I Timothy 1

 

 

1 “Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the commandment of God our Saviour,

and Lord Jesus Christ, which is our hope;”  For the inscription, compare Romans

1:1, 5; I Corinthians 1:1; II Corinthians 1:1; Galatians 1:1; Ephesians 1:1; Colossians

1:1; II Timothy 1:1; Titus 1:1; in all which Paul asserts his apostleship, and ascribes it

directly to “the will of God” (compare Galatians 1:11-12). By (according to)

 the commandment (as Titus 1:3) expresses the same truth, but possibly with a more

direct reference to the command, “Separate me Paul and Barnabas,” recorded in

Acts 13:2. This assertion of his apostolic authority indicates that this is not a private

letter to Timothy, but a public Church document for all time. Our hope (compare

Colossians 1:27; Acts 28:20).

 

2 “Unto Timothy, my own son in the faith: Grace, mercy, and peace,

from God our Father and Jesus Christ our Lord.” GOD, THE FATHER,

SON AND HOLY GHOST gave Paul his original appointment.  My own son

in the faith-  (My true child in faith). A most awkward phrase, which can only

mean that Timothy was Paul’s true child because his faith was equal to Paul’s, which

is not  Paul’s meaning. Timothy was  Paul’s own son, because he had begotten him in

the gospel (I Corinthians 4:14-16; Philemon 1:10) — his spiritual son. This is best

expressed as in the Authorized Version by “in the faith” (compare Titus 1:4, where the

same idea is expressed by kata< koinh<n pi>stin - kata koinaen pistinaccording

to common belief; faith). Grace, mercy, and peace. This varies from the blessing at

the beginning of the Epistles to the Romans, Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians,

Philippians, Colossians, and Thessalonians, by the addition of the word

mercy,” as in II Timothy 1:2 and Titus 1:4 in the Textus Receptus, and also in

II John 1:3 and Jude 1:2. It seems in St. Paul to connect itself with that deeper

sense of the need and of the enjoyment of mercy which went with his

deepening sense of sin as he drew towards his end, and harmonizes

beautifully with what he says in vs. 12-16. The analogy of the other

forms of blessing quoted above strongly favors the sense our Father rather

than the Father. Whether we read hJmw~n haemonour - or omit it,

the idea of Father is contrasted, not with that of Son, but with that of

Lord; the two words express the relation of the Persons of the Godhead,

not to each other, but to the Church.

 

3 “As I besought thee to abide still at Ephesus, when I went into

Macedonia, that thou mightest charge some that they teach no

other doctrine,” – Besought – exhorted in the Revised Version –

(pareka>lesa - parekalesa). In about sixty places this word has the sense

of “beseech,” “entreat,” “desire,” “pray,” which is more suitable to this

passage than exhort. It is a strong expression, and seems to imply that Timothy

had been anxious to go with  Paul to Macedonia, to share his labors and wait

upon him; but that Paul, with that noble disinterestedness which characterized his

whole life, had, not without difficulty, persuaded him to abide at Ephesus. Abide.

The exact sense of prosmei~nai prosmeinai - is “to stay on,” or, “to abide still.”

The word tells us that Timothy was already at Ephesus when he received the request

from Paul to stay on there instead of going to Macedonia. There is nothing in the

phrase that implies that Paul was at Ephesus himself when he made the request to

Timothy. It may have been made by message or by letter. When I went.

Some commentators have endeavored to explain poreuo>menov -poreuomenos

going; went; when going – as applying to Timothy, or as if the order were

i[na poreuo>menov paraggei>lh|v hina poreuomenos paraggeilaesthat

going you should be charging - but the Greek will not admit of it. Charge -

(paraggei>lh|v - paraggeilaes); a word implying authority, almost invariably

rendered “command” or “charge.” It is taken up in v. 18 (tau>thn th<n

paraggeli>an tautaen taen paraggelian -“This charge,” Teach a different

doctrine (eJterodidaskalei~n heterodidaskalein). This is one of the many

words peculiar to the pastoral Epistles. It only occurs here and in ch.6:3. It is formed

from eJterodida>skalov heterodidaskalos -  a teacher of other than right doctrine,

and means “to play the part of a teacher of other than right doctrine,” just as in

ecclesiastical language ejtero>doxov -heterodoxos means “one who holds opinions

 contrary to that which is orthodox,” and such as do so are said eJterodoxei~n

- heterodoxein.  The classical sense is a little different, “one who holds a different opinion”

— “to be of a different opinion.” The introduction of the word into the vocabulary of

Scripture is a sign of the somewhat later age to which this Epistle belongs, when heresies

were growing and multiplying. Other similar compounds are eJtero>glwssov

heteroglossosother tongues; different languages -  (I Corinthians 14:21)

and eJterozugountev -  heterozugountes  - unequally yoked –  (II Corinthians 6:14).

 

4 “Neither give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which minister

questions, rather than godly edifying which is in faith: so do.”  Fables  

If the spirit which gave birth to the fables of the Talmud was already at work among

the Jews, we have a ready explanation of the phrase. And that they were Jewish

fables (not later Gnostic delusions) is proved by the parallel passage in Titus 1:14,

“Not giving heed to Jewish fables.” The prevalence of sorcery among the

Jews at this time is a further instance of their inclination to fable (see

Acts 8:9; 13:6; 19:13). Endless genealogies. What was the particular

abuse of genealogies which Paul here condemns we have not sufficient

historical knowledge to enable us to decide. But that they were Jewish

forms of “vain talking,” and not Gnostic, and related to human pedigrees,

not to “emanations of eons,” may be concluded from the connection in

which they are mentioned in Titus 3:9, and from the invariable meaning of the

word genealogi>a - genealogiagenealogies - itself. The genealogies

were Jewish pedigrees, either used literally to exalt individuals as being of

priestly or Davidic origin (as the pedigrees of the Desposyni, or later of the

princes of the Captivity), or used cabbalistically, so as to draw fanciful

doctrines from the names composing a genealogy, or in some other way which

we do not know of.  Endless (ajpe>rantov -  aperantos – interminable;

endless); found only here in the New Testament and so one of the words peculiar

to the pastoral Epistles, but used in the Septuagint for “infinite,” “immeasurable.”

It means either “endless,” “interminable,” or, “having no useful end or purpose.”

Questionings (zhth>seiv zaetaeseisquestionings - see John 3:25; Acts 25:20;

and below, ch. 6:4; II Timothy 2:23; Titus 3:9; and for the kindred zh>thma

zaetaemaquestion – (Acts 15:2; 18:15; 23:29; 25:19; 26:3.) A dispensation of

 God  for godly edifying.  Taking the reading oijkonomi>an oikonomianhome

Building; edifying -  a dispensation of God which is in faith, must mean THE

GOSPEL as delivered by revelation and received by faith. These fables and

genealogies address themselves, the apostle says, to the disputatious, itching

curiosity of men’s minds, not to their faith. The substance of them is matter

of DOUBTFUL DISPUTATION,  not REVEALED TRUTH!   The dispensation”

is better English than “a dispensation.” Oikonomia -  primarily signifies “the management

of a household or of household affairs” (oikos, “a house,” nomos, “a law”); then the

management or administration of the property of others, and so “a stewardship,”

Luke 16:2-4; elsewhere only in the epistles of Paul, who applies it

 

  • to the responsibility entrusted to him of preaching the gospel, I Corinthians 9:17

(rv, “stewardship,” kjv, “dispensation”);

  • to the stewardship committed to him “to fulfill the Word of God,” the

fulfillment being the unfolding of the completion of the divinely arranged and

imparted cycle of truths which are consummated in the truth relating to the

church as the body of Christ, Colossians 1:25 (rv and kjv, “dispensation”);

so in Ephesians 3:2, of the grace of God given him as a stewardship

(“dispensation”) in regard to the same “mystery”;

  • in Ephesians 1:10 and 3:9, it is used of the arrangement or administration by

God, by which in “the fullness of the times” (or seasons) God will sum up

all things in the heavens and on earth in Christ.

 

In Ephesians 3:9 some manuscripts have koinoniakoinonia - “fellowship,” for

Oikonomiaoikonomia -“dispensation.” In ch.1:4 oikonomia may mean either

a stewardship in the sense of  the first illustration above, or a “dispensation” in the sense

of the third. The reading Oikodomia  - oikodomia, “edifying,” in some manuscripts,

is not to be accepted.  (Note: A “dispensation” is not a period or epoch (a common, but

erroneous, use of the word), but a mode of dealing, an arrangement or administration

of affairs.  So do - , is the conjectural filling up of the unfinished sentence which began

as I besought thee” (v. 3).  But it is much more natural and simple to take v. 18 as the

apodosis, and the intermediate verses as a digression caused by Paul’s desire to show

how exactly the charge was in agreement with the true spirit of the Law of God.

 

5 “Now the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart, and of a good

conscience, and of faith unfeigned:” But the end of the commandment  (charge).

Before proceeding with his sentence, in which he was about solemnly to commit the trust

of the episcopate of the Church of Ephesus to Timothy, he breaks off abruptly to show the

beneficent character of the charge, viz. the furtherance of that brotherly love and

purity of heart and life which are the true fruit of the gospel dispensation,

but which some, by their false doctrine, were so ruthlessly impeding. Each

of these phrases, “a pure heart” and “a good conscience” and “faith

unfeigned,” seems to rebuke by contrast the merely ceremonial cleanness

and the defiled conscience and the merely nominal Christianity of these

heretical Judaizers (compare Titus 1:10-16).

 

Love is the vital end of religion.  Now the end of the commandment is charity.

When we know the Divine end or purpose, we get light on all that leads to that end.

Charity, or love that is like God’s own love, is the end of all. Religious principle in

its root and stem is to blossom into the beauty of Christ-like character. Christianity

is a truth, that it may be a life. It is not to be mere doctrine, or mere ritual.

We may be fiery disputants without being faithful soldiers. We may even be

workers in the vineyard, without the faith which worketh by love.

Ecclesiasticism is not necessarily religion. There may be Church uniformity,

Church harmony, and aesthetic ceremonial, and yet, so far as Divine life is

concerned, there may be “no breath at all in the midst of it.” Let us confine

ourselves to the first word.  We need not ask what this love is. For we have

seen IT INCARNATED IN THE WORDS AND DEEDS OF JESUS

CHRIST, AND IN HIS SUFFERINGS for “our sakes” upon the cross.

 

 

Life’s Inner Springs (v. 5)

 

The nature of the love which is related to this gospel charge is:

 

  • love out of a pure heart,
  • a good conscience, and
  • faith unfeigned.” (v.5)

 

This is the soil in which the heavenly grace grows, and this soil is essential

to the purity and beauty of the grace. It is not enough to plant the seed;

we must till and nourish the soil.

 

  • THE HEART IS THE TESTING-PLACE OF WHAT WE LIKE.                  

The good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings forth good

things. (Matthew 12:35).  There must be passion in all true life. As

Mr. Ruskin truly says, “The entire object of true education is

to make people not merely do the right things, but enjoy the right things;

not merely industrious, but to love industry; not merely learned, but to

love learning; not merely pure, but to love purity; not merely just, but to

hunger and thirst after righteousness. Taste is not only a part and index

of morality; it is the only morality. The first and last and closest trial-

question to any living creature is — What do you like? Tell me what

you like, and I’ll tell you what you are.” Exactly! So says the gospel.

Out of the heart are the issues of life” (Proverbs 4:23); “As a man

 thinketh in his heart, so is he” (Ibid. ch. 23:7).  This is a true teaching,

and may open up a new view of moral and spiritual life to

the thoughtful mind.

 

  • THE SENSE OF RECTITUDE.  “And of a good conscience.” We here

come to the ethical region of rectitude, showing us how complete the gospel is,

and how it stands related to the whole of our complex nature. We notice here

THE CONNECTION OF “GOOD” WITH CONSCIENCE.  Some men’s

consciences  are ruled and regulated by what is expedient, or what society

expects of men. They are pained at the sin which brings shame before men,

but are not disconcerted at desires, emotions, and actions WHICH ARE

EVIL IN THE SIGHT OF GOD. . It is a wonderful interesting study this —

the relation of society to sin. For there are fashionable vices and respectable

sins which are HEINOUS IN THE SIGHT OF GOD but the conscience

 is at ease because THE SPIRIT OF THE AGE DOES NOT

CONDEMN THEM!  How important, then, it is to keep conscience

ENLIGHTENED BY THE WORD OF GOD AND INVIGORATRED

BY THE HOLY GHOST!   The end of the commandment is

in the best sense to make you a law unto yourself. It is important to have

the Bible in our heads, but it is MOST IMPORTANT TO HAVE

JESUS CHRIST ENTHRONED IN OUR HEARTS AND

CONSCIENCES!

 

  • THE ABSENCE OF HYPOCRISY.  “And faith unfeigned.”

Everyone dislikes shams.  We insist, in art, in dress, in manners, and

in religion, on sincerity. Without this nothing is beautiful, because

nothing is real.  (Although I must confess that in this age we are

very close, as a society, to being unable to distinguish between  

fantasy and reality!  - CY  - 2013).  We hate feigned learning,

feigned skill, feigned culture, and feigned superiority. The apostle

tells us here that faith must be unfeigned. Now, if the end of the

commandment is love, the argument is this, that the faith which is

to be worked by such a glorious inspiration of love must be an

HONEST, EARNEST, AND REAL FAITH!

 

Ø      We must believe in humanity before we can love men.

Believe, that is, that there is an ideal of God in every man; that

underneath his depravity and degradation there is a moral nature

which may be renewed, and a life which may be transfigured

into the glory of Christ. For man’s conscience was made to know

the truth, his heart to feel it, and his will to be guided and energized

by it. If we think of men cynically or contemptuously, then THERE

WILL BE NO EARNEST EFFORTS TO SAVE THAT WHICH

IS LOST!

 

Ø      We must believe in the power of Christ and His cross, or we

shall not be enthusiastic in preaching them.  No doubter can

be a good preacher. Men know and feel the power

of ardent faith. The arrow will miss the mark if the hand of the

archer shakes, or distrusts its weapon. The one great element of

success is UNFEIGNED FAITH  — a faith which says,

“I believed, and therefore have I spoken.” (I Corinthians 4:13).

There may be a variable faith, like that of the Vicar of Bray’s,

which believed anything — Romanistic, Rationalistic, or

Evangelical — for the sake of position. But the mask soon drops,

and men, instead of receiving the truth, despise the false teacher.

“We believe and are sure that thou art that Christ, the Son of the

living God”  (John 6:69), is the essential basis of a TRUE

MINISTRY!  Such a faith will be touched with enthusiasm like

unto his who said, “God forbid that I should glory, save in the

cross of Christ Jesus our Lord.”  (Galatians 6:14)

 

Ø      We must believe in a vital sense so as to live our belief.

An unfeigned faith is one that we practice ourselves; one that

fills every channel of our being — our ethical life, our

philanthropies, our missionary endeavors, our home joys and

sanctities. There is a faith which is merely dogmatic — which

holds fast the Christian doctrines, but fails to translate them

 into life. The atonement itself, so august and awful, must

ever stand alone as a Divine sacrifice; but its moral effect is to

be lived. “We thus judge, that if One died for all, then were

all dead; and that we who live should not henceforth live unto

ourselves, but unto Him who died for us and rose again”

(II Corinthians 5:14).  Faith is not to be a waxwork fruit —

something, artificial and unreal — but the living vine, of

 which CHRIST IS THE ROOT!  (John 15:1-8)

 

This is the threefold foundation on which LOVE RESTS. This is a marked

contrast with the life of the false teachers who:

 

  • are corrupted in mind (ch. 6:5)
  • seared in conscience (ch. 4:2) and
  • reprobate concerning the faith.  (II Timothy 3:8).

 

False religions give prominence to aspects of power, and merge into dreads. The

gospel alone shows that GOD IS LOVE. And in revealing the blessed nature

of God in His Son, it has shown us that evil is misery because it is another

nature. LIFE APART FROM GOD IS DEATH — death to peace, purity,

harmony, holiness. Men have in their experience testified to this. All is vanity

apart from Him.  (This is a design which God, in His sovereignty, has

willed, and try as you may, APART FROM HIM, YOU WILL NEVER BE

FULFILLED, HAPPY, OR COMPLETE!  - CY – 2013)  Over all life may

be inscribed, “Nihil sine Deo“NOTHING WITHOUT GOD!  So Christ

will:

 

·         lead us to the Father,

·         unite us with the Father, and

·         transform us into the likeness of the Father – TO THE ONE WHO

IS THE BLESSED AND ONLY POTENTATE, THE KING OF

KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS!  (ch. 6:14-16)

 

6 “From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain

jangling;”  Having swerved (ajstoch>santev -  astochaesantesdeviating;

swerving - literally, having missed the mark), as in the margin. It is found in the

New Testament only here and ch.6:21; II Timothy 2:18. In Ecclesiastes 7:19 (21

in the  Authorized Version) and 8:9 (11, A.V.) it is used in a slightly different sense,

“forego” and “miss.” In Polybius and Plutarch repeatedly, “to miss the mark....

to fail,” with the kindred a]stocov ajstoci>a asto>chma astochos, astochia,

astochaema.   These men missed the true end of the gospel — purity of heart and

conscience and life — and only reached vain and boastful talking. Have

 turned aside (ejxetra>phsan exetrapaesanhave turned aside); ch. 5:15;

6:20; II Timothy 4:4; Hebrews 12:13; but not elsewhere in the New Testament.

It is found in the active voice in the Septuagint  and is common in all voices in

classical Greek. Vain jangling (talking) (mataiologi>a mataiologia

vain prating); here only in the New Testament, and not found in the

Septuagint, but used by Strabo, Plutarch, and Porphyry. The adjective

mataiolo>gov mataiologosvain talkers; vain praters -  is used in

Titus 1:10, and applied especially to those “of the circumcision.”

Compare Jude 1:16).

 

The swerving is moral in nature but has intellectual effects which are

of an injurious and evil character.

 

7 “Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they

say, nor whereof they affirm.”  Teachers of the Law (nomodida>skaloi -

nomodidaskalio) as Luke 5:17; Acts 5:34). This, again, distinctly marks the Jewish

origin of these heretics – understanding neither  what they say -  etc. So our Lord

rebuked the scribes and teachers of the Law in his day: “Ye do err, not

knowing the Scriptures nor the power of God;” “Ye do greatly err”

(Matthew 22:29; Mark 12:27; Matthew 12:7, etc.; compare, too, Romans

2:17-24) – nor whereof they affirm (diabebaiou~ntai–-  diabebaiountai

they are insisting).  Elsewhere in the New Testament only in Titus 3:8, “I will

 that thou affirm confidently.” So in classical Greek, “to maintain strongly,”

“to be positive.” This was right in the minister of Christ declaring Divine truth,

but very wrong in these vain janglers. The nature of their confident assertions

is apparent from what follows — they spoke of the Law, but not lawfully.

 

It is not unusual  in life to find the least qualified the most ready to

undertake the task of instruction. They were ignorant and unlearned men,

who were only able to wrest the Scriptures to their own destruction.  (II Peter 2:9-19) 

Their ignorance is evident because they neither understood their  own averments or

arguments, as to their nature and drift, nor did they comprehend the things concerning

which they were so ready to give their foolish but deliberate judgment.

 

8 “But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully;”

The Law is good (see the similar statement in Romans 7:12). The Jews

 thought that Paul spoke against the Law (compare Acts 6:13-14), because he

vindicated its true use (Romans 10:4; Galatians 3:24; 4:4-5, etc.). But he

everywhere speaks of the Law as good and holy. If a man i.e., a teacher

 of the Lawuse it lawfully; knowing its proper use, as it follows in the

next verse.

 

9 “Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for

the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for

unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of

mothers, for manslayers,”  Law is not made for a righteous man. It is much

better to render no>mov nomos - “the Law,” as e.g. Romans 2:12-14.

The whole proposition relates to the Law of Moses, which these teachers

perverted and tried to force upon Christians, being ignorant that the Law

was made, not for the righteous, but for sinners. For is not made, we

might render does not apply to or is not in force against. Kei~tai Keitai

with the dative following (as II Maccabees 4:11) suggests some such meaning,

somewhat different from the simple no>mov kei~tai nomos keitai – the

Law. . This freedom of the righteous from the Law is what Paul everywhere

asserts (Romans 6:14; 8:2; Galatians 2:19; 3:25; 5:18, etc.), the Law being

viewed, not as a holy rule of life, but as a system of penalties — “a Law of sin

and death.” That no>mov here means the Law of Moses is further evident from

this, that in the following list the apostle clearly follows the general order of the

Decalogue, taking first the offences against the first table, and then sins

against the fifth, sixth, seventh, and ninth commandments (compare, too,

v. 11 with Romans 2:16). Lawless (ajno>moiv anomois ); with no special

reference to its etymology, but meaning simply “transgressors,” “wicked,”

as Luke 22:37; Acts 2:23; II Thessalonians 2:8 (A.V.), and very frequently

in the Septuagint. Disobedient (ajnupota>ktoiv anupotaktoisunruly,

insubordinate);  resisting lawful authority. In the Septuagint - for the Hebrew

l[iy"lib] (I Samuel 2:12, Symmachus),and perhaps Proverbs 16:27. In the New

Testament it is peculiar in this sense to the pastoral Epistles, being only

found here and in Titus 1:6,10.  In Hebrews 2:10 it has the

classical sense of “unsubdued.” The express application of the word in

Titus 1:10, to the “unruly talkers of the circumcision,” shows that

Paul has them in view here also. Ungodly and sinners, for the ungodly

(unholy) and profane. All terms implying offences against the first table.

jAsebe>si Asebesi  - with the kindred ajsebei>a asebeia  and ajsebe>w –

asebeo ) is always rendered ungodly,”“ungodliness,” “to act ungodly;”

 aJmartwloi~v hamartolois -  sinners, viz. against God; ajnosi>oiv

anolsiois - unholy (found only here and at II Timothy 3:2 in the New

Testament, but frequent in the Septuagint) is the contrary to o[siov

hosios - holy, saintly; bebh>loivbebaelois (whence bebhlo>wbebaeloo

 to profane, Matthew 12:5; Acts 24:6), profane, of persons and things not

consecrated to God — peculiar in the New Testament to the pastoral Epistles

(ch. 4:7; 6:20; II Timothy 2:16;) and Hebrews 12:16, but found commonly

in the Septuagint and in classical Greek. Patralw~aivpatraloaisthrashers

of fathers and mhtralw>|aiv matralosis – thrashers of mothers - not

murderers, but, as in the margin, “smiters, ill-users of father and mother.”

Both words are only found here in the New Testament, but found in

Demosthenes, Aristophanes, etc. The allusion here is to Exodus 21:15,

where the Hebrew word for “smiteth” is XXX, which does not necessarily

mean “to smite to death” any more than ajloa>w - aloaotread; thrash –

does. jAndrofo>noiv Androphonois - man-slayers; found only here in the

New Testament, but used in II Maccabees 9:28 and in classical writers.

The reference is to Exodus 21:12.

 

10 “For whoremongers (fornicators), for them that defile themselves with

mankind  (abusers of themselves with men), for menstealers, for liars, for

perjured persons (false swearers), and if there be any other thing that is

contrary to sound doctrine;”  Po>rnoivPornois, whoremongers; paramours,

ajrsenokoi>taiv - arsenokoitaisdefilers of themselves with mankind;

sodomites.  The latter word is only found in the New Testament here and

I Corinthians 6:9. and nowhere else; but the reference is to Leviticus 18:22,

“thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind” - where the two

words a]rsenov arsenos - and koi>th koitae - occur, though not in actual

composition.  jAndrapodistai~v - andrapodizein -  men-stealers; only here in

the New Testament, but very common, with its many kindred forms,

ajndrapodi>zein ajndrapodismo>v, ajndra>podon, etc., in classical Greek.

The crime of man-stealing is denounced Exodus 21:16; Deuteronomy 24:7.

Yeu>staiv ejpio>rkoiv pseutais, epiorkois - liars,  … perjured persons

(false swearers). The latter word only occurs here in the New Testament —

the verb ejpiorke>w epiorkeoforswear thyself; perjuring – in Matthew

5:33, but all are common in classical Greek. The reference is to Leviticus

19:11-12. The order of the offences, as above noted, is that of the Decalogue.

To sound doctrine. This is one of the many phrases peculiar to the pastoral

Epistles. Though the term uJgiani>nein hugiainein - occurs three times in

Luke’s Gospel and once in III John 1:2 in its literal sense of bodily health,

it is only in the pastoral Epistles that it is applied to doctrine (see ch.6:3;

II  Timothy 1:13; 4:3; Titus 1:9, 13; 2:1-2; and note on II Timothy 4:3).

 

11 “According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was

committed to my trust.”  The gospel of the glory for the glorious gospel, A.V.

The gospel of the glory of the blessed God. The phrase, to< eujagge>lion th~v

do>xhv tou~ makari>ou Qeou~  - to euaggelion taes doxaes tou makariou

Theou -  cannot mean, as in the Authorized Version, “the glorious

gospel of the blessed God,” except by a very forced construction. It might

mean three things:

 

  • th~v do>xhv tou~ Qeou~ taes doxaes tou Theou - the glory of God –

might be a periphrasis for “God,” as Romans 6:4, or Exodus 24:16-17;

33:18; Leviticus 9:6, 23; Psalm 104:31; II Corinthians 4:6; or as “the

Name of the Lord” (Proverbs 18:10; Isaiah 30:27-28); and as we say

“thee queen’s majesty,” the “king’s grace.” Or

 

  • “the glory of God” might mean Jesus Christ, who is the Brightness of

God’s glory, the Image of the invisible God, in whose face the glory of

God shines (II Corinthians 4:4, 6). Or

 

  • it might mean the gospel which tells of the glory of God, which reveals

and proclaims His glory, the glory of His grace (Ephesians 1:6, 12), or

perhaps here rather the glory of His holiness, which Paul’s “sound

doctrine” pressed for imitation upon all Christians (see ch. 6:3);

compare  Corinthians 4:4, The gospel of the glory of Christ.”

 

Either the first or last is doubtless the true meaning. The blessed God. This and

ch. 6:15 are the only passages in the New Testament where maka>riov

makarios -  blessed, is an epithet of God. Elsewhere “blessed” is

eujloghto>v eulogaetos  as e.g. Mark 14:61; II Corinthians 11:31. In classical

Greek ma>kar makar -  happy - is the proper epithet of the gods; ma>karev

Qeo>i  maka>riov - makares Theoi makarios - is usually spoken of men or qualities,

and especially of the happy dead. It does not appear how or why the apostle here

applies maka>riov to God.  Committed to my trust; literally, with which I was

entrusted. A thoroughly Pauline statement (compare Romans 1:1, 5; 2:16;

Galatians 1:11-12; Ephesians 3:1-8).

 

12 “And I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who hath enabled me, for that

he counted me faithful, putting me into the ministry;”  I thank, etc. This

outburst of praise for the mercy of the Lord Jesus Christ, who had called him

to the ministry of the Word, is caused by the thought, which immediately precedes,

of his being entrusted with the gospel. He thus disclaims any notion of merit on

his part. Who hath enabled me (ejndunamw>santi endunamosantito the

one invigorating me). This verb occurs once in Acts 9:22; three times in Paul’s

other Epistles (Romans 4:20; Ephesians 6:10; Philippians 4:13); three times in the

pastoral Epistles (here; II Timothy 2:1 and 4:17); and Hebrews 11:31. It denotes

the giving that peculiar power which was the gift of the Holy Ghost, and which

was necessary for the work of an apostle to enable him to bear witness to Christ

in the face of an adverse world. This power (du>namiv  - dunamis - power)

Christ promised to His apostles before His ascension (Acts 1:8). Paul received it

after his conversion (Acts 9:22). He continued to hold it throughout his

apostleship (Philippians 4:13); he enjoyed it especially at the approach

of his martyrdom (II Timothy 4:17). It comprised strength of faith,

strength to testify and to preach, strength to endure and suffer. Paul’s

whole course is the best illustration of the nature of the du>namiv which

Christ gave him (see Ephesians 3:6 the ca>riv charisgrace - the diakoni>a

diakoniaservice  and the du>namiv all brought together as here). Putting me

into the ministry,  “the ministry” exactly expresses the particular kind of

service to which the Lord appointed him (see the exactly parallel passage,

Ephesians 3:7). The absence of the article is unimportant (Romans 12:7;

I Corinthians 16:15; II Timothy 4:11). (For the general phrase, compare

Acts 20:28; I Corinthians 12:28; or, still more exactly as regards the

grammar, I Thessalonians 5:9.)

 

 

13 “Who was before a blasphemer, and a persecutor, and injurious: but

I obtained mercy, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief.”  A blasphemer  -

(bla>shmon blasphaemon); applied, as here, to persons, only in II Timothy 3:2;

applied to words, Acts 6:11,13 (T.R.). The verb blasfhmei~n blasphaemein

and the substantive blasfhmi>a blasphaemia -  are very common, both in

the sense of “blaspheming” and of “railing” or “reviling.” Paul was a

blasphemer because he spoke against the Name of Jesus, which he had

since discovered was A NAME ABOVE ALL NAMES!. A persecutor

(diw>kthv dioktaes); only here; but the verb diwkei~n diokeinpersecute;

 is applied to Paul repeatedly (Acts 9:4-5; 22:4; 26:11), and the diw>kthv

here refers possibly to that very narrative. Injurious (uJbristh>v hubristaes);

only here and Romans 1:30, where it is rendered “insolent,” Revised Version.

The verb uJbri>zein hubrizein - , both in the New Testament and in classical

Greek, means to “treat or use others despitefully,” “to outrage and insult” them,

not without personal violence (Matthew 22:6; Luke 18:32; Acts 14:5;

I Thessalonians 2:2). The uJbristh>v is one who so treats others.  Paul was

thinking of his own conduct toward the Christians, whom he not only reviled,

but handled roughly and cast into prison (Acts 8:3; 9:1; 22:19). There is

no English word which exactly renders uJbristh>v.

 

14 “And the grace of our Lord was exceeding abundant with faith and

love which is in Christ Jesus.”  Was exceeding abundant (uJperepleo>nase

huperepleonase - Abounded exceedingly); only here in the New Testament or

elsewhere except “in Psalterio Salomonis psalm 5:19, but the word is thoroughly

Pauline (compare uJperai>romai - huperairomai – become haughty, exalted;

uJperauxa>nw - huperauxano -  increase above, grow exceedingly; uJperba>llw

huperballo – surpass; exceeding; uJperektei>nw - huperkteino – extend inordinately;

 stretch beyond; uJperperisseu>w -  huperisseuo – superabundantly; exceeding;

beyond measure;  uJperuyo>whuperupsioo – raise; highly exalt; and other

compounds with uJpe>r huperabove; beyond. It is further remarkable, as regards

uJpe>r itself, that of the hundred and fifty-eight times (or thereabouts) that it

occurs in the New Testament, one hundred and six are in Paul’s

Epistles, and twelve in the Epistle to the Hebrews, and only forty in all the

other books. With faith and love, etc. The grace bestowed upon Paul

at and after his conversion showed itself in the wonderful faith and love

toward Jesus Christ, whom he had previously disbelieved in and reviled,

which accompanied that grace and was the fruit of it, and characterized

his whole after-life.

 

15 “This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ

Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief.”

This is a faithful saying (pisto<v oJ lo>gov pistos ho logos - faithful is the

 saying).  This formula is peculiar to the pastoral Epistles (ch.3:1; 4:9; II Timothy

2:11; Titus 3:8), and seems to indicate that there were a number of pithy sayings,

maxims, portions of hymns or of catechetical teaching, current in the

Church, and possibly originating in the inspired sayings of the Church

prophets, to which the apostle appeals, and to which he gives his sanction.

The one appealed to here would be simply, Jesus Christ came into the

world to save sinners.” This, Paul adds, is worthy of all acceptation —

by all, and without any reserve. Acceptation (ajpodoch~v apodochaes); only

here and ch.4:9, in connection with the same formula. The verb ajpode>comai -

apodechomai – welcome; receive - occurs in Luke 8:40; Acts 2:41; 15:4; 18:27;

24:3; 28:30.  It contains the idea of a glad, willing acceptance; the idea of a kind

reception — a welcome!   So doubtless ajpodoch> also means “hearty reception.”

 I am chief; in respect of his having been” a blasphemer, a persecutor, and injurious.”

That great sin was indeed freely forgiven by God’s grace, but it could never

be forgotten by him who had been guilty of it. (compare Ephesians 3:8).

 

16 “Howbeit for this cause I obtained mercy, that in me first Jesus Christ

might shew forth all longsuffering, for a pattern to them which should

hereafter believe on him to life everlasting.”  That in me first - first; i.e.

both in order of time, and in respect also of THE GREATNESS OF THE

SIN FORGIVEN.   Shew forth (ejndei>xhtai endeixaetaishould be

displaying. All long-suffering; more properly, His all longsuffering;

 the whole longsuffering; i.e. THE ENTIRETY OF LONGSUFFERING –

ALL THAT WAS POSSIBLE, EVERY KIND AND DEGREE OF

LONGSUFFERING!     JO pa~v - ho pas – with the substantive denotes

the whole of a thing: to<n pa>nta cro>non – ton panta chronon

“the whole time” (Acts 20:18); oJ pa~v no>mov – ho pas nomos - “the whole Law”

(Galatians 5:14).   (makroqumia - makrothumia long-suffering); more

literally, long-animity; very frequent both in the New Testament and in

the Septuagint. The adjective makro>qumov makrothumos - Septuagint)

is a translation of the Hebrew μyip"a" rx"q], “long,” or “slow to anger,” to

which the opposite is Ër,a,, ojxu>qumov - oxuthumos - (Septuagint), “short to

anger,” i.e. hasty, passionate. The verb makroqume>w -  makrothumeo

 suffer long; be patient - also occurs frequently, both in the New Testament

and in the Septuagint:   JH ajga>ph makroqumei~  - hae agapae makothumei

 Charity suffereth long” (I Corinthians 13:4). For a pattern (pro<v uJpotu>pwsin - \

pros hupotuposin).  The word only occurs in the New Testament here and II Timothy

1:12; but both it and the verb uJpotupo>w - hupotupooform; pattern; are good

classical words.  The meaning of uJpo>tu>pwsiv -hupotuposis - a sketch” or

“outline,” and hence a “pattern.” This pattern is spoken of as being the property

of, being for the use of, them which should hereafter believe.  (Could it be something

like a patent in our day? – CY – 2013) Just as the workman looks at his plan, or

outline, by which he is to work, so those future believers would see in

Christ’s dealings with Paul THE EXACT PATTERN OF LONG-

SUFFERING  which they might expect for themselves. Believe on

Him unto eternal life. These words hang together. The particular force of

pisteu>ein ejp aujtw~| - pisteuein ep auto – believing on Him - found in the

New Testament only here and Romans 9:33; 10:11; and I Peter 2:6 — as

distinguished from the other constructions of to pisteu>ein  - pisteuein

“rest,” “lean on.”  Paul thus incidentally affirms that HIS OWN FAITH

RESTED UPON JESUS CHRIST IN THE FULL ASSURANCE

OF ATTAINING TO ETERNAL LIFE!   (see ch.6:12; II Timothy 1:1-2).

 

 

The Mercy of God to Paul (vs. 12-16)

 

Paul’s (Saul) sin had been great in his persecution of God’s people but

God pardoned Paul’s great wickedness. God’s grace superabounded to

Paul.  Paul considered himself the chief of sinners and God used him as

an example of His longsuffering to sinful man.  As great as your or my

sin is, God can and will save us also!  The greatest sinners may not

despair of mercy. The Lord will tarry long with them if peradventure they

may repent and turn to Him.

 

The case of Paul — “the chief of sinners” — ought to encourage

sinners of every class and sort to exercise hope and trust in the Lord, as

well as to meet the misgivings of those who think they have sinned too

much to warrant the expectation that the Lord will have mercy upon them.

 

Trust in Jesus Christ necessarily brings with it ETERNAL LIFE!    There

is nothing needed but faith for this purpose. “He that hath the Son hath life.”

(I John 5:2)  (I recommend How to Be Saved - # 5  - this web site – Also

three sermons by Charles Haddon Spurgeon – all from Isaiah 45 and

entitled Life for a Look; Sovereignty and Salvation; The Life Look – this

web site - CY – 2013)  Below is an except from the beginning of The Life

Look:

 

THE LIFE-LOOK.

NO. 2867

 

 

DELIVERED BY C. H. SPURGEON,

 

       AT THE METROPOLITAN TABERNACLE, NEWINGTON,

  0N LORD’S-DAY EVENING, JANUARY 9TH, 1876.

 

“Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth: for I am God, and

there is none else.” — Isaiah 14:22.

 

I HAVE preached a good many times from this text. The following

Sermons by Mr. Spurgeon upon this passage, have been previously

published: New Park Street Pulpit, No. 60, “Sovereignty and Salvation;”

and Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit, No. 2,805, “Life for a Look.” The

fullest account of his conversion is in his Autobiography, published by

Messrs. Passmore and Alabaster. I hope to do so, if life be spared, many

more times. It was about twenty-six years ago, — twenty-six years exactly

last Thursday, — that I looked unto the Lord, and found salvation, through

this text. You have often heard me tell how I had been wandering about,

seeking rest, and finding none, till a plain, unlettered, lay preacher among

the Primitive Methodists stood up in the pulpit, and gave out this passage

as his text: “Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth.” He

had not much to say, thank God, for that compelled him to keep on

repeating his text, and there was nothing needed — by me, at any rate, —

except his text. I remember how he said, “It is Christ that speaks. ‘I am in

the garden in an agony, pouring out my soul unto death; I am on the tree,

dying for sinners; look unto me! Look unto me!’ That is all you have to do.

A child can look. One who is almost an idiot can look. However weak, or

however poor, a man may be, he can look; and if he looks, the promise is

that he shall live.” Then, stopping, he pointed to where I was sitting under

the gallery, and he said, “That young man there looks very miserable.” I

expect I did, for that is how I felt. Then he said, “There is no hope for you,

young man, or any chance of getting rid of your sin, but by looking to

Jesus;” and he shouted, as I think only a Primitive Methodist can, “Look!

Look, young man! Look now!” And I did look; and when they sang a

hallelujah before they went home, in their own earnest way, I am sure I

joined in it. It happened to be a day when the snow was lying deep and

more was falling; so, as I went home, those words of David kept ringing

through my heart, “Wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow;” and it

seemed as if all nature was in accord with that blessed deliverance from sin

which I had found in a single moment by looking to Jesus Christ.

 

17 “Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God,

be honor and glory for ever and ever. Amen.”  The King eternal. The Greek

has the unusual phrase, tw~| basilei~ tw~n aijw>nwn – to basilei ton aionon

“the king of the worlds or ages.”  The phrase is equivalent to aijw>niov

aionios - eternal, as a title of the Lord, as in Romans 16:26. Satan, on the

other hand. is (oJ qeo<v tou~ aijw~nov tou>touho theos tou aionos toutou

“the god of this world” (compare such passages as Psalm 102:24; 104:31;

105:8; 135:13; 145:13; and the doxology in the Lord’s Prayer, “Thine is the

kingdom, and the power, and the glory, eijv, tou<v aijw~nav –-  eis tous

aionasfor ever”). It seems to be, therefore, quite certain that Paul is

here using a familiar Jewish phrase for “eternal” which has nothing

whatever to do with Gnostic eons. Perhaps in the use of the phrase,

basileu<v tw~n aijw>nwn basileus ton aiononking of the ages –

we may trace a contrast passing through the writer’s mind between the short-lived

power of that hateful basileu>v - Nero, by whom his life would soon be taken away,

and the kingdom of the eternal King (compare ch. 6:15-16). Incorruptible –

(ajfqa>rtw| - aphthartohere translated in the King James immortality;

applied to God also in Romans 1:23, where, as here, it means “immortal”

(oJ mo>nov e]cwn ajqanasi>an – ho monos echon athanasianwho only

hath immortality – ch. 6:16), not subject to the corruption of death, just as

ajfqarsi>a aphtharsia – immortality  is coupled with “life” (II Timothy

1:10) and opposed to “death” So on the other hand, fqora> - phthora -

means “death.” fqarto>v phthartos - “perishable.” Elsewhere it is applied

to a crown, to the raised dead, to the inheritance of the saints, to the seed of the

new birth, to the apparel of a holy heart, which no rust or moth corrupts

(I Corinthians 9:25; 15:52; I Peter 1:4, 23; 3:4). Invisible (ajora>tw| - aorato);

as Colossians 1:15; Hebrews 11:27. (See also Romans 1:20; and compare

ch. 6:16, for the sense.) The word is used by Philo of God, and of the Word.

Here it is especially predicated of God the Father, according to what our Lord

says (John 1:18; 6:46; 14:9); though some of the Fathers, Nicene and post-Nicene,

predicate it also of the Word or Second Person (Hilary, Chrysostom, etc.). But in

Scripture the Son is spoken of as the Manifestation, the Image (eijkw>n -  icon –

image – (the word involves the two ideas of representation and manifestation) and 

carakth>r charaktaerimage (denotes a tool for graving; then a stamp, or

impress, as on a coin or seal, in which case the seal or die which makes an

impression bears the image produced by it, and vice versa, all the features of

the image correspond respectively with those of the instrument producing it -

Vines Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words) of the Father,

through whom the Father is seen and known; ajo>ratov, Invisible - therefore,

applies to the Father (see Colossians 1:15).  The only God. The best manuscripts

omit sofw~| - sopho wise - which seems to have crept in here from Romans 16:26.

The exact construction is, “To the eternal King, the Immortal, the Invisible,

the only God [or, ‘who alone is God’], be honor,” etc. Be honor and glory.

A little varied from Paul’s usual doxologies (see Romans 11:36; 16:27; Galatians 1:5;

Ephesians 3:21; and ch.6:16, where do>xa -  doxaglory - stands alone,

and has the article. In Romans 2:10 do>xa and timh> - timaehonor - are

coupled together, but applied to man. This interposition of doxology is quite in

Paul’s manner.

 

Consider the titles by which God is addressed. “Now to the King of the

ages, incorruptible, invisible, the only God.”

 

 

  • He is King of the ages, as His kingdom is called the kingdom of all the

ages (Psalm 145:13); because as God, knowing the end from the

beginning (Acts 15:18), He fixes the periods or stages of the development

through which this world is destined to pass, shaping all events according

to His pleasure, and making all things work together for good to them that

love Him.  (Romans 8:28)

  • He is Incorruptible; because “He only hath immortality” (ch.6:16).
  • He is Invisible; for no man hath seen Him at any time, as He dwells in light

inaccessible.

  • The only God; in opposition to the false gods of the heathen, or to the

multitudes of angels and principalities and powers.

 

 

Consider the doxology.  “Unto him be honor and glory for ever and

ever.”

 

  • They already belong to Him alone.
  • They will belong to Him to all eternity.
  • The thought of the overruling wisdom and. mercy and goodness

of God in his case leads to this devout acknowledgment.

 

18 “This charge I commit unto thee, son Timothy, according to the

prophecies which went before on thee, that thou by them mightest

war a good warfare;” This charge. The apostle now picks up the thread

which he had dropped at v. 4, and solemnly commits to Timothy the episcopal

care of the Ephesian Church, for which he had bid him stop at Ephesus.

Omitting the long digression in vs. 5-17, the sense runs clearly thus: “As I

besought thee to tarry at Ephesus in order that thou mightest charge

some not to teach a different doctrine, so now do I place this charge in

 thy hands, according to the prophecies which pointed to thee, that thou

 mayest war the good warfare according to the tenor of them.” He thus

adds that he entrusted this charge to Timothy, not mero motu (of one’s

free will) , but according to direct indications of the Holy Ghost, through

the prophets of the Church, which pointed out Timothy as the person who

was to war that good warfare. The words, i[na strateu>h| ejn aujtai~v th<n

kalh<n stratei>an - hina strateuae en autais taen kalaen strateian

that you may be warring in them the ideal war - might possibly depend

upon ta<v proagou>sav ejpi> se - tas proagousas epi se – went before

on thee - meaning that those prophecies had this end in pointing to Timothy, viz.

that he might war the good warfare, that he might be placed in the difficult

post of strathgo>v, - strataegosyou may be warring - and the ejn aujtai~v -

en autaisin them - allows rather more naturally in this case. But it is, perhaps,

better to take them as dependent upon parati>qemai paratithemaiI

am committing.   By them (ejn aujtai~v). Here ejn may be either the causae

efficiens, indicating that by the influence of these prophecies Timothy

would war the good warfare, or be equivalent to kata< - kata - according to.

 

The Christian life, and above all that of a minister, is a good warfare.

 

  • It is good because it is against evil:

Ø      the world,

Ø      the flesh, and

Ø      the devil;

  • It is good because it is directed toward the good of men;
  • because it is for a good end, the glory of God.

 

The warfare is to be carried on:

 

·         under Christ as Captain (Hebrews 2:10);

·         with watchfulness and sobriety (I Corinthians 16:13;

  I Thessalonians 5:6);

  • with an enduring hardness (II Timothy 2:3, 10);
  • with self-denial (I Corinthians 9:25-27);
  • with prayer (Ephesians 6:18).

 

19 “Holding faith, and a good conscience; which some having put away

concerning faith have made shipwreck:” Put away (thrust from them).

The addition “from them” is meant to give the force of the middle voice as in

Acts 7:39, Authorized Version. The verb ajpw>qomai -apothomaito

thrust – occurs Acts 7:27, 39; Romans 11:1-2. It is a strong expression,

 implying here the willful resistance to the voice of conscience. The form

ajpwqe>w, - e>omai is found, Acts 13:46, and frequently in the Septuagint.

Which (h[n -  haen) applies to the good conscience only. HENCE THE

IMPORTANT LESSON THAT DEVIATION FROM THE TRUE

FAITH ARE PRECEDED BY VIOLATIONS OF CONSCIENCE! 

The surest way to maintain a pure faith is to maintain a good and tender

conscience (compare ch.2:9; John 7:17). The faith.  It is by no means certain

that hJ pi>stiv -  hae pistis - here means “the faith” rather than “faith.”

Both the grammar and the sense equally admit the rendering “faith,” referring to

the preceding, pi>stiv. (For the phrase, peri< th<n pi>stin, - peri taen

pistin - with respect to or about the belief -  compare ch. 6:4; II Timothy 2:18;

Titus 2:7.)

 

20 “Of whom is Hymenaeus and Alexander; whom I have delivered

unto Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme.” Hymenaeus; probably

the same as is mentioned II Timothy 2:17-18, as holding heretical doctrine

concerning the resurrection, and overthrowing the faith of some. It is an

uncommon name, though borne by a Bishop of Alexandria in the second

century, and by a Bishop of Jerusalem in the third. Alexander; doubtless the

same as “Alexander the coppersmith” of II Timothy 4:14.   Whom I

have delivered unto Satan. The passages in Scripture which throw light

on this difficult phrase are, chiefly, the following: the almost identical passage,

I Corinthians 5:5; Job 1:12; 2:6-7; Luke 13:10; Acts 5:5,10; 10:38; 13:11;

I Corinthians 11:30; II Corinthians 12:7; and Hebrews 2:14.  Putting these

together, it appears that sickness and bodily infirmity and death are, within

certain limits, in the power of Satan to inflict. And that the apostles were able,

on fitting occasions, to hand over peccant members of the Church to this power

of Satan, that by such discipline “THE SPIRIT MIGHT BE SAVED.”

(I Corinthains 5:5).  In the case of Hymenaeus and Alexander (as in that of the

incestuous person at Corinth), the punishment incident on this delivery to Satan

would appear to have been short of death, but in the case of the two first

not to have had the effect of bringing them to a true repentance.

May learn.  (paideuqw~si - paideuthosi - might be taught); viz. by

correction and punishment, as children are taught (Hebrews 12:6-8).

The metaphor in the word kolafi>zein kolaphizeinbuffet; may be

chastening(II Corinthians 12:7) is similar.

 

The apostle delivered them unto Satan, which seems to have included:

 

  • a solemn excommunication from the Church, carried out no doubt by

the Church at the apostle’s command; and

 

  • the infliction of bodily disease. Cases of the exercise of this terrible

apostolic power are those of Ananias and Sapphira, Elymas, and the

incestuous person at Corinth.

 

  • It was not an irrevocable sentence, for its remission depended upon the

return of the offenders to faith and repentance. “That they may be taught

through chastisement not to blaspheme.” The design was the recovery of

the offenders; but neither this Epistle nor the next throws any light upon

the ultimate effect of the severe discipline inflicted by the apostle.

 

 

The Heretic.

 

We have in these verses some of the characteristics of heresy very

graphically portrayed. First, there is the teaching of other or different

doctrine from that which they had received. The Fathers always lay stress

upon novelty as characteristic of heresy, while it was characteristic of the

Church to teach the old truths which had been banded down to them by

those who went before them. And they are right. “I delivered unto you that

which I also received” (I Corinthians 15:3), is the spirit of sound teaching. To

invent new doctrines, and to preach things of one’s own choosing, is the spirit of

heresy. Then, again, it is characteristic of heresy to start curious questions,

not with a view to real edification in the faith of Jesus Christ, but for the

sake of displaying subtlety in disputing, and keeping up controversy and a

war of words, and factious partisanship. The unity of the Church, and

loving agreement amongst the brethren, is the last thing that heretics think

of. Puffed up with self-importance, desirous of being leaders, despising

others, treating with contempt all who will not follow them, they turn the

Church into a bear-garden, and substitute vain jangling for the words of

truth and soberness. Especially is arrogance combined with ignorance a

leading feature in the heretic; and in his method of handling Divine truth he

makes a display of both. Another feature may be noted, as set forth in v.

19, viz. the divorce between conscience and faith. The heretic handles the

things of God as matter for mere intellectual contests, apart from reverence

and godly fear. He disputes about God and about Christ, and thinks it

unimportant whether his own heart is pure or impure. He walks in open

disobedience to God’s commandments, and yet thinks himself competent

to judge of God’s nature and attributes. He darkens his own soul by sin,

and yet dares to approach the mystery of godliness. Lastly, it is

characteristic of the heretic that he rarely, if ever, repents, and returns to

the faith which he denied. Hymenaeus and Alexander, in spite of the godly

discipline ministered to them for their correction, are still found subverting

the faith of many, and withstanding the apostle of Jesus Christ, in the latest

mention of them. They were in this respect like their brethren in heresy,

Simon Magus, Cerinthus, Marcion, Valentinus, Montanus, Manes, Arius,

Socinus, and many more.  (Freud, Darwin, Marx, -there are many today

and who will may know them.  Paul would characterize them – “But though

we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than

 that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed” –

Galatians 1:7; “If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let

him be Anathema Maranatha.” – I Corinthians 16:22 – CY – 2013)

THE SHIPWRECK OF FAITH IS, FOR THE MOST PART, TOTAL

AND IRREMEDIABLE.

 

The Greek word for heresy is ai[resiv - hah’ee-res-is; - a choosing,

            choice then that which is chosen, and hence an opinion, especially

            a self-willed opinion, which is substituted for submission to the power

            of truth and leads to division, the formation of sects and finally,

            APOSTASY FROM GOD!  (Think of the origins, influences and

            roles of  PRO-CHOICE and the AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES

            UNION in the United States of America’s CULTURAL DEMISE  (IT                          

ALL BEGAN WITH A CHOICE – a la – HERESY – CY -2009)          

            Such a man is a living lie against the truth.

 

 

The Apostle Paul Contrasted with a Heretic (vs. 12-18)

 

The character of the apostle and true minister of the gospel stands out here

in striking and glorious contrast with that of the heretic. Called by the

grace of God to the ministry of the Word, not self-appointed; enabled by

the grace of God, not trusting in his own cleverness; seeking the glory of

God and the salvation of souls, not aiming at his own self-exaltation; — the

apostle and minister of Christ moves altogether in a different plane from

the heretical leader. A humble sense of his own unworthiness, instead of

arrogant self-conceit; a lively apprehension of the mercy and love of God

to his own soul, instead of a self-sufficient reliance upon his own intellect;

a faithful delivery of the truth committed to him, instead of a presumptuous

fabrication of new doctrines; and a glowing faith and love, with a growing

apprehension of the glory of the central truths of the gospel, instead of a

vain reaching after new things, and an itching for exciting fablesmark

off the true servant of Christ from the pretentious heretic by unmistakable

distinctions. Well were it for the Church if these characteristics of the true

bishop of souls were more distinctly visible in all her ministers. Questions,

and strifes of words, and fables, and speculations, which tend to division

more than to unity, may be found in the teaching and writing of professing

Churchmen, as well as in those of avowed heretics. Let “the faithful

saying hold its supreme place in the heart and in the teaching of the

Church’s ministers, and the unity as well as the holiness of the Church will

be proportionately increased. Its strength to resist heresy will be increased

in the same degree.

 

 

"Excerpted text Copyright AGES Library, LLC. All rights reserved.

Materials are reproduced by permission."

 

This material can be found at:

http://www.adultbibleclass.com

 

If this exposition is helpful, please share with others.