I Samuel 3
THE CALL OF SAMUEL (vs. 1-10).
1 "And the child Samuel ministered unto the LORD before Eli. And the
word of the LORD was precious in those days; there was no open vision."
The word of the Lord was precious in those days. Or rather rare;
it came but seldom, and there was no proper order of persons from
whose ranks the “speakers for God” would naturally step forth. It was this
which made the revelation of Jehovah’s will to Samuel an event so
memorable both for the Jewish nation and for the Church; for he was called
by the providence of God to be the founder of prophecy as an established
institution, and henceforward, side by side with the king and priest, the
prophet took his place as one of the three factors in the preparation for the
coming of Him who is a king to rule, a Priest to make atonement, and also a
Prophet to teach His people and guide them into all the truth. There was
no open vision. Literally, “no vision that broke forth” (see II Chronicles 31:5,
where it is used of the publication of a decree). The meaning is, that though
prophecy was an essential condition of the spiritual life
it had not been promulgated and established as a fact. The gift had not absolutely
been withheld, but neither had it been permanently granted as a settled ordinance.
There are in Hebrew two words for vision: the one used here, hazon, refers to such
sights as are revealed to the entranced eye of the seer when in a state of ecstasy;
while the other, march, is a vision seen by the natural eye. From the days, however,
of Isaiah onward, hazon became the generic term for all prophecy.
2 "And it came to pass at that time, when Eli was laid down in his
place, and his eyes began to wax dim, that he could not see;"
Eli… could not see. I.e. clearly. His sight was fast failing him,
and Samuel, still called a child, na’ar, but probably, as Josephus states
(‘Antiq.,’ 5:10, 4), now fully twelve years old, was in constant attendance
upon him because of his increasing infirmities. Both were sleeping in the
temple; for literally the words are, And Samuel was sleeping in the temple
of Jehovah, where the ark of God was. Of course neither Eli nor Samuel
were in the holy place; but, as in ch. 1:9, the word temple is used
in its proper sense of the whole
were chambers provided for the use of the high priest and those in
attendance upon him.
3 "And ere the lamp of God went out in the temple of the LORD,
where the ark of God was, and Samuel was laid down to sleep;
4 That the LORD called Samuel: and he answered, Here am I.
5 And he ran unto Eli, and said, Here am I; for thou calledst me. And
he said, I called not; lie down again. And he went and lay down.
6 And the LORD called yet again, Samuel. And Samuel arose and
went to Eli, and said, Here am I; for thou didst call me. And he
answered, I called not, my son; lie down again."
In v. 3 the lamp is mentioned as fixing the exact time. Though it is said
that the seven-branched candelabrum was “to burn always” (Exodus
27:20), yet this apparently was to be by perpetually relighting it (ibid. 30:7-8);
and as Aaron was commanded to dress and light it every morning and
evening, and supply it with oil, the night would be far advanced and
morning near before it went out. In the stillness then of the late night
Samuel, sunk in heavy sleep, hears a voice calling him, and springing up,
naturally hurries to Eli, supposing that he needed his services. Eli had not
heard the voice, and concluding that it was a mistake, bids Samuel return
to his bed. Again the voice rings upon his ear, and again he hastens to Eli,
only to be told to lie down again.
7 "Now Samuel did not yet know the LORD, neither was the word of
the LORD yet revealed unto him." Here the reason is given why Samuel was
thus thrice mistaken. Doubtless he knew Jehovah in the way in which the
sons of Eli did not know him (ch. 2:12), i.e. in his conscience and
spiritual life, but he did not know Him as one who reveals His will unto
men. Prophecy had long been a rare thing, and though Samuel had often
heard God’s voice in the recesses of his heart, speaking to him of right and
wrong, he knew nothing of God as a living Person, giving commands for
men to obey, and bestowing knowledge to guide them in doing His will.
8 "And the LORD called Samuel again the third time. And he arose
and went to Eli, and said, Here am I; for thou didst call me. And
Eli perceived that the LORD had called the child.
9 Therefore Eli said unto Samuel, Go, lie down: and it shall be, if He
call thee, that thou shalt say, Speak, LORD; for thy servant
heareth. So Samuel went and lay down in his place."
But Eli was neither so inexperienced, nor so lost to all sense of
Jehovah being the immediate ruler of
Samuel came to him the third time, that the matter was Divine. Possibly he
recalled to mind the visit of the man of God, and had some presage of what
the message might be. At all events he bade Samuel lie calmly down again,
because the best preparation for hearing God’s voice is obedience and
10 "And the LORD came, and stood, and called as at other times,
Samuel, Samuel. Then Samuel answered, Speak; for thy servant heareth."
And Jehovah came, and stood, and called as at other times. It is something
more than a voice; there was an objective presence; and so in v. 15 it is called,
not hazon, a sight seen when in a state of ecstasy, but march, something seen
when wide awake, and in the full, calm possession of every faculty. As at other
times simply means as before, as on the two previous occasions. But now, instead
of hurrying to Eli, Samuel obediently waits for the revelation of the Divine will,
saying, “Speak; for thy servant heareth.”
Light Withheld (vs. 1-10)
The facts given are:
1. A lack of the
manifest revelations of the Divine will to which
2. A consciousness of
this want on the part of the few pious in
3. The continued service of Samuel in the ordinary routine of the sanctuary.
4. The resumption of the manifest revelation by the call of Samuel to receive it.
5. Samuel experiences difficulty in recognizing the call of God.
6. Eli renders to him the assistance by which he becomes recipient of the
The statement concerning Samuel’s continued service in the sanctuary is
evidently to prepare the way for the new prophet’s summons to important
duties. The historian’s mind rests primarily on a dreary period during which
a valued privilege was not enjoyed.
The ancient Jewish Church was very dependent for its growth in
knowledge, in direction for present duty, and in advancing joy in life, upon
well ascertained communications from God. The fragmentary history from
patriarchal times onwards acquaints us with many specific instances in
which “open vision,” as distinguished from individual enlightenment for
private uses, was vouchsafed. It is probable that much other light was
given than we have record of, as truly as that the apostles received more
from Christ than is explicitly contained in the Gospels. The clear light of
God was necessary in successive
years to enable
required in paving the way for Messiah. Therefore men looked for “vision”
through some chosen instrument, and felt that the normal course of
granted. Substantially the light has now been given to the modern Church.
No one is to “add to or take away from the words of the book” which God
has given for the instruction and guidance of His people. (Revelation 22:18-19)
But relatively, to the perception of the Church and of the individual, there is
still a progression in what is made known to us. All the truth was in Christ
before it gradually came forth “in divers manners to the fathers;” (Hebrews
1:1) and all the truth requisite for salvation is in THE WORD OF GOD!
But as occasional manifestations in ancient times brought successive beams
of light from the original Source to supply the need of men, so now out of
the word of God much light has to break forth for:
Ø the instruction,
Ø guidance, and
Ø comfort of the Church.
There is all the difference imaginable between adding to the
sum of truth by traditions of men or superior “light of reason,” and having
the things of Christ revealed to us by the Spirit. Our growth in knowledge
is consequent on clearer “visions” from God’s word.
FURTHER LIGHT FROM GOD. The absence of “open visions” in the
days of Eli is implicitly accounted for by the circumstance that the official
persons through whom the communications usually came were not in a
state of mind to be so honored by God. There seems to be a beautiful
adaptation between the fitness of the instrument and the fullness of the truth
conveyed. Isaiah’s intense spirituality of mind made him a fit instrument for
conveying to men the more advanced truth revealed to him. The tone of
the Apostle John’s nature qualified him for the special quality and degree
of truth characteristic of his writings. There seem to be high regulative
laws by which God sends forth His light to the spiritual man corresponding
to those in the lower sphere of intellect and moral perception. The
application of this principle is seen in the history of the Church and of the
individual. When the leaders of the Church have been intent on earthly
things, no advance has been made in the understanding of the Scriptures.
As protoplastic life must pre-exist in order to the assimilation of
protoplasm, so a certain spiritual light and love must dwell in man in order
to the absorption into self of light from God’s word. No wonder if
irreligious men cannot know the mysteries of the kingdom. THE HIGHEST
SPIRITUAL TRUTH is not intellectually, but “spiritually discerned.”
(I Corinthians 2:14) Christ may have many things to say to us, but we, through
deficient receptivity, “cannot bear them now.” (John 16:12) Hence the wisdom
of God is often foolishness to men, or the darkness is real because the eye that
should see is dim.
DEPRIVED OF THE LIGHT which ordinarily comes from God for human
use. The historian indicates the sad loss from which the people were
suffering in this withholding of “open vision.” All light is good, only good.
It is the chief means of life. It means cheer, safety, development. To be
without it in any measure is, in that degree, to be practically blind, and to
suffer all the evils of blindness. We mourn over those who cannot see the
sweet, beautiful light of day. Agony enters us when we gaze on men
devoid of the light of reason. The wisest grope as in perpetual fear when
the pillar of fire and Divine silence show not the way to take. Worst of all
when the Church has no guidance suited to its need. There have been
periods when the written word has been almost lost to the mass of
Christians. There are souls dark, sad, hopeless because no “vision” points
to the Refuge from sin and the rest to come. If one could speak out the
secret miseries of some who, dazed by exclusive gaze on the light of
reason, feel that life is hopeless, the world would scarcely credit the story.
EXPERIENCED IS OFTEN THE RESULT OF A DEGENERATE,
CORRUPT STATE OF
spiritual unfitness of people and leaders in Eli’s day to receive more and
frequent “visions” was the creation of their own wicked wills. The calamity
of being left for a while was the fruit of their doings. Sin is a blinding power,
as also a creator of positive aversion. The natural effect of religious declension
is to render men:
Ø indifferent to the value of God’s truth for its own sake and for its
Ø incapable of appreciating and even discerning it in its purity;
Ø prone to set a wrong interpretation upon it when in any
degree it is given; and even, in many instances,
Ø disposed to refer that which professes to be from God to any
other than THE TRUE SOURCE!.
It is a fair question how much of the professed rejection of Christianity on
reasonable grounds is really traceable to the pure exercise of the reason
under the guidance of an undefiled love of truth. Is not zeal to be free from
such holy restraints as Christ imposes often an important element in the
case? The finer and most convincing evidences of the truth of Christianity
lie in THE SPIRITUAL BEAUTY AND GLORY OF THE CHRIST,
and this is a factor which mere intellectual processes cannot assess. How
is it that the unholy always welcome objections to Christianity? It is ever true,
“sin lieth at the door.” (Genesis 4:7) “Ye will not come unto me, that ye
might have life.” (John 5:40) “Out of the heart are the issues of life.”
CALAMITOUS LOSS OF SPIRITUAL LIGHT LIES IN A NEGLECT
OF SUCH LIGHT AS IS ALREADY GIVEN. The inaptitude of Eli to
receive “visions,” and of the people to profit by them, was the fruit of a
religious decay brought on by inattention to the instructions given by Moses,
and a heedless performance of acts of worship. Thus calamity came of abuse
or neglect of existing privileges. The principle holds good over a wide sphere.
Unfaithfulness in some Churches of Asia led to the dire calamity of a removal
of the “candlestick.” Apostles sometimes turned from cities that failed to use
the opportunities they afforded them. Those who, seeing the Eternal Power
and Godhead “in the “things that are made,” glorified not God, had their
“foolish heart darkened.” (Romans 1:20-21) An exclusive fondness for one
side of intellectual nature, to the habitual neglect of the secret and subtle
moral elements in conscience, often results in the folly and wickedness of
finding not even a trace of God in the universe. (I highly recommend:
Fantastic Trip on You Tube – CY – 2016) Of many it may still be true,
“Hadst thou known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which
belong unto thy peace! but now they are hid from thine eyes.” (Luke 19:42)
WITHHOLDMENT OF DIVINE LIGHT IS NO PERMANENT BAR TO
THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRUTH.
chastisement; yet God had a holy servant in reserve both to remove the
impeding corruption and to continue the declarations of God’s will. Waters
held back by a barrier retain and multiply their force, and in course of time
will first sweep away the opposition and then flow peacefully on. God’s
purposes are an eternal force pressing on into the future. In ancient times a
measure of truth was given to the world to make ready a fit time and
condition for the Christ to come; and this was done, if not by one unwilling
instrument, yet by another when that was swept away. Likewise the
Church is to get more truth from the Bible for the “perfecting of the
saints” (Ephesians 4:12); and in spite of dark seasons it will rise to a
clearer vision of the truth in Christ by the providential removal of
obstructions and the introduction of a more holy and teachable order of men.
Man lives and toils, and opposes and dies. God ever lives in full resistless
1. It is a question how far errors and theological conflicts are to be
associated with a defective spirituality arising from either over-absorption
in purely philosophical pursuits, external Church order, or political and
2. To what extent is it possible to remedy the absence of Divine truth in
much of the literature of modern times (I will add entertainment - CY –
3. By what means the Church and the individual may secure more of that
holy, teachable spirit by which alone a fuller vision of truth shall be enjoyed.
4. How far the conduct of controversies of the day respecting Divine truth
is defective by not sufficiently taking into account the spiritual condition of
men opposed to religion, and whether there is a proper dependence on the
power of the Holy Spirit to give eyes to the blind.
5. To what extent, in personal seasons of darkness, the cause lies in our
personal indulgence in secret or open sin.
The transition from the employment of Eli, as the messenger of God to the
people, to Samuel, brings into view important truths concerning the
instrumentality by which God effects His purposes concerning man.
INSTRUMENTS for promoting the ends to be sought in connection with
Christ’s kingdom. Judged from the outward aspect of things, all around
appeared dark and hopeless. There was no one able to cope with the
difficulties of the position. A similar condition of things has been found in
certain countries during the history of the Christian Church. Some
desponding minds would find a correspondence in the prevailing unbelief
and daring atheism of modern times. There are also conditions of the
individual spiritual life when decay has apparently gone on to utter
hopelessness. Missionaries have now and then felt almost the horror of
despair in view of nameless barbarities. But two or three saw a little
beneath the surface. Hannah was sure of coming deliverance. Elkanah in
some degree shared her confidence, and Eli surmised a purpose of the Lord
in the presence of the holy child of the sanctuary. And, answering to these
better spirits of a corrupt age, there are always a few — “a remnant” —
who know and are comforted in the assurance that God has instruments in
reserve. As in the case of Samuel, they are chosen, in training, and biding
their time. There are instances of this general truth:
Ø In the preparation of the earth for man. From remote times there were
already chosen, and qualified, and retained in other forms till fit season, the
agencies by which, in spite of catastrophes of fire and convulsion and
deluge, the beautiful earth would come forth in material realization of the
thought and purpose of God.
Ø In the infant Christian Church. The end of Christ’s earthly life seemed
most disastrous to His kingdom. The corruption and craft of the wicked
were dominant, and the removal of the Saviour seemed to human judgment
to be the climax of disaster. Yet God had chosen, was training and holding
in reserve, the men by whom the evils of the age were to be overcome, and
truth and righteousness and love asserted as never before.
Ø In definite periods of the Church’s history. The scholastic subtleties of
the middle ages on the one side, the deplorable decay of morals and the
prostitution of Church ordinances to gain on the other, caused the earth to
mourn. Nevertheless, in the seraphic devotion of here and there a devout
monk, in the inquiring spirit of Erasmus, the clear intelligence of
Melancthon, and the courage and firm grip of truth by Luther, God had his
chosen instruments for producing a wonderful advance in all that pertains
to freedom, purity, and Christian knowledge.
Ø In the midst of the evils indicated by modern antagonism to
Christianity. Doubtless the principles advocated, logically wrought out, as
they are sure to be when the mass embrace them, contain the seeds of
immorality, anarchy, and decay of noblest sentiments; and often there is an
eagerness in adopting them which may well cause some to tremble. But
GOD IS ALIVE, not dead. He has His agencies, fitted, and, so to speak,
under restraint. They will be found to consist in the practical futility of all
endeavor to get substitutes for a holy religion; the hopeless miseries into
which individuals will be plunged; the horror created by the very violence
of vice; the natural, never-to-be-quenched instinct which compels man to
“cry out for the living God;” the calling forth of wise men of saintly life
who are masters in secular knowledge; the silent force of Christian lives in
health, sickness, and sorrow; and the aroused prayerfulness of the Church.
Men like Samuel are in existence now!
5. In the conflict of the individual Christian life. The dire evils of latent
sin, weak resolutions, from stains of early years, seem to be a “body of sin
and death from which there is no escape. But God has in reserve the truth,
the afflictions, the tenderness, the quickening power of the Holy Spirit, by
which all these shall pass away, and a restored life shall result.
IN WORKING OUT GOD’S WILL, SO FAR AS PERSONS ARE
CONCERNED, WELL ASCERTAINED. There is great advantage
in having the child life of Samuel sketched in contrast with the habits and
principles of those no longer worthy to be the instruments for doing the
highest work in the world. The qualities in Samuel that fitted him for his
Ø purity of life,
Ø deep love for God and his sanctuary,
Ø personal consecration to any service in which it might please God
to employ him, and
Ø the humility that disdains not even menial work if God would thus
These qualities are really embraced in the one supreme quality —
conformity of will to THE DIVINE WILL! In this respect all human
instruments are alike when thoroughly effective. In so far as, like Jesus,
it is our “meat and drink” to do the Father’s will (John 4:34), our nature
becomes a fit channel for the Divine energy to work through for spiritual
ends. The failure of moral agents lies in the condition of the will. The
power of Christian life in prayer, in work, in silent influence, is in proportion
as the consecration takes the form of, “Not my will, but thine be done.”
ESSENTIALLY IN THE POWER WHICH WORKS THROUGH THEM.
The excellent qualities of Samuel no doubt exercised a power appropriate to
their own nature; but the real work he did was more than the mere natural
influence of what he was. It was God who worked, not only within him to
will and to do, but also with and by him. (Philippians 2:13) Everywhere in
Scripture stress is laid on the unseen energy of God acting on the visible and
invisible elements of things, and at last bringing all into subjection. The reality
of the Divine power in the human instrument is often conspicuous. The child
Samuel did not secure of himself the submission of the people or the
deference of Eli. God wrought on their spirits and made them willing to
take him as prophet. Saul was the stronger man, but God used David to
slay Goliath. God, in the case of apostles, had chosen the “weak things of
the world to confound the mighty.” (I Corinthians 1:27) His grace was
sufficient for them. “Not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit.”
(II Corinthians 12:9; Zechariah 4:6)
Ø There is the most perfect ground for confidence that agencies will be
found for doing any work really essential to the salvation of men.
Ø It is important for all so to live and labor that they may be available for
any service requisite in seasons of trial.
Ø The fitness of each Christian for doing greatest possible good in the
world rests with his own diligent self culture and entireness of
Ø It is essentially necessary that in all effort God be recognized as the
Author of all good.
Call to Higher Service
The service of God is very wide and varied. Every true heart may find
some employment therein. “They serve who wait,” as also those who
simply exhibit a holy life. The weary Christian invalid conveys many an
impressive lesson to the strong and vigorous. The patient endurance of
adversity may do more good than the enjoyment of prosperity. In making
distinctions in the value of service rendered, we are not always in a position
to pass perfect judgment. In one respect a lowly Christian may be “greater
than John the Baptist.” In reference to public functions there are gradations,
and in this respect Samuel was called to a higher form of service.
estimation of Hannah and Eli, the early occupation of Samuel in the
tabernacle was the initiatory stage of a life work. Except so far as a pure,
simple life in contrast with vileness can teach, Samuel’s service was
confined to attendance on the venerable high priest. The position for which
he was finally called was more conspicuous, of wider influence, and
involving the display of superior qualities. The narrative relating the call to
this higher service is a record in spirit of what has often transpired in the
course of history, and is being realized every day. Abraham, Moses, and
David served God, each in his own restricted sphere, when they obeyed the
Divine call. As Christ once summoned fishermen to leave their occupation
to be fishers of men, so now others hear His voice urging them to leave the
ship, the desk, the farm, to do His will in preaching the gospel. To the
attentive ear of the devout there are frequent calls to rise to more arduous
positions in the Church, or to enter on some line of private Christian
endeavor that shall more truly bless mankind. Let devout men not forget
that the Divine call to higher work is not confined to public functionaries.
All kinds of workers are engaged on the spiritual temple.
SERVICE. Obviously, only a Samuel trained by a devout mother,
accustomed to the hallowed associations of the sanctuary, was suited for
the work that had henceforth to be done. The chief elements that qualify
for entrance on higher service are:
Ø Deep piety; for as piety is a requisite to all useful spiritual work, so deep
piety is required for the more trying forms of usefulness.
Ø Fidelity in lower forms. He that is faithful in that which is least becomes
fitted for superior responsibilities. “Come up higher” is the voice which
crowns earthly toil. (Luke 14:10)
Ø Natural aptitude for new emergencies. God never puts a man in a
position for which natural powers when sanctified are unsuited. The
wondrous adaptations in the material world find their analogies in the
Ø Readiness to endure what is unknown. God’s servants have to enter an
untraversed ground, and their qualification for a call to this must embrace a
spirit that says, “Here am I.” “Speak, Lord.” “What wouldst thou have me
to do?” (vs. 4,10; Acts 9:6) The representation given of Samuel, and of others
in the Bible, shows that they were endowed with these qualifications. This,
also, may be a test by which good men may now judge of themselves. No one
ought to think of departing from any useful sphere of labor without severe
scrutiny as to capabilities for heavier duties.
INSTANCES, UNCONSCIOUSLY ACQUIRED. Growth is not felt while
in process, and only when attention is called to it is the fact recognized.
Samuel became month by month more pious and true; his aptitudes
enlarged, and his courage rose with every discharge of inconvenient duty.
He became spiritually wealthy without being aware of it — sure evidence
of vital godliness. The disposition sometimes found to complain of one’s
lot, to hanker after some more showy occupation in God’s service, and to
watch and plan for personal advancement, is not a good sign. The humble
deeds of opening the door, lighting the lamps of the house of God, when
done out of pure love for the Lord of the sanctuary, are means of raising
the tone of the entire life. To do the smallest deed for Christ is blessed, and
years of such fond service is an education, the results of which are only
brought out to view when a perhaps sudden demand is made for some
difficult duty. By his bitter repentance, and the all-absorbing love for Christ
consequent on full restoration, Peter little knew that he was becoming the
man to lead the Church on to great triumphs.
WONDERFULLY SUITED TO THE CIRCUMSTANCE. The miraculous
manifestation of the Divine Being was in harmony with the method by
which, as Samuel knew from history of the past, God conveyed His will to
men. No terror would arise in his spirit, for he was accustomed to
reverence the house of God, and to feel that God was nigh. A pure, loving
heart does not dread God. The more childlike the piety, the more welcome
the thought and presence of the eternal Friend. If Samuel was to become a
prophet, and the emergency required that a prophet should speak at that
juncture; and if, for authentication, Eli must be used, it is difficult to
conceive how these ends could be more naturally secured than by the
manner in which the call was made. The objections men raise to what they
call the anthropomorphism of such a portion of Scripture as this are utterly
baseless. Does not God reveal Himself in the material world by the visible
things which are the outward expressions of His mind? Does it make any
real difference to Him whether He form them by a slow or by a more swift
process? Was the first expression, in an act of creation, slow? Who, then,
shall say that in expressing his moral purposes for men He must not and
cannot adopt an outward visible form, by which the mind to be taught shall
be surely arrested? Given a revelation to be made, will men prescribe a
priori and infallibly how God is to act in making it. If so, do they not draw
on their human views, and create a God of their own? And what is this but
anthropomorphism of deepest dye? All God’s acts are perfect. The call of
His servants is by means suited to time, purpose, and condition. Abraham
and others after him each heard the Divine voice differently, but naturally,
so far as special conditions determine events. There are “diversities of
operations,” but “one Spirit.” (I Corinthians 12:4, 6), So now it may be by
“still small voice” (I Kings 19:12), or by suggestion of the wise, or by
pressure of circumstances, that His servants receive the assurance that
God would have them enter on enlarged responsibilities.
DISTINGUISHED AT FIRST. It was not wonderful that Samuel mistook
the voice of God for the voice of man. It was Divine tenderness gradually
to prepare his mind, through the suggestion of Eli, for a great event. God
accommodates His voice of majesty to mortal ears. A spirit like Samuel’s,
satisfied with the honor of doing anything in the house of God, would
scarcely suppose that the greatest of honors was at hand. We are not sure
that calls to higher service are in any case immediately clear. Scripture
tells of the fact in many instances without reference to the mental history of
the individuals. Abraham’s strong faith implies special difficulties, and
possibly conflicts. Isaiah could scarcely believe that God would use him.
Though the disciples knew that Jesus of Nazareth called them to be His
servants, doubts subsequently came over them, for they “trusted that it had
been he which
should have redeemed
become so habituated to lines of action, ruling of impulses, and guidance of
common events, that at first they cannot recognize a superior will in new
openings, new gentle longings, and pressure from without. It is by the use of
ordinary faculties and means that the call to duty is ascertained. Samuel
inquired of Eli, and followed the suggestions of the experienced. The great
lines of duty are close to all who will take the trouble to know them. Wise
men, passing events, openness of spirit, willingness to be led, these are the
means by which every perplexed Samuel will be sure to solve his doubts.
To know the possibility that God has some unknown duty to indicate, to be
saying in heart, when attention is aroused, “Speak, Lord, for thy servant
heareth” — this is often the first step to a new career of usefulness.
The Faithful Servant (v. 10)
“Speak; for thy servant heareth.” The well known picture by Sir Joshua
Reynolds (above) , representing the child Samuel in the attitude of prayer, aptly
expresses the spirit of his whole life. His own language in response to the
call of God does this still more perfectly, and “contains the secret of his
strength.” It also teaches us how we should respond to the Divine call
which is addressed to us, and what is the spirit which we ought ever to
possess. For God speaks to us as truly as He spoke to Samuel, though in a
somewhat different manner. He speaks to us often, and calls each of us to
special service for Him; and there cannot be a nobler aim than that of
possessing the mind, disposition, and character of a “faithful servant”
(Matthew 25:21) here portrayed. This implies:
Ø Peculiar; not merely a general belief in his omnipresence, such as most
persons have, but a realization of His presence here; not as in a dream, but
in full waking thought; not as if he were at a distance from us, but “face to
face.” “Thou God seest me.”
Ø Intense; filling the soul with the light of His glory and with profound
reverence (Job 42:6).
Ø Habitual; abiding with us at all times, carried with us into every place,
and pervading and influencing all our thoughts, words, and actions.
servant.” His claims are:
Ø Just; because of:
o What He has done for us. He has given us our being, and all that makes
it a blessing (ch. 1:11). He has purchased us at a great price
(I Peter 1:18). “Ye are not your own” (I Corinthians 6:19-20).
o Our consecration, to Him (ch. 1:28). “I am the Lord’s” (Isaiah 44:5).
o Our acceptance by Him.
Ø Supreme. All other claims are inferior to His, and must be regarded as
subordinate to them.
Ø Universal; extending to all our faculties, possessions, etc.
“My gracious Lord, I own thy right
To every service I can pay,
And call it my supreme delight
To hear thy dictates and obey.
What is my being but for thee,
Its sure support, its noblest end;
Thy ever-smiling face to see,
And serve the cause of such a Friend?”
waiting to hear thy commands, and desire to know thy will.” “What saith
my Lord unto his servant?” (Joshua 5:14). “What wilt thou have me to
do?” (Acts 9:6). His directions are given by:
Ø His word, in the law and the gospel.
Ø His providence, in the various events of life, affording fresh
opportunities, bringing new responsibilities, indicating special methods of
service. “New occasions teach new duties.” “There are so many kinds of
voices in the world, and none of them is without signification”
(I Corinthians 14:10).
Ø His Spirit; teaching the meaning and application of the word, suggesting
thoughts and activities in accordance with His revealed will, filling the heart
with holy and benevolent impulses. “It is written in the prophets, And they
shall be all taught of God” (John 6:45). “Behold, as the eyes of servants
look unto the hand of their masters” (watching with the utmost attention
for every indication of their will), “so our eyes wait upon the Lord our
God” (Psalm 85:8; 123:2; Habakkuk 2:1).
stands ready to obey:
Ø Whatever thou mayest direct.
Ø With my utmost strength.
Ø Promptly; without delay.
“When it pleased God to reveal his Son in me....immediately I conferred not
with flesh and blood....but I went” (Galatians 1:15-17). When Ledyard
(whose life was the first of many sacrificed to African discovery) closed
with the proposal of the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the
Inland Parts of Africa to undertake a journey in that region, and was asked
how soon he would be ready to set out, he replied, “Tomorrow morning.”
The like promptitude should be exhibited by every “good and faithful
THE MESSAGE TO ELI (vs. 11-18).
11 "And the LORD said to Samuel, Behold, I will do a
at which both the ears of every one that heareth it shall tingle."
Behold, I will do. Rather, I do, I am now doing. Though the
threatened ruin may be delayed for a few years, yet is it already in actual
progress, and the fall of Eli’s house will be but the consummation of causes
already now at work. At which both the ears of every one that heareth
it shall tingle. This implies the announcement of some event so frightful
and unlooked for that the news shall, as it were, slap both ears at once, and
make them smart with pain. And such an event was the capture of the ark,
and the barbarous destruction of the priests and sanctuary
phrase is again used of the destruction of
(II Kings 21:12; Jeremiah 19:3), a calamity which Jeremiah
compares to the fall of
both of these events involved the ruin of the central seat of the Jewish
religion, and were both accompanied by revolting cruelties.
12 "In that day I will perform against Eli all things which I have spoken
concerning his house: when I begin, I will also make an end."
I will perform. Literally, “I will raise up,” i.e. I will excite and
stir up into active energy all the denunciations of the man of God (ch. 2:27),
which hitherto have been as it were asleep and at rest. All things which.
Better, quite literally, all that I have spoken. When I begin,
I will also make an end. In the Hebrew two infinitives used as gerunds,
“beginning and ending,” i.e. from beginning to end. The Hebrew language
constantly thus uses infinitives with great force; as, for instance, in
Jeremiah 7:9: “What! stealing, murdering, committing adultery,” etc.
13 "For I have told him that I will judge his house for ever for the iniquity
which he knoweth; because his sons made themselves vile, and he restrained
them not." For I have told him, etc. These words may be translated, with
the Septuagint and Vulgate, “For I have told him that I would judge his
house,” referring back to the message of the man of God; or, with the
Syriac, “And I will show him that I do judge his house.” Forever. I.e.
finally; his house shall pass away. His sons made themselves vile. The
verb used here invariably means to curse; but “they cursed themselves”
does not, without straining, give a good sense. The Septuagint for
“themselves” reads God, and the Syriac the people. Buxtorf says (‘Lex.
Rab.,’ sub תִּקּוּן) that the right reading is me, and that this is one of
eighteen places where the scribes have changed me into themselves or
them. But while thus there is much uncertainty about the right text, the
evidence is too uncertain to act upon, and it is best to translate, “His sons
have brought a curse upon themselves,” while acknowledging that the
ordinary rendering would be “have cursed themselves.” And he restrained
them not. The Versions generally take the verb used here as equivalent to
one differing only in having a softer medial consonant, כהה = כאה, and
translate rebuked; but that really found in the Hebrew text signifies “to weaken,
humble, reduce to powerlessness.” The Authorized Version takes neither one
verb nor the other in the rendering restrained. Eli ought to have prevented
his sons from persisting in bringing disgrace upon God’s service by
stripping them of their office. Their wickedness was great, and required a
stern and decisive remedy.
Parental Restraint (v. 13)
“And he restrained them not.” The parental relation was universally
regarded in ancient times as one which involved a closer identity between
parents and children, and a more absolute authority on the part of the
former over the latter, than would now be deemed just. This fact explains
many occurrences in the sacred history. It also makes more apparent the
inexcusable conduct of Eli in omitting to restrain his sons from their evil
way. To every head of a family, however, belongs a certain measure of
authority, and he is responsible for its exercise in “commanding his children
and his household” (Genesis 18:19 – the testimony of God about Abraham –
this is what all parents should desire that God would say of them! – CY – 2016)
to do what is right, and restraining them from doing what is wrong. Concerning
PARENTAL RESTRAINT, observe that:
Ø Because of the strong tendency to evil which exists in children. However
it may be accounted for or explained, there can be no doubt of the fact. If it
be simply, as some say, a desire of self-gratification, and dislike of
everything that hinders it — self-will, it is necessary that it should be
checked; for those who are trained to deny themselves in very early life,
and submit to the will of their parents, are far more likely than others to
accept and submit to THE WILL OF GOD when they become conscious of it.
“In order to form the minds of children, the first thing to be done is to conquer
their will and bring them to an obedient temper. This is the only strong and
rational foundation of a religious education, without which both precept
and example will be ineffectual. As self-will is the root of all sin and misery,
so whatever cherishes this in children insures their after wretchedness and
irreligion; whatever checks and mortifies it promotes their future happiness
and piety” (The mother of the Wesleys).
Ø Because of the evil examples by which they are surrounded, and which
act so powerfully on their susceptibility to impression and their propensity
Ø Because of the manifold temptations to which they are exposed.
However guarded, they cannot be altogether kept from their influence.
“Train up a child in the way in which he should go: and when he is
old, he will not depart from it.” (Proverbs 22:6)
Ø It is obviously a part of parental duty.
Ø It is often enjoined in the word of God (Deuteronomy 21:15-21;
Proverbs 19:18; 23:13-14; 29:15, 17).
Ø It is clearly adapted to accomplish beneficial results (Proverbs 22:6).
It is thus a duty which parents owe not only to their children, but also
to the great Father of all, who, by the manner in which He deals with
His earthly children, has HIMSELF set them an example.
Ø Timely; commenced at an early age (Proverbs 13:24).
Ø Firm and just.
Ø With consideration, kindness, and patience (Ephesians 6:4;
“O’er wayward childhood wouldst thou hold firm rule,
And sun thee in the light of happy faces,
Love, hope, and patience, these must be thy graces,
And in thine own heart let them first keep school;
For as old Atlas on his broad neck places
Heaven’s starry globe, and there sustains it; so
Do these bear up the little world below
Of education — patience, love, and hope”
Ø To children (ch. 4:11).
Ø To parents (ibid. v. 18).
Ø To the nation (ibid. v. 22).
“Indulgent parents are cruel to themselves and their posterity” (Hall). How
numerous are the facts which justify these statements! “As in inviduals, so
in nations, unbridled indulgence of the passions must produce, and does
Ø slavery to the appetite of the moment;
Ø a brutalised and reckless temper, before which:
o national feeling, and
o any and every feeling which is not centered
in self, perishes utterly.
The old French noblesse gave a proof of this law which will last as a
warning beacon to the end of time. The Spanish population
am told, gives now a fearful proof of this same terrible penalty. Has not
LIFE is grounded on, is the development of, THE LIFE OF THE FAMILY!
And where the root is corrupt THE TREE MUST BE CORRUPT LIKEWISE
(Kingsley, ‘The Roman and the Teuton,’ Lect. 2). Therefore:
Ø let parents exercise due restraint over their children; and
Ø let children submit to the restraint of their parents (Exodus 20:12;
Leviticus 19:3; Proverbs 30:17; Jeremiah 35:18-19).
14 "And therefore I have sworn unto the house of Eli, that the iniquity
of Eli’s house shall not be purged with sacrifice nor offering for ever."
Sacrifice nor offering. The first of these is zebach, the
sacrifice of an animal by the shedding of its blood; the second is the
minchah, or unbloody sacrifice. The guilt of Eli’s sons could be purged,
i.e. expiated, by none of the appointed offerings for sin, because they had
hardened themselves in their wrong doing even after the solemn warning in
ch. 2:27-36. Hence the marked repetition of the denunciation of
finality in their doom. Again it is said that it is forever. It has, however,
been well noticed that though the message of Samuel confirms all that had
been threatened by the man of God, yet that no bitter or painful words are
put into the mouth of one who was still a child. For this there may also be a
further reason. The first message was intended to give Eli and his sons a
final opportunity of repentance, and, that it might produce its full effect,
the severity of the doom impending upon them was clearly set before their
eyes. THEY DID NOT REPENT! Eli hardened himself in his weakness, and
took no steps to vindicate God’s service from the slur cast upon it by an
unworthy priesthood. His sons hardened themselves in crime, and made
their office a reproach. It was enough, therefore, to repeat and confirm
generally the terms of the former prophecy, as no moral object would be
gained by calling attention to the severity of the coming judgment.
Privileges and Cares (vs. 11-14)
The one great fact here set forth is that God reveals to Samuel:
1. The judgment impending over the house of Eli, and its reasons.
2. That Eli had been already informed of its nature.
3. That the judgment when it comes will cause the most intense
waited on man. Now he is honored to hear the voice of God, and wait
directly on the Divine presence. His acquaintance with the history of his
race — acquired from his mother, and the conversation of Eli, and possibly
records in the tabernacle — must have caused him to know that, in being
thus called to listen to the voice of God, he was about to take rank among
the distinguished in
the purity of his nature and sense of unworthiness in the sight of God. The
question as to why God should raise a mere child to a position of such
importance may admit of partial answer in this instance, though there is
always in the Divine choice an element of wisdom which we cannot unfold.
If the regular officials of
the feeblest of instruments, and out of the ordinary course. And it might be
important for the new prophet to be properly installed and authenticated
before the aged judge passed away, and the ark of God fell into the hand of
the foe. It is always a season of solemn importance when a servant of God
enters on higher privileges, and becomes a special medium for reaching the
world with Divine truth. It may be, as in this case, in quietude, without the
knowledge of the restless world. In any instance is it a marked era in a
of Samuel’s service in the sanctuary he had been to Eli as a loving, dutiful,
reverent son. To his awakening piety and simple nature the aged high priest
would be the most august personage in the world, the representative of the
Most High. The quiet good nature of Eli in relation to himself would
impress the youthful mind very favorably. There would be in Samuel’s
deportment a tenderness and deference suited to age. It would therefore be
a terrible discovery to learn from the mouth of God that this revered man
was so guilty as to deserve chastisement most severe. The surface of life
was removed, and the object of love and reverence stood condemned. The
shock to a child’s sensibilities could not but be great at first. When
honored character is found to be blasted, the first impulse of the heart is
to give up faith in men and things. But well balanced holy minds, as was
Samuel’s, soon recover themselves. He felt that God must do right. His
horror of sin was in proportion to his purity of life. Therefore, with all the
awe, silent and loving, of a true child of God, he would grieve, yet feel that
God was wise and good. In more ordinary forms the same discovery is
sometimes made. Children have to learn now and then all at once that the
father is discovered to have lived a life of secret sin. The Church is
occasionally astounded by discoveries of character not suspected. Even the
disciples were unaware of the presence of a thief and traitor as their friend
and companion. How many characters have yet to be unveiled!
reasons why so terrible a revelation was made to the child prophet, one
might be found in the preparation it gave him for future anxieties. It is well
for youth and men to go forth to their career remembering that troubles
will come. Samuel’s knowledge that disasters of most painful character
were close at hand would be morally good and useful. For when cares
gather around the soul flees more earnestly to God. The same thing
occurred in the instance of the apostles. The honor conferred on them in
receiving the truth was weighted with the knowledge that “in the world”
they would “have tribulation.” (John 16:33) Every one who enters on a new
course of service must look for cares as part of the lot assigned; and the
prospect will not daunt the true heart, but bring it more into contact with
the SOURCE OF STRENGTH!
reflective, must have been struck with the exceeding deliberateness of the
Divine judgments. Here was a case of vile conduct long manifested, and
wicked irresolution to put it down; yet, instead of sudden and swift
punishment coming on father and sons, there is first a declaration to the
father that the judgment is coming, and that all is in train for it; then a lapse
of some little time, and a declaration to Samuel that the judgment is fixed
and sure; and after that a succession of events that must have occupied a
considerable time before the execution of the judgment (ch. 4:1-11).
This calm deliberateness of God is an awful thing for the guilty, and
may inspire the patience and hope of the righteous. It is to be seen:
in the predictions and
preparations for the destruction of
Ø in the steady wave of desolation and woe He in due time causes to
sweep over apostate nations;
Ø in the slow and sure approach of disaster on all who make wealth
by fraud, or barter His truth for gain; as, also,
Ø in the calm, orderly arrangement of laws by which ALL who have
despised the only Saviour reap the fruit of their ways. (I recommend
Proverbs ch 14 v14 – Spurgeon Sermon – How a Man’s Conduct Comes
Home to Him – this website – CY – 2016)
15 "And Samuel lay until the morning, and opened the doors of the
house of the LORD. And Samuel feared to shew Eli the vision."
Samuel… opened the doors. In Exodus 26:36: 36:37, the
word used, though translated door, really means an opening, protected by a
hanging curtain. The word used here means double or folding doors of
wood, and we must therefore conclude that solid buildings had grown up
round the tabernacle (see on ch.1:9), and a wall for its defense
in case of invasion, or the assault of predatory tribes. The confiding the
keys of these enclosures to Samuel shows that he was no longer a mere
child, or he would have been incapable of holding a position of such high
trust (on the key as an emblem of authority see Isaiah 22:22). Vision,
as noticed above on v. 10, means something seen by a person awake and
in full possession of his senses.
16 “Then Eli called Samuel, and said, Samuel, my son. And he answered,
Here am I. 17 And he said, What is the thing that the LORD hath said unto
thee? I pray thee hide it not from me: God do so to thee, and more also,
if thou hide any thing from me of all the things that He said unto thee.
18 And Samuel told him every whit, and hid nothing from him. And
he said, It is the LORD: let Him do what seemeth Him good."
God do so to thee, etc. This adjuration shows how great had been the agony of
Eli’s suspense, yet, true to his sluggish nature, he had waited patiently till the
morning came. Then he summons Samuel to him, calling him lovingly my son,
and everything tends to show that there was a real affection between the two.
He next asks, What is the thing that He hath said unto thee? The Authorized
Version greatly weakens this by inserting the words “The Lord.” The original is
far more suggestive. Put quite indefinitely, it says, “Whoever or whatsoever be
thy visitor, yet tell me all.” Then, when Eli has heard the message, he says,
It is Jehovah. Though he had not had the courage to do what was right, yet his
submission to God, and the humility of his resignation, prove that the Holy Ghost
had in these years of waiting being doing His work upon the old man’s heart. Eli’s
adjuration, we must further note, was equivalent to putting Samuel upon his oath,
so that any concealment on his part would have involved the sin of perjury.
The Old Priest and the Child Prophet (vs. 1-18)
Every imagination must be struck by the contrast between the old man and
the child. The more so, that the natural order of things is reversed. Instead
of admonition to the child coming through the lips of age, admonition to
the aged came through the lips of childhood.
Ø His good points. The Lord had ceased to speak to or by Eli; but when
the old priest perceived that the Lord had spoken to the child, he showed
no personal or official jealousy. On the contrary, he kindly encouraged
Samuel, and directed him how to receive the heavenly message. He did not
attempt to interpose on the ground that he, as the chief priest, was the
official organ of Divine communications, but bade the child lie still and
hearken to the voice. Nor did he claim any preference on the ground of his
venerable age. It is not easy to look with complacency on one much
younger than ourselves who is evidently on the way to excel us in our own
special province. But Eli did so, and threw no hindrance whatever in the
way of the young child. Let God use as His seer or prophet whom He
would. Eli was anxious to know the truth, and the whole truth, from the
mouth of the child. He had been previously warned by a man of God of the
disaster which his own weakness and his sons’ wickedness would bring on
the priestly line (ch. 2:27-36). But the evil of the time was too
strong for him; and having effected no reform in consequence of that
previous warning, the old man must have foreboded some message of
reproof and judgment when the voice in the night came not to himself, but
to the child. Yet he was not false to God, and would not shrink from
hearing truth, however painful. “I pray thee hide it not from me.” He
meekly acquiesced in the condemnation of his house. Eli had no sufficient
force of character or vigor of purpose to put away the evil which had
grown to such enormity under his indulgent rule, but he was ready with a
sort of plaintive surrender to Divine justice. It was not a high style of
character, but at all events it was vastly better than a self-justifying,
God-resisting mood of mind.
Ø His faults. No meek language, no pious acquiescence in his sentence,
can extenuate the grievous injury which, through indecision and infirmity,
had brought on
His virtues may almost be said to have sprung out of his faults. He was
benevolent, submissive, and free from jealousy because he had no force, no
intensity. He could lament and suffer well because he had no energy. So he
commanded little respect because, instead of checking evil, he had
connived at it for a quiet life. “There are persons who go through life
sinning and sorrowing, sorrowing and sinning. No experience teaches
them. Torrents of tears flow from their eyes. They are full of eloquent
regrets. But all in vain. When they have done wrong once they do wrong
What are such persons
to be in the next life? Where will the
this world be? God only knows “(Robertson).
“little Samuel” the beginnings of a great character, prognostics of an
illustrious career. The child was courageous, not afraid to sleep in one of
the priest’s chambers alone, no father or mother near. And he was dutiful
to the aged Eli, hastening to him when he thought that he had called in the
night; and considerate to his feelings, reluctant to tell him in the morning
the heavy judgments of which God had spoken. From that night he began
to be a prophet. Very soon were the hopes of Hannah for her son fulfilled,
nay, surpassed. “Samuel grew, and the Lord was with him, and did let none
of his words fall to the ground.” The nature of the first communication
made through Samuel gave some indication of the future strain of his
prophetic life and testimony. He was not to be one of those, like Isaiah,
Daniel, and Zechariah, whose prophecies and visions reached far forward
into future times. His function was more like that of Moses, Elijah, or
Jeremiah, as a teacher of private and public righteousness. He was destined
to maintain the law and authority of God, to rebuke iniquity, to check and
even sentence transgressors in high places, to withstand the current of
degeneracy, and insist on the separation of
nations and their customs. The pith of his life ministry lay in his urgency for
PUBLIC SERVANTS. It is acknowledged that some who have been
eminently useful in Christian times have been converted in manhood, and
their earlier life may seem to have been lost. Paul was so converted. So
was Augustine. But these really form no exception to the rule that God
directs the training of His servants from childhood. Paul had a good Jewish
Rabbinical education, and, besides this, an acquaintance with Greek
literature and forms of thought. Having been brought up a Pharisee, he was
the more fitted after his conversion to estimate at its full force that Jewish
resistance to Christianity on the ground of law righteousness which he
above all men combated. At the same time, knowing the world, and being
from his youth up cultivated and intelligent according to the Greek
standard, he was prepared to be, after his conversion, a most suitable
apostle of Christ to the Gentiles. A similar process of preparation may be
traced in Augustine. His early studies in logic and rhetoric prepared him,
though he knew it not, to become a great Christian dialectician; and even
the years in which he served his own youthful passions were not without
yielding some profit, inasmuch as they intensified his knowledge of the
power of SIN, and ultimately of the sin vanquishing power of GRACE!
By far the greater number of those who have served the Lord as prophets,
preachers, or pastors of His flock, have been nourished up for such service
from early years, though they knew it not. Some of them went first to other
callings. John Chrysostom was at the bar; Ambrose in the civil service,
rising to be prefect of
Melancthon, a professor of Greek. Moses himself grew up a scholar and a
soldier, and no one who saw him in the court of Egypt could have guessed
his future career. But in such cases God guided His servants in youth
through paths of knowledge and experience which were of utmost value to
them when they found at last their real life work for His name. There is
danger, however, in sudden transitions from one walk of life to another,
and from one mold of character to another. It is the danger of
extravagance. There is a proverb about the excessive zeal of sudden
converts; and there is this measure of truth in it, that persons who rapidly
change their views or their position need some lapse of time, and some
inward discipline, before they learn calmness, religious self-possession, and
meekness of wisdom. It is therefore worthy of our notice that God gave
Moses a long pause in the
three years). We return to the fact that the great majority of God’s servants in
the gospel have grown up with religious sentiments and desires from their very
childhood. So it was with John the Baptist, with Timothy, with Basil, with
Jerome, with Bernard of Clairvaux, with Columba, with Usher, with
Zinzendorf, with Bengel, and many more. So it was with Samuel. His first
lessons were from the devout and gifted Hannah in the quiet home at
Ramah. From his earliest consciousness he knew that he was to be the
Lord’s, and a specially consecrated servant or Nazarite. Then he was taken
Early in his life he had to see evil among those who ought to have shown
the best example. He had to see what mischief is wrought by relaxation of
morals among the rulers of what we should call Church and State, so that
an abhorrence of such misconduct might be deeply engraved on his
untainted soul. But at the same time Samuel grew up in daily contact with
holy things. The sacred ritual, which was no more than a form to the
wicked priests, had an elevating and purifying influence on the serious
spirit of this child. And so it was that Samuel, conversant day by day with
holy names and symbols, took a mold of character in harmony with these
— took it gradually, firmly, unalterably. It gave steadiness to his future
ministry; for he was to retrieve losses, assuage excitements, re-establish
justice, reprove, rebuke, and exhort the people and their first king. Such a
ministry needed a character of steady growth, and the personal influence
which attends a consistent life. So the Lord called Samuel when a child,
and he answered, “Speak; for thy servant heareth.” May God raise up
young children among us to quit themselves hereafter as men — to redress
wrongs, establish truth and right, heal divisions, reform the Church, and
pave the way for the coming King and the kingdom!
Samuel’s Call to the Prophetic Office (vs. 1-18)
“The Lord called Samuel” (v. 4).
The lamp of God was burning bright;
And there, by viewless angels kept,
Samuel, the child, securely slept.
A voice unknown the stillness broke,
‘Samuel!’ it called, and thrice it spoke.
He rose — he asked whence came the word.
From Eli? No; it was the Lord.
Thus early called to serve his God,
In paths of righteousness he trod;
Prophetic visions fired his breast,
And all the chosen tribes were blessed”
1. This call to the prophetic office took place at a time of great moral and
spiritual darkness. “The word of the Lord” (the revelation of His mind and
will to men) “was rare in those days; for” (therefore, as the effect; or
because, as the evidence of the absence of such revelation) “there was no
vision” (prophetic communication) “spread abroad” among the people
(v. 1; II Chronicles 31:5).
(1) his ignorance of the highest truths, and
(2) his inability to attain the knowledge of them by his own
and most destructive (Proverbs 29:18).
2. It was the commencement of a fresh series of Divine communications,
which culminated in the teaching of the great Prophet, “who spake as never
man spake” (John 7:46; Acts 3:24; Hebrews 1:1-2). This is the chief general
significance of the event. The call of Samuel to be the prophet and judge
3. It was given to one who was very young (twelve years old, according to
Josephus, when childhood merges into youth; Luke 2:42), and who
held the lowest place in the tabernacle, where Eli held the highest, but who
was specially prepared for the work to which he was called. “Shadows of
impenitent guilt were the dark background of the picture from which the
beams of Divine love which guided that child of grace shone forth in
brighter relief” (
4. It came in a manner most adapted to convince Eli and Samuel that it was
indeed from the Lord (v. 8), and to answer its immediate purpose in
regard to both. Notice:
Ø It was heard in the temple (vs. 2-3), or palace of the invisible King of
Exodus 25:22; Hebrews 9:5); not now, however, addressing
the high priest, but a child, as a more loyal subject, and more susceptible
to Divine teaching (Matthew 11:25-26).
Ø It broke suddenly on the silence and slumbers of the night; “ere the lamp
of God went out,” i.e. toward the morning — a season suitable to deep and
solemn impression. “Untroubled night, they say, gives counsel best.” The
“seven lamps of fire,” was burning dimly, and the dawn of a new day was
Ø It called Samuel by name, not merely as a means of arousing him, but as
indicating the Lord’s intimate knowledge of his history and character
(John 10:3), and His claims upon His special service. The All-seeing has
a perfect knowledge of each individual soul, and deals with it accordingly.
Ø It was often relocated, with ever increasing impressiveness. Natural
dullness in the discernment of spiritual things renders necessary the
repetition of God’s call to men, and his patience is wonderfully shown in
Ø It was in the last instance accompanied by an appearance. “Jehovah
came, and stood, and called” (v. 10). Probably in glorious human form,
as in former days. Allied to our nature by engagement and anticipation,
the eternal Word occasionally assumed its prophetic semblance before He
dwelt on earth in actual incarnate life. There could now be no doubt
whence the voice proceeded; and even the delay which had occurred must
have served to waken up all the faculties of the child into greater activity,
and prepare him for the main communication he was about to receive.
Ø He did not at first recognize the voice as God’s, but thought it was Eli’s
(vs. 4-6). For “he did not yet know the Lord” by direct and conscious
revelation, “neither was the Word of the Lord revealed to him” (literally,
made bare, disclosed; as a secret told in the ear, which has been
uncovered by turning back the hair — ch. 9:15; Job 33:16) as it was
afterwards (v. 21). We must not think that Samuel was then ignorant of the
true God, but that he knew not the manner of that voice by which the
prophetical spirit was wont to awaken the attention of the prophets.
“God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not” (Job 33:14).
How often is His voice deemed to be only the voice of man!
Ø He acted up to the light he had (vs. 7-8). Three times his rest was
broken by what he thought was the voice of Eli; three times he ran to him
obediently, uncomplainingly, promptly; and three times he “went and lay
down in his place” as he was bidden. The spirit which he thus displayed
prepared him for higher instruction.
Ø He obeyed the direction given him by the high priest (v. 9). Although
Eli could not himself hear the voice, yet he perceived that it was heard by
another, showed no indignation or envy at the preference shown toward
him, and taught him to listen to the Lord for himself, and what be should
say in response. He showed himself a better tutor than he was a parent.
Ø He responded in a spirit of reverence, humility, and obedience to the
voice that now uttered his name twice (v. 10). “Speak; for thy servant
heareth.” His omission of the name “Jehovah” was perhaps due to his
overwhelming astonishment and reverence But he confessed himself to be
His servant, virtually ratifying of his own accord his dedication to His
service, and testified his readiness to “hear and obey.” Oh, what an hour is
that in which the presence of the Lord is first manifested in living force to
the soul! and what a change does it produce in all the prospects and
purposes of life! (Genesis 28:16-17).
Ø It differed from the message of the “man of God” (ch. 2:27),which had come
some time previously, in that it was more brief, simple, and severe; and was
given to Samuel alone, without any express direction to make it known to
Eli, who seems to have paid no regard to the warning he previously received.
Ø It was an announcement of judgment on the house of Eli which would
o Very startling and horrifying to men (v. 11).
o The fulfillment of the word which had been already spoken (v. 12).
o Complete. “When I begin, I will also make an end.”
o Righteously deserved, inasmuch as his sons had grievously sinned,
and he knew it as well as the approaching judgment, and restrained
them not (v. 13; James 4:17). “Sinners make themselves vile
(literally, curse themselves), and those who do not reprove them
make themselves accessaries” (Matthew Henry).
o Permanent and irrevocable. “Forever.” “I have sworn,” etc. (v. 14).
Ø It was very painful to Samuel because it was directed “against Eli” (v. 12 —
as well as his house), for whom he entertained a deep and tender
affection. The “burden of the Lord” was heavy for a child to bear. It was
his first experience of the prophet’s cross, but it prepared him for his future
Ø It put his character to a severe test, by leaving to his discretion the use
which he should make of so terrible a communication. Wisdom and grace
are as much needed in using God’s communications as in receiving and
responding to his voice.
Ø It was not made hastily or rashly (v. 15). “He lay down till the
morning,” pondering the communication; he suffered it not to interfere
with the duty that lay immediately before him, but rose and “opened the
doors of the house” as usual, though with a heavy heart; and exhibited
great calmness, self-control, discretion, and considerate reserve. He “feared
to show Eli the vision” lest he should be grieved, or take it in a wrong
Ø It was only made under strong pressure (vs. 16-17). “Samuel, my
son” (B’ni), said Eli; and how much is expressed by this one word!
He asked, he demanded, he adjured.
Ø It was made truthfully, faithfully, and without any reserve (v. 18).
Ø It was followed by a beneficial effect. Not, indeed, in rousing the high
priest to strenuous efforts for the reformation of his house, which he
probably deemed impossible, but in leading him to acknowledge that it was
the Lord who had spoken, and to resign himself to His will. No such effect
followed the warning previously addressed to him. A similar spirit was
o Aaron (Leviticus 10:3),
o Job 1:21,
o David (II Samuel 18:14-15, 32-33),
o Hezekiah (II Kings 20:19), and, above all
o by the great High Priest Himself (Matthew 26:42).
No other Divine message came apparently to Eli or his house. Henceforth
there was only the silence that precedes the thunderstorm and the earthquake.
Resignation (v. 18)
“It is the Lord: let Him do what seemeth Him good.” The sentence which
was pronounced on Eli and his house was almost as severe as can be
conceived. But the manner in which it was received by him shows that,
notwithstanding the defects of his character, he possessed the “spirit of
faith,” which shone like a spark of fire amidst the ashes and gloom of his
closing days. He did not refuse to admit its Divine Author, did not question
its justice, did not rebel against it and seek to reverse it, did not fret and
murmur and give himself up to despair. His language expresses a spirit the
exact opposite of all this. When Samuel had told him every whit, Eli
replied, “It is the Lord.” The highest religion could say no more. What more
can there be than surrender to the will of God? In that one brave sentence
you forget all Eli’s vacillation. Free from envy, free from priest-craft,
earnest, humbly submissive; that is the bright side of Eli’s character, and
the side least known or thought of.
or “He is the Lord,” who has spoken. He believed that the voice was really
Ø it came to him indirectly — through the agency of another;
Ø it came in an unexpected manner; and
Ø it announced what he naturally disliked to hear, and what was most
grievous. These things sometimes dispose men to doubt “the word of the
Lord,” and are made excuses for rejecting it. It is not, in its mode of
communication or in its contents, “according to their mind.” But the spirit
of faith ventures not to dictate to God how or what He shall say, and it
perceives the Divine voice when those who are destitute of it perceive only
what is purely natural and human. (I Corinthians 2:14)
Ø Is implied in the acknowledgment that it comes from Jehovah, who
alone is holy (ch. 2:2). “Shall not the Judge of all the earth do
right?” (Genesis 18:25).
Ø Proceeds from the conviction that it is deserved on account of the
iniquity of his sons, and his own sins of omission (Lamentations 3:39;
Micah 7:9). They who have a due sense of the evil of sin are not
disposed to complain of the severity of the sentence pronounced against it.
Ø Is not the less real because not fully expressed, for silence itself is often
the most genuine testimony to the perfect equity of the Divine procedure.
“Aaron held his peace” (Leviticus 10:3; Psalm 39:9, 11).
what seemeth Him good.”
Ø Very reverently and humbly (I Peter 5:6). It is vain to contend
Ø Freely and cheerfully; not because He cannot be effectually resisted, but
because what He does is right and good; the spontaneous surrender and
sacrifice of the will.
Ø Entirely. “The will of the Lord be done” (Acts 21:14).
the word of the Lord” (II Kings 20:19). Eli could not have spoken as he
did unless he believed that:
Ø God is merciful and gracious;
Ø in wrath remembers mercy, mitigating the force of the storm to all
who seek shelter in His bosom; and
Ø “out of evil still educes good” (Romans 8:28). Let us be thankful
for the surpassing motives and influences afforded to us under the gospel
(II Corinthians 4:17; Hebrews 4:15; 12:10-11; Revelation 21:4; 22:3).
ESTABLISHMENT OF SAMUEL IN THE OFFICE OF PROPHET
(v.19 – ch. 4:1).
19 "And Samuel grew, and the LORD was with him, and did let none
of His words fall to the ground." And Samuel grew. His childhood up to
this time has been carefully kept before our view; now he passes from youth to
manhood. And Jehovah was with him. By special gifts, but especially by
establishing His words. Spoken by Divine inspiration, they were all fulfilled.
So in Ecclesiastes 12:11 the words of the wise are compared to “nails
fastened” securely, and which may therefore be depended upon. But in
their case it is experience and sound judgment that makes them foresee
what is likely to happen; it was a higher gift which made Samuel’s words
remain safe and sure, and capable of firmly holding up all enterprises that
were hung upon them.
20 "And all
established to be a prophet of the LORD." From Dan, upon the north,
to Beersheba, upon the south, means “throughout the whole country.” The
phrase is interesting, as showing that, in spite of the virtual independence
of the tribes, and the general anarchy which prevailed during the time of the
judges, there was nevertheless a feeling that they all formed one people.
Was established. The same word used in Numbers 12:7 of Moses, and there
translated was faithful. It is one of those pregnant words common in Hebrew,
containing two cognate meanings. It says:
· first, that Samuel was faithful in his office; and,
· secondly, that because he was found trustworthy he was
confirmed and strengthened in the possession of it.
21 "And the LORD appeared again in
Himself to Samuel in Shiloh by the word of the LORD."
And Jehovah appeared again. Literally, “added to appear,”
i.e. revealed Himself from time to time on all fit occasions. To appear,
literally, “to be seen,” is the verb used of waking vision (see on v. 15).
By the word of Jehovah. Many of the old commentators refer this to the
second person of the Holy Trinity, but He is Himself Jehovah, as we affirm
in the Te Deum: “We believe thee to be the Lord,” i.e. the Jehovah of the
Old Testament, usually translated, in deference to a Jewish superstition,
“the LORD.” As the Word, Christ is “the Word of God.” The phrase really
means, “by prophetic inspiration” revealing to Samuel the truth (compare
Isaiah 51:16; Jeremiah 1:9).
Diverse Experiences (vs. 15-21)
The principal facts are:
1. Samuel, on entering upon his daily duties, fears to relate to Eli what had
been told him.
2. Eli, under the action of conscience, and convinced that something
important has been communicated, employs strong pressure to obtain it
3. Eli, hearing the account, recognizes the righteousness of the judgment.
4. Samuel’s position as prophet is established through the land.
Samuel rose a new youth. During one night events had transpired which gave him
a new position, wrought a change in his views and feelings, and tinged his
life with a great sorrow. Weary with nervous exhaustion, and haunted by
the thought of a sad discovery, it was no wonder if he moved more
languidly than usual. The brief narrative sets before us a group of facts
resulting from the communications made to him during the night.
duty to discharge. The old man, weak with weight of years and sorrowful
in heart, has to be informed of the seal put on his doom. “No prophecy is
of private interpretation” applies here in the sense that Samuel’s increased
knowledge was not intended as a mere secret for himself. Duties are real
though not imposed in form of words, and the sensitive spirit quickly
recognizes them. The eagerness of Eli to learn all that had been
communicated left Samuel no option. Thus duties spring up as soon as
increased knowledge is a fact; and when God puts honor on us we must
be prepared to face fresh obligations. But duty arising naturally out of new
relations is sometimes counter to legitimate feelings. “Samuel feared to
show Eli the vision.” His quick sense saw, as soon as he awoke that day,
that he would have to relate a painful story. The natural shrinking of a
kindly heart from the infliction of a wound would become more marked as
an eager request was made for information. He knew that Eli would be
filled with anguish, both because of the coming doom and the present
virtual substitution of another in his place as medium of Divine
communication. It is human to dread the infliction of humiliation and pain.
There is a lawful sympathy with suffering and pity for disgrace. The judge
may weep in passing sentence of death, and yet be a perfect judge. A
parent’s heart may righteously bleed at the thought of administering severe
chastisement. Duty is not confronted by feeling as a foe. Even Christ
shrank from taking the cup which a Father’s will ordained. But
disagreeable duty is met fully by the supremacy of sense of right. Feeling
is suppressed, regard for truth is strong, and immediate and future
consequences are left to God. Samuel kept nothing back. Herein lies the
triumph of duty. The moral victories of life may be won by the young and
inexperienced; for the secret lies not in vast knowledge and critical skill,
but in a sound heart, swayed by supreme regard for God.
curiosity that induced the inquiry of Eli. His strong language, almost
amounting to a threat, revealed an internal conflict. Conscience is quick in
arousing suspicions. Did the aged man half hope that some relaxation of
the sentence already passed would come? Did the alternate feeling arise
that the specific hour of punishment had been announced? The presence of
an uneasy conscience is a fearful bane in life. No age, no past reputation,
no external honors, no orificial dignity, no formal employment in religious
duties, can give exemption from it where sin has been deliberately
indulged. It is as an enemy in the home, a spoiler in a city, a ghost along
one’s pathway. What a power for misery lies in some men! How easily it is
aroused by passing events! How it makes men quiver even in the presence
of children! How possible it is for even good men to embitter old age by
pangs which God will not assuage on this side the grave! How unspeakably
blessed they who keep a clean conscience, or have found cleansing and rest
cherished a faint hope that the execution of the sentence against him,
already deferred, would be either set aside or modified, all hope vanished
as he listened to the simple narrative of Samuel. The terrible tension of his
spirit was at once relaxed, and with a reverence and awe which revealed
that the religious life, though sadly injured, was true, he could only say, “It
is the Lord: let Him do what seemeth Him good.” Poor old man! A study
for others in responsible
positions in the
him that he could thus speak, and give to the saints of all time a form of
words exactly suited to them when adversity falls and the heart sinks
within. God is merciful even in the chastisement of His erring people, giving
them grace to bow submissively to His righteous will. Well is it when men
can kiss the rod that smites them! There are, at least, four characteristics
in a true submission to the inevitable.
Ø A distinct recognition of God’s acts. “It is the Lord.” No mere blind
working of laws, though forces do sweep on bringing desolation to the
soul. The true spirit sees God in all the trouble.
Ø An absence of all complaint. “It is the Lord.” That is enough. “The
Lord” known in
land for his rashness; “the Lord” who raises to honor and crowns life with
good, and has only been known as faithful, holy, just, and good. Not a
murmur, not a bitter word or resentful feeling, finds place in true submission.
Ø Conformity to the stroke. “Let Him do.” The back is bared to the rod. It
is duty and privilege to wish none other than the execution of His purpose.
Ø Belief that all is for good. “Let Him do what seemeth Him good.”
“Though He slay me, yet will I trust Him.” (Job 13:15) Chastisement of
the good, and also direct punishment of the wicked, are in the judgment of
God good. True submission acquiesces in that judgment. Such has been the
submission of the saints in ancient and modern times; and pre-eminently,
and with reference to special sorrows, of Him who, when bearing a burden
which others deserved: said, “Father, not my will, but thine be done.”
painful duty was a good beginning of an official life. He was furnished with
the special knowledge requisite to the emergency of the time. The repeated
secret vision in
the people, gave him courage, and secured his recognition in the place of
Eli. Thus three elements enter into the gradual acquisition of a reputation.
Ø Fidelity in discharge of known duty. This gives power to the soul for
any further duty, however unpleasant. Temptations overcome in one
instance lose force afterwards. Sense of right gains energy in action by
each exercise. The basis of substantial character is laid in acts of
Ø Continuous help from God. We cannot go on to new conquests by the
mere force of what we have become by previous deeds. As Samuel needed
and enjoyed aid from God for his position in life, so every one can only
acquire a solid reputation by looking for and using such aid as God may
see fit to bestow day by day.
Ø Continued verification of profession by deeds corresponding thereto. A
character attained to by faithful deeds in the past, aided by Divine grace,
becomes practically a profession. It is the exponent of principles supposed
to be dominant in the life, and men give a certain value to it. But if
reputation is to grow and become broader in its base and wider in its
influence, the profession of principles of conduct must be verified
constantly by actions appropriate to them. (I have heard “It takes
a lifetime to gain a reputation but only a moment to lose it!: - (CY –
Ø It is of extreme importance for young and old to cultivate a rigid regard
for truth, combined with a tender consideration of human feeling.
Ø The discharge of disagreeable duties is greatly helped by the
remembrance that they arise out of the circumstances in which God
Himself has placed us.
Ø We should distinguish between wise submission to what God lays on us
for discipline, and indolent acquiescence in circumstances self-created, and
largely removable by our efforts.
Samuel the Prophet (v. 19- ch. 4:1)
“A prophet of the Lord” (v. 20). “A prophet was a man who drew aside
the curtain from the secret counsels of Heaven. He declared or made public
the previously hidden truths of God; and, because future events might
chance to involve Divine truth, therefore a revealer of future events might
happen to be a prophet. Yet, still, small was the part of a prophet’s
functions which contained the foreshadowing of events, and not necessarily
any part of it” (De Quincey, ‘Confessions,’ p. 27). The greatest of
prophets, and more than a prophet, was Moses (Numbers 12:6-8;
Deuteronomy 18:15; 34:9). After him a prophet arose at rare intervals.
With Samuel, who was second only to Moses, a new prophetic era began.
He was called to a permanent prophetic work; a type of the future line of
the prophets which he virtually founded, and set for all time the great
example of the office of a prophet of the Lord. In Samuel — Levite,
Nazarite, at the sanctuary of
mightier prophetic power — were united from the first all spiritual gifts
most potent for the welfare of the people, and under his powerful control
stood the wheels on which the age revolved He was truly the father of all
the great prophets who worked such wonders in the ensuing centuries.
The summary of his prophetic activity here given leads us to consider:
him” (v. 19). “And
the Lord appeared again in
Himself to Samuel in
Ø The possession of a holy character, which was the general condition of
prophetic endowment. At the time of his call Samuel entered into a higher
knowledge of God, and a closer fellowship with Him than he had before; he
gradually advanced therein, and his character became more and more
perfect. “Equable progression from the beginning to the end was the
special characteristic of his life.” “The qualifications which the Jewish
doctors suppose necessarily antecedent to render any one habilem ad
prophetandum are truly probity (the quality of having strong moral principles;
honesty and decency) and piety; and this was the constant sense
and opinion of them all universally, not excluding the vulgar themselves”
(John Smith, ‘Sel. Disc.’ p. 250).
Ø The revelation to him of the Divine word — by voices, visions, insight,
intuition, inspiration (v. 7). “For the prophecy came not in old time by
the will of man; but holy men of God spake as they were moved (borne
along as a ship by the wind) by the Holy Ghost” (II Peter 1:21). The
communications of God to men have been made in many ways (by dreams,
by Urim, by prophecy), and one communication faithfully received and
used has prepared the way for another. How long after the Lord first
appeared to Samuel He “appeared again” to him is not stated.
Ø The conviction of its Divine origin, amounting to absolute certainty, and
impelling him to speak and act in accordance with the revelation he
He had not only to receive the word from God, but also to utter it to
men. He was a spokesman for God, a messenger or interpreter of the
Ø The nature and purpose of his vocation were:
o The communication of doctrine; the teaching of moral and spiritual
truth; the declaration of the mind and will of the invisible and eternal King,
with special reference to the requirements of the time in which he lived. He
was a witness of the presence and government of Jehovah:
§ His nature and character,
§ His hatred of sin and love of righteousness,
§ His dissatisfaction with merely formal and ceremonial services,
§ His opposition to idolatry,
§ His gifts, claims, and purposes with respect to His people.
The prophetic order in its highest signification was nothing else than a
living witness for those eternal principles of righteousness which previous
revelation had implanted in the Hebrew race, and through them in the life
o The enforcement of practice, by urgent appeals to the conscience, and
presenting powerful motives of gratitude for past benefits, hope of future
good, and fear of future evil. The prophets, beside their communication of
doctrine, had another and a direct office to discharge as pastors and
ministerial monitors of the people of God. Their work was to:
§ admonish and reprove,
§ arraign for every ruling sin,
§ blow the trumpet of repentance, and
§ shake the terrors of the Divine judgment over a guilty land.
Often they bore the message of consolation or pardon; rarely, if ever, of
public approbation or praise.
o The prediction of things to come; not simply general results of good or
evil conduct, but specific events that could not have been known except by
Divine inspiration (ch. 7:4; 10:2; 12:17; 13:14); an element
which became more prominent in subsequent times — the things to come
having relation to the setting up of a kingdom of heaven on earth. We need
not here dwell upon other matters connected with and growing out of the
prophetic vocation of Samuel, viz.,
§ his offering sacrifice;
§ his civil magistracy;
§ his presiding over the “school of the prophets;”
§ his recording the events of his time (I Chronicles 29:29).
Ø The persons whom his vocation immediately concerned.
o The people and the elders of Israel — directing them what to do,
exhorting them to forsake their sins, sometimes opposing and condemning
His business was to keep all
for which they had been made a nation.
o The priesthood, as in the case of Eli and his sons.
o The king — teaching him that he was a servant of Jehovah, appointed
by Him, and bound to obey His laws, and when He departed from them
denouncing his disobedience. Under the protection generally, though not
always effectual, of their sacred character the prophets were a power in the
nation often more than a match for kings and priests, and kept up in that
little corner in the earth the antagonism of influences which is the only real
security for continued progress The remark of a distinguished Hebrew, that
the prophets were in Church and State equivalent to the modern liberty of
the press, gives a just but not an inadequate conception of the part fulfilled
in national and universal history by this great element of Jewish life” (J.S.
Mill, ‘Representative Government,’ p. 41). (If so, isn’t it noteworthy of
how unfaithful the press has come to be today? I saw on TV today,
May 31, 2016, a
candidate for the presidency of the
Trump, chastise the press for knowing participating in lies! - CY)
Ø The manner in which it was fulfilled:
o diligently (Jeremiah 23:28;
o negligently (ibid. ch. 48:10);
o faithfully (not according to his own natural wishes,
but God’s will);
o fearlessly; established and found trustworthy (ch. 2:35; Numbers 12:7)
o fully (not shunning to declare all the counsel of God - Deuteronomy
4:2; Acts 20:27).
his words fall to the ground” (but made them stand firmly, or attain their
aim like an arrow which hits the mark — v. 19). He attested, sealed him
as His messenger —
Ø By bringing to pass the good or evil foretold by him (Numbers 22:6).
Ø By providential and even miraculous occurrences, indicating His
approval (ch. 7:10; 12:18).
Ø By clothing his word with power, so that it was felt by those to whom it
was addressed to be the word of the Lord; for there is something Divine
within which responds to the Divine without, and every one who is truthful
perceives and obeys the voice of ETERNAL TRUTH! (John 18:37).
knew that Samuel was established to be a prophet of the Lord” (v. 20).
The Divine word was NO MORE RARE! (v. 1)
Ø His authority was universally admitted. It was familiarly known
throughout the land that he had been appointed as a regular medium of
communication between Jehovah and His people.
Ø His utterances were widely disseminated, and regarded with reverence.
word of Samuel came to all
Ø His work thereby became highly effective. Its full effect appeared long
afterwards. But even before the blow of judgment, which he predicted, fell
(some ten years after his call), he doubtless labored not in vain; and
during the succeeding twenty years (ch. 7:2) he spent his time in a slow
but resolute work of kindling the almost extinguished flame of
HIGHER LIFE IN
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