committed adultery with 

Bathsheba and brought about her husband’s death to hide her pregnancy (II Samuel 12:1).

At that point, David had made Bathsheba his wife and had seemingly gotten away

with his sin, but the Lord knew about it and told Nathan to rebuke David. Nathan went

to David and wisely told the king a fable about a rich man and a poor man: the rich

man was visited by a traveler, so he took the poor man’s only possession, a little

ewe lamb that he loved as a pet, to feed his guest—rather than taking a lamb from

his own extensive flocks. David was enraged at the story and declared that the

rich man had no pity and deserved to die. Nathan then points to David and says, “

You are the man!” (II  Samuel 12:7). Nathan reveals that David’s sin was like

that of the rich man, because David took away Uriah’s wife. Nathan then

prophesis to David, in God’s own words: “I anointed you king over Israel,

and I delivered you out of the hand of Saul. And I gave you your master’s

house and your master’s wives into your arms and gave you the house of

Israel and of Judah. And if this were too little, I would add to you as much

more. Why have you despised the word of the LORD, to do what is evil in

His sight? You have struck down Uriah the Hittite with the sword and have

taken his wife to be your wife and have killed him with the sword of the

Ammonites. Now therefore the sword shall never depart from your house,

because you have despised me and have taken the wife of Uriah the Hittite

to be your wife” (II Samuel 12:7–10). David confesses to Nathan that he has

sinned against the Lord, and Nathan comforts him, saying that the Lord has

forgiven his sin and that David’s life will not be required of him. Nonetheless,

David’s child by Bathsheba was to die. David, under inspiration of the Holy Spirit,

pens Psalm 51 after this encounter with Nathan the prophet.


After the death of David’s child, his wife Bathsheba became pregnant again,

this time with a son whom they named Solomon. The Lord sent Nathan to

David again, this time to say that the Lord loved his son Solomon, and they

called Solomon “Jedidiah,” a name that means “beloved of the Lord”

(II Samuel 12:24–25). Solomon later built God’s house, the temple, and

became an ancestor of the Lord Jesus Christ.


First Chronicles 3:5 reveals the fact that King David and Queen Bathsheba

named one of their sons born to them in Jerusalem “Nathan.” No doubt, the

child’s name is a reflection of the royal couple’s appreciation for the prophet

Nathan’s faithfulness, friendship, and tough love through the years.



Ø      Rei - was an officer loyal to David, and then to Solomon,

      during Adonijah’s attempt to secure the throne.


The following is from J. Vernon McGee’s Walk Thru the Bible

II Samuel 23:8-39 - Commentary:


But before I do this, this comes from Spurgeon:




              Back to  McGee’s Walk Thru the Bible

                 II Samuel 23:8-39 - Commentary:


8 These be the names of the mighty men whom David had:

The Tachmonite that sat in the seat, chief among the captains;

the same was Adino the Eznite: he lift up his spear against

eight hundred, whom he slew at one time


These men, you will recall, came to David during the time that he was in

exile. When David was being driven by Saul, he was an outcast, hunted

like a partridge. He had to hide in the dens of the earth. (Hebrews

11:38-40; Revelation 6:12-17))  It was during this time that those who were

in distress came to him. They were persecuted and oppressed by Saul, and

they fled to David. Others  also came to him: those who had gotten into debt

and could not pay, those who were discontented, and those who were bitter

of soul. In this same way men come to Christ. They are in distress.

According to their letters, many young rebels were once in distress.

They write to me and tell me about their experiences with the Lord.

They came to Christ with debts of sin, and He cancelled those debts.

Are you discontented with life? If you are living a fulfilling life and

doing all right, I guess I don’t have any message for you at all. But if you

are discontented down deep in your soul, and you want to be saved and

have fellowship with God, come to Christ. He will remove your guilt

and give you satisfaction in your life. These men who came to David were

outstanding men in many ways. They did many remarkable things.

Let us look at a few of them.


In Rabbinical Literature:

According to a Haggadah, Adino the Eznite - this name is only a designation of

David to denote two of his principal virtues. On account of his modesty he is called

'Adino ("pliant like a worm") because he bowed down and crawled in the dust

before pious men and scholars. For his heroic deeds and his strength in battle

he is called Ha-'Eẓni ("the man as strong as a tree []"; M. Ḳ. 16b). 


9 And after him was Eleazar the son of Dodo the Ahohite, one of the

three mighty men with David, when they defied the Philistines that

were there gathered together to battle, and the men of Israel were

gone away:  10 He arose, and smote the Philistines until his hand was weary,

and his hand clave unto the sword: and the LORD wrought a great

victory that day; and the people returned after him only to spoil.




    The following came from website of Calvary Chapel of Jonesboro, Arkansas


One of the problems that every one of us faces in life is weariness.  That universal

problem is worstened even more when we are facing battles in life.  This week

I want to encourage you with the actions of a guy with an interesting name –

but an awesome example.  He is an example of how we all need to respond to a

battle that seems to be more than we can handle – and yet it was meant to be a

situation where we watch God bring about a great victory.

In 2 Samuel we read about a guy named Eleazar the son of Dodo.  He was one of

the three greatest of David’s mighty men – and a wonderful example of how to face

a battle that brings you to a point of great weariness.  Let’s take a look at Eleazar and

see how he responded to weariness in the midst of battle.

“ . . . and after him was Eleazar the son of Dodo the Ahohite, one of the three mighty

men with David when they defied the Philistines who were gathered there to battle

and the men of Israel had withdrawn.  He arose and struck the Philistines until his

hand was weary and clung to the sword, and the LORD brought about a great victory

that day . . . ” 2 Samuel 23:9-10 (NASB)   

The first thing we learn from Eleazar is that everyone, even mighty men of God,

grow weary in battle.  God did not rebuke him for growing weary in battle. 

That is normal – whether it is a physical battle or a spiritual one.  The real issue

is what we do when we face that weariness.

Eleazar was wielding a sword in the battle against the Philistines that day.  Swords are heavy –

and when you get weary – you just want to drop your sword.  Whether you completely drop

it to the ground – or just drop it and no longer use it, as a weapon in the battle really doesn’t

matter.  The worst thing you could do in the midst of a battle is to drop your sword.  Eleazar

didn’t drop his sword.  In fact as he fought that day he found that as the battle raged – he

clung to the sword that was in his hand.  The word clung means that he held tightly to it. 

The imagery of that verse is that he held so tightly to it that it would have been difficult to

know where hand ended and sword began.  It was as if he was fused with the sword he

drew and held that day.  No matter how weary he was – he clung to the sword and

continued to use it to decimate his enemies.  The result that day was a great victory –

one that was granted by Jehovah Himself!

Whether you realize it or not, you face a sword fight every day.  The way to victory

in your battles is in fighting with the Word of God, which is referred to in Ephesians

 6 as the “Sword of the Spirit.”  The lesson that we need to learn from Eleazar about

the use of swords in a time of weariness though, is that we need to cling to our sword

until it fuses with us.  Eleazar clung to his sword in the battle with the Philistines –

and we need to cling to ours in our battles as well.

Our problem is that too often we either drop or lay down our swords when we get weary. 

Either of those two choices, dropping our sword or laying it down, are horrible options

for us.  It is in that moment of weariness that the battle is won or lost.  Consider Jesus,

who after 40 days of fasting experienced a weariness that few if any of us will ever know. 

Yet it was in that weary condition that the devil himself came and tempted Jesus three times. 

Even though weary, Jesus did NOT let go of the sword of the Spirit.  Three times He

unsheathed the sword of the Spirit.  Three times he answered the devil’s temptations and

lies with the Word of God.  And just like Samuel of old, when faced with the wicked,

worldly Agag, He hewed Satan to pieces with that sword.  Every temptation was defeated

and the evil one lay slain at His feet.  Was that because He was the Son of God . . . no. 

Was that because Jesus had something we don’t have . . . no.  It was simply because Jesus

took the sword of the Spirit, the Word of God, and used it against the enemy.  In His

weariness He didn’t drop that sword – He clung to it – fused with it – and one could not

determine where His hand ended and the sword began. 

Oh to have such a strong grasp – to cling to the Word of God.  To do it even

more when we get weary.  To cling to the mighty Sword of God until we cannot see the

end of us and the beginning of Him in us.  To speak that Word with the same confidence

as our Lord – and to hew to pieces every temptation, every lie, every deceitful desire that

seeks to lead us astray. 

The victory in the day of Eleazar was not attributed to him.  You will note in the passage

in 2 Samuel that it says clearly that the LORD brought about a great victory that day. 

We will not be aware of how awesome we are in that day.  We will be glad that we held

fast to the Word of God.  We will be glad that we clung to the sword of the Spirit and

used it as God intended. 

Some may say, “Well, that was another day – a much different time.”  It was a time in the past –

but when we see that Jesus used the perfect tense when He quoted God’s Word – we will see

that the Word He used is just as strong today as it was in the day He used it.  The Greek,

when translated to show the perfect tense, would read this way.  Jesus said, “It stands

written, (having been written at a time in the past with the reality that it is still written

now, and will be forever written and the same in the future) man shall not live by bread

alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God!”  Each time our Lord

quoted the Word of God He quoted it in this way.  He used the perfect tense.  That tense

emphasizes that the Word God gave at whatever point it was given was just as authoritative

in the time Jesus walked the earth – and it speaks with the same authority and power in

every generation that will ever exist – and even will have that authority for all eternity. 

By the way – that means it has just as much power to hew Satan and his temptations

to pieces today. 

Are you weary?  We all get weary in this life.  Something you might want to know as

well is that Satan seems to do his best (or more accurately stated, worst) work when

we are weary.  If you are weary – don’t let go of the Word of God!  Don’t lay

down your sword – no matter how tired and weary you become.  That Word is

your key to victory.  Don’t drop your sword – draw it!  Be ready even in your

most weary moment.  And when the evil one shows up, as he will most likely

show up in those moments, take that sword and by quoting, holding fast, believing,

and becoming fused with (or one with) the Word of God . . . hew him to pieces to

the glory of God!  May the Lord put that sword firmly in your hands – may you

become more and more skillful in wielding it – and may you enjoy times of

worshipping God joyfully for the great victory He gives through it!


The above taken from Calvary Chapel of Jonesboro website.


Back to McGee:


11 And after him was Shammah the son of Agee the Hararite. And the

Philistines were gathered together into a troop, where was a piece of

ground full of lentiles: and the people fled from the Philistines.

12 But he stood in the midst of the ground, and defended it, and

slew the Philistines: and the Lord wrought a great victory [


Defending a patch of lentils may not seem very important, but Israel needed

the food. It was the custom of the Philistines to wait until an Israelite’s crop

was ready to harvest, then they would come ravaging, plundering, and

robbing. This year, as usual, everyone ran when they came—except one man,

 Shammah. He stopped, drew his sword, and defended it. One man against a

troop of Philistines! “And the Lord wrought a great victory.”



                                    The following is from Wikipedia


Shammah is a name mentioned several times in the Hebrew Bible.

In the Book of Samuel, Shammah (שַׁמָּה) was the son of Agee,

a Hararite (2 Samuel 23:11) one of King David's three legendary "mighty men".

His greatest deed was the defeat of a troop of Philistines. After the Israelites fled

from the troop of Philistines, Shammah stood alone and defeated them himself.

He is credited with having single-handedly defeated these Philistine soldiers at

lentil patch.  It is also possible Shammah is mentioned in Judges as Shamgar,

who defeated 600 men of the Philistines with an ox goad. This may have been

the same battle of the lentil field mentioned in the Book of Samuel, though this

event was textually placed several generations before the version in Samuel. 



The following is from https://www.gotquestions.org/who-was-Shamgar.html



Shamgar was the third judge of Israel whose heroic actions led to peace

in Israel for an unspecified period of time. One verse of the Bible summarizes

his period of leadership. Judges 3:31 says, “After Ehud came Shamgar son

of Anath, who struck down six hundred Philistines with an oxgoad.

He too saved Israel.” We are only told that:


·         Shamgar’s leadership followed Ehud’s,

·         he was the son of Anath,

·         he killed 600 Philistines with an oxgoad, and

·         he saved Israel.


Because the name Anath referred to a Canaanite goddess, some have suggested

Shamgar was a son of a mixed Israelite-Canaanite marriage or had some other

connection with the Canaanites, though the text is unclear.

The Philistines were a sea-faring people who lived in Canaan during

the period of the Judges. Since the Philistines were known as warriors,

the fact that Shamgar killed 600 of them on his own was an amazing—

or even miraculous—accomplishment.


An ox goad is a wooden tool, approximately eight feet long, fitted with an iron spike

or point at one end, which was used to spur oxen as they pulled a plow or cart.

It often had an iron scraper at the non-pointed end to clear clods of earth from

the plowshare when it became weighed down.


Using this crude instrument,  Shamgar destroyed the enemies of Israel

Judges 3:31 does not specify whether his success came in one battle

or in a series of battles. of Shamgar.

Judges 5:6 also mentions Shamgar and his times. Deborah and Barak’s

song records, “In the days of Shamgar son of Anath,  in the days of Jael,

the highways were abandoned; travelers took to winding paths.”

From these words, we discover that in Shamgar’s time people traveled

carefully and in much fear due to oppression by the Philistines and possibly

other enemies.


Shamgar’s use of an ox goad shows how low the men of Judah had been

brought at that time by their oppressors. Later, Israel was disarmed to

the extent that “not a shield or spear was seen among forty thousand in

Israel (Judges 5:8).


Ecclesiastes 12:11 refers to a goad, which is synonymous with an ox goad:

“The words of the wise are like goads, and like nails firmly fixed are the

collected sayings; they are given by one Shepherd.” In this verse, a

comparison is made between the Word of God, its doctrines, and its effects

upon the heart of man and an ox goad that pricks, drives, and directs sinners

like oxen. The Shepherd uses the Word to prick our consciences, drive us

to repentance, and direct us to Christ for salvation.


When an ox was poked with a goad, its response was sometimes to kick out

at it in resistance. Naturally, kicking back at the goad was futile, not to

mention painful. Jesus used this as an analogy when He confronted Saul on

the Damascus Road (Acts 26:14). Jesus asked Saul why he was persecuting

Him and reminded him that, just as an ox that kicks against the pricking of

the goad can hurt itself, Saul’s continued resistance to the gospel would only

result in danger to himself. Saul wisely submitted to the goad and yielded

himself to Christ.


Note the condition of another Saul in I Samuel 13:19-22:


19“Now there was no smith found throughout all the land of Israel: for

the Philistines said, Lest the Hebrews make them swords or spears:

20 But all the Israelites went down to the Philistines, to sharpen every

man his share, and his coulter, and his axe, and his mattock.

21 Yet they had a file for the mattocks, and for the coulters, and for

the forks, and for the axes, and to sharpen the goads.

22 So it came to pass in the day of battle, that there was neither sword

nor spear found in the hand of any of the people that were with

Saul and Jonathan: but with Saul and with Jonathan his son was

there found.”


I submit to you that the words of Solomon then ring true even now in

contemporary America:  “The thing that hath been, it is that which

shall be; and that which is done is that which shall be done:  and

there  is nothing new under the sun.”


Does this not sound familiar?  Israel were disarmed by their enemies

and there are enemies of Christians entering our borders illegally,

and living among us are misguided citizens who are attempting to

disarm us today and relegate us to servitude, if not to prison or

execution as during the Holocaust. 



13 And three of the thirty chief went down, and came to David in the harvest

time unto the cave of Adullam: and the troop of the Philistines pitched in

the valley of Rephaim.  14 And David was then in an hold, and the garrison of

the Philistines was then in Beth–lehem.  15 And David longed, and said,

Oh that one would give me drinkof the water of the well of Bethlehem,

which is by the gate!


David was brought up in Bethlehem, and he thought about the refreshing water

from the well there. I know how David felt. I was raised in a little town in Texas.

My dad built our house and dug our well. The water was “gyp” water. A few years

ago I went back to that place. I could hardly wait to get a drink of that water. I lay

down on the ground by the faucet by the well and lapped up that water. My, it was

delicious! I was raised on it. It took me back to my boyhood. Now David longed for

water from the well at Bethlehem. He never gave a command to anybody to go and get

him water, but three of his mighty men broke through the Philistine lines to get it for

him. That is the way they became mighty men.


I think of the command that the Lord Jesus gave in Matthew 28:19–20 to go into all

the world and preach the gospel. Then I think back in the past to the men who broke

through the enemy lines and took the gospel to those who needed to hear. Think

of the pioneer missionaries—I don’t like to mention just one man, but think

of men like the apostle Paul or Martin Luther. A great company of missionaries

followed after them, and they have been breaking through the enemy lines ever

since and getting out the Word of God. These are mighty men of David’s greater

Son, the Lord Jesus Christ.


Here is another of David’s mighty men.


20 “And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the son of a valiant man, of Kabzeel,

who had done many acts, he slew two lionlike men of Moab: he went down

also and slew a lion in the midst of a pit in time of snow:  21 And he slew an

Egyptian, a goodly man: and the Egyptian had a spear in his hand; but he

went down to him with a staff, and plucked the spear out of the Egyptian’s

hand, and slew him with his own spear. These things did Benaiah the son

of Jehoiada, and had the name among three mighty men.” This fellow

slew a lion. That is not an easy thing to do, and he did it when there was

snow on the ground. I know a lot of people who won’t even come to church

when there is a little rain on the sidewalk. May I say to you, they could not

have much fellowship with a man like Benaiah. He was out there when there

was snow on the ground. He was a tremendous man.


39 “Uriah the Hittite: thirty and seven in all.” Uriah the Hittite was one of David’s

mighty men. This is the man he sent to the front lines to be killed. This is the blot

on the escutcheon of David.




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[1]McGee, J. Vernon: Thru the Bible Commentary: History of Israel (1 and 2 Samuel). electronic ed. Nashville : Thomas Nelson, 1991 (Thru the Bible Commentary 12), S. 300