I Timothy 4
1 “Now the Spirit speaketh expressly that in the latter times some shall depart
from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils.” The
Spirit speaketh expressly. - (ῤητῶς – rhaetos – explicitly; declarley); only
here in the New Testament, and very rare in classical Greek. But the
adjective ῤητῶς, in the sense of something laid down, definite....
expressly mentioned,” is common. It was, doubtless, on account of these
prophetic warnings of a falling away from the faith, that the apostle gave
the preceding heads of Christian doctrine in such a terse and tangible form,
and laid such a solemn charge upon Timothy. Shall fall away (ἀποστησονται –
apostaesontai – shall be withdrawing; apostasizing). So Paul says (II Thessalonians
2:3) that the day of Christ will not be, “except the falling away (ἡ ἀποστασία –
hae apostasia – the apostasy) come first” (compare Hebrews 3:12) –
the faith; objective (see ch. 3:9 and 16). This “falling away” is to take
place ἐν ὑστέροις καιροῖς - en husterois kairois – in subsequent eras; not, as
in the Revised Version, in “later times,” but as in the Authoriized Version,
“the latter times.” - ὑστέρος – husteros means the last, as opposed
to the first. - And so the adverb ὕστερον – husteron - last - always in the
husteron panten – last of all, 22:27). Here, therefore, ἐν ὑστεροις καιροῖς (in the
latter times) is equivalent to ἐν ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις - en tais eschatais haemerais –
in all these passages there is no article. Giving heed (προσέχοντες – prosechontes)
to seducing spirits (πνεύμασι πλάνοις – pneumasi planois – to spirits deceiving).
Such were the “lying spirits” who deceived (ἀπατήσεις – haepataeseis – lying
spirit) Ahab to his destruction (II Kings 22:22). Πλάνος – planos - seducing,
is not elsewhere found in the New Testament as an adjective. The idea is
“causing to wander,” or “go astray.” John warns his people against such deceiving
spirits (John 4:1-6). He calls them generically πνεύμα τῆς πλάνης – pneuma taes
planaes - the spirit of error. Doctrines of devils (δαιμονίων – daimonion - demons –
incorrectly translated devils) - i.e. teachings suggested by devils. So the unbelieving
Jews suggested that John the Baptist had a devil (Luke 7:33), and that our Lord Himself
(Naturalism, Darwinism, Marxism, Freudism, Hedonism, Realism, Pragmatism,
Pseudo-psychology – [THESE ARE PHILOSOPHIES – NOT SCIENCES]
any of the modern “isms” that are “johnny-come-latelies” which attempt to
contradict THE DIVINE REVELATION OF THE BIBLE has led many in
CY - 2009)
2 “Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron;”
Through the hypocrisy of men that speak lies for speaking lies in hypocrisy, Authorized Version; branded in their own conscience as with for having their conscience seared with, Authorized Version. Through the hypocrisy of men. The construction is rather obscure, as the most obvious way of construing is that of the Authorized Version,
where ψευδόλογων – pseudologon - speaking lies must agree with δαιμονίων
(demons). But then the clause, having their conscience seared with a hot iron,
does not suit “demons.” It is therefore, perhaps, best to translate the clause as the
Revised Version does, and to explain, with Bishop Ellicott, that the preposition
ἐν – en – in which precedes ὑποκρίσει, (hypocrisy) defines the instrument by which
they were led to give heed to seducing spirits, viz. the hypocritical pretenses of the
men who spake lies, and whose consciences were seared (modern playrights,
college professors, movie directors, etc. and any of the general populace
“who love to have it so” – Jeremiah 5:31 – CY – 2009). If ψευδόλογων
agrees with δαιμονίων, we must conceive that
from “the devils” to the false teachers who spake as they taught them. In
the Gospels, the speech of the devils, and of those possessed by devils, is
often interchanged, as e.g. Luke 4:33-34, 41; Mark 1:23-24. Men that speak lies (ψευδολόγω – pseudologo – speak lies); only found here in the New Testament, but occasionally in classical Greek. Branded (κεκαυτηριασμένων – kekautaeriasmenon –
having been cauterized); here only in the New Testament, but used in Greek medical
and other writers for καυτήρ – kautaer - to brand; cauterize; - and καυτήριον –
kautaerion - a branding-iron. The application of the image is somewhat uncertain.
If the idea is that of “a brand,” a mark burnt in upon the forehead of a slave or
criminal, then the meaning is that these men have their own infamy stamped
upon their own consciences. It is not patent only to others, but to themselves also.
But if the metaphor is from the cauterizing a wound, as the Authorized Version
takes it, then the idea is that these men’s consciences are become as insensible
to the touch as the skin that has been cauterized is. The metaphor, in this case, is somewhat similar to that of πώρωσις - porosis – callousness - denoting a hardening,
a covering with a a kind of stone, indicating a process and is used metaphorically of dulled spiritual perception) Mark 3:5; 6:52; John 12:40, etc.). The latter
interpretation seems to suit the general context best, and the medical use of
the term, which Paul might have learned from Luke. The emphasis of
τῆς ἰδίας – taes idias – their own conscience,” implies that they were not
merely deceivers of others, but were self-deceived.
A Predicted Apostasy in the Christian Church (vs. 1-2)
In opposition to this exhibition of the mystery of godliness, the apostle
places the prediction of a serious apostasy (falling away) from the faith.
· THE APOSTASY IS A SUBJECT OF EXPRESS PREDICTION.
“But the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in after times some shall
depart from the faith.” It may seem strange that apostasy should be thought
of so soon after the foundation of Christianity, but the Church is fully forewarned
of the coming danger. It was foretold, not obscurely, but expressly, in the
prophecies by Daniel (Daniel 7:25; 8:23), of our Lord (Matthew 24:4, 11),
and of the apostle himself (II Thessalonians 2.:1-12; Acts 20:29-30;
Colossians 2.). But he here alludes more specifically to a development of
error in the future, the germs of which he discerns in the present.
· THE TIME OF ITS APPEARANCE. “In after times.” The words
signify any period subsequent to the age in which the apostle lived, for he
saw in the apostasy of the present the beginning of a still more serious
apostasy in the future. The mystery of iniquity had already begun to
work (II Thessalonians 2:7). But it would project its evil shadow far
forward into the dispensation, in many various forms.
· THE EXTENT OF THE APOSTASY. “Some shall depart from the
Ø Some, not all. Not the whole visible Church, but a considerable part
of it. Thus an assurance is given that the true
shall not be extinguished.
Ø The apostasy is from the doctrine of faith — though it be the
mystery of godliness — not the grace of faith, which, being of an
incorruptible origin, cannot be lost. Christ is the Author and Finisher
of faith (Hebrews 12:2). The elect cannot be finally deceived. The
doctrine of faith was to be corrupted by “denying what was true,
by adding what was false.”
· THE REASON OR PROCESS OF THE APOSTASY. “Giving heed
to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils.” The prime movers were not
false teachers, but unseen agents in the spirit-world.
Ø Man does not stand isolated in this world. If he is not influenced
by the Holy Spirit, he is influenced by the spirits of delusion, who are
the emissaries of Satan. If we are not possessed by the truth, error will
make an easy conquest of us. Often the heart that is made empty by
skepticism is the most ready to welcome superstition.
Ø It is possible for evil spirits to influence the human mind.
o Satan could tempt David to number the people (I Chronicles
21:1). As the father of lies, the suggestion of error would be a
congenial work. The coming of the man of sin is to be after
the working of Satan.
o There is a sacrifice to devils, a communion with devils, a cup of
devils, a table of devils (I Corinthians 10:20-21). There is a
spiritual wickedness in high places capable of compassing
great destruction by error. (Ephesians 6:12)
o The apostle teaches the personality of such evil spirits.
o There is no more difficulty in understanding their communication
of thought to man, than in understanding the communication of
thought from one evil man to another. An evil man can
communicate evil by a glance of his eye. But if the Spirit of God
can, without the intervention of the senses, influence the minds
of believers, it is easy to understand that seducing spirits can
have access to the centers of thought and feeling without any
· THE CHARACTER OF THE FALSE TEACHERS UNDER SUCH
EVIL INSPIRATION. “In the hypocrisy of speakers of lies, being
branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron.”
Ø They assumed a mask of holiness which they did not possess,
with the view of giving better currency to their lies. Their assumed
sanctity would throw the unwary off their guard, and lead to the
confounding of truth with error. The lies they taught were that holiness
was to be attained through abstinence from marriage and particular
kinds of food.
Ø They were essentially corrupt, for their conscience had become so
seared through transgression that they had lost the true distinctions
between right and wrong, error and truth. They were incapable of
relishing the “mystery of godliness,” and therefore devoted
themselves to the arts of religious seduction in the interests of an
essentially unspiritual asceticism.
3 “Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth.”
Forbidding to marry. This
is mentioned as showing itself first among the Essenes
and Therapeutic by Josephus ('
for they renounce marriage" (Plin., 'Nat. Hist.,' 5:15). As regards their food, Bishop Lightfoot says, "The Essene drank no wine; he did not touch animal food. His meal consisted of a piece of bread, and a single mess of vegetables" ('Introd.,' p. 86).
Professor Burton (in Kitto's 'Cyclopaedia,' art. "Gnosticism') says of the later Gnostics that, from their principle of the utter malignity of matter, and the elevating nature of γνῶσις, two very opposite results ensued:
· one that many Gnostics led very profligate lives;
· the other that many practiced great austerities in order to mortify the
body and its sensual appetites (p. 770).
Some of our modern Eneratites, in their language concerning the use of wine and beer, approach Gnosticism very closely. To be received (εἰς μετάληψιν – eis metalaepsin –
into partaking); a classical word, but only found here in the New Testament, not used by the Septuagint. With thanksgiving. Observe the identity of thought with Romans 14:6.
These passages, together with our Lord's action at the last Supper (Luke 22:17,19),
at the multiplication of the loaves and fishes (Luke 9:16), and Paul's on board ship
(Acts 27:35), are conclusive as to the Christian duty of giving thanks, commonly
“Forbidding to marry” – (these FALSE TEACHERS and THEIR
MODERN COUNTERPARTS and those “who love to have it so” – Jeremiah
5:31 - are to blame for the current dismal condition of the family in the world –
illegitimacy, “shacking up”, “living together arrangement”, out of wed-lock
births, THE ABORTION INDUSTRY, HOMOSEXUALITY, multiple
partners, LESBIANISM, divorce, incontinency (ἀκρατσια– akratsia –
want of power, want of self-control – ἀκρατεῖς – powerless; impotent, in a
moral sense, unrestrained; without control). Webster’s Dictionary’s first
definition is: the failure to restrain sexual appetite - [see II Timothy 3:3] –
a sign of the “last days” - MAN DOES NOT HAVE THE RESOLVE TO
DEAL WITH THIS BUT GOD DOES AND WILL! God asks in that same
verse mentioned above from Jeremiah “and what will ye do in the end thereof?”
CY – 2009)
(Silly rules suggested by modern Progressives in 2019 have advanced far beyond
my statement above in 2009! CY – 2019)
4 “For every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving:” Nothing is to be rejected. The Authorized Version, "nothing to
be refused," manifestly uses "nothing" in its adverbial sense ("in no degree," "not at all," Johnson's 'Dict.'), as οὐδέν – ouden – nothing in Greek is also commonly used In fact, it is very difficult to construe the passage as the Revised Version does. To say "nothing is to be rejected if it is received," is scarcely sense. But to say that every creature of God is good (and on that account not to be rejected) if it is received with thanksgiving is very good and edifying sense. Creature (κτίσμα - ktisma). The form commonly used by
stands by the side of κτίσις, like:
· βρῶμα – broma - meat by the side of βρῶσις – brosis - eating
· ὅραμα – horama – that which is seen by the side of ὅρασις - horasis - seeing
· πόμα – poma - drink by the side of πόσις – posis - drinking, and many more.
The form κτίσμα is found in James 1:18; and twice in Revelation. Good (καλόν –
kalon - good); with reference to Genesis 1:10, 12, etc. To be refused (ἀπόβλητον –
apoblaeton – to be cast away); only here in the New Testament, but found in
classical Greek, and not uncommon in the Septuagint and other Greek versions,
for that which is "unclean," or "abominable." If it be received with thanksgiving.
This clearly refers to "every creature of God," and is the condition on which it is
good in relation to the receiver. Nothing can be clearer or more certain than that the apostle is not arguing against the Manichean doctrine of the evil of matter, or the
works of the Demiurge (a being responsible for the creation of the universe), but
against Jewish scruples about meats. "Every creature of God," he says, "is good" –
words which would have no force if the creatures in question were not admitted to
be the works of God, but thought to be the works of the Demiurge. But applied to
the Jewish scruples, the words are perfectly relevant. Every creature of God is
good, and on no account to be treated as common or unclean (Acts 10:15, 28),
provided only that it be received with thanksgiving.
A Grateful Heart (v. 4)
“If it be received with thanksgiving.” We are always to be conscious of
dependence, or else our very blessings turn to curses. We become full, and
we deny God. There is a prosperity without God which makes men proud
and hard. Men lose the consciousness of the transitoriness of earthly good
(“for we brought nothing into this world and it is certain that we
can carry nothing out.” (ch. 6:7; Job 1:21), and of their entire dependence
upon God. We are, therefore, to live in an atmosphere of gratitude. We are
not to receive mercies as though we had a right to them, but always, as Paul says,
“Be ye thankful.”
· THINK OF THE THOUGHT MANIFESTED IN THESE GIFTS,
Every student of nature becomes surprised that beauty is born out of such
strange elements, and that there should be such harmony of forces that,
taken alone, would be terribly destructive. God’s thoughts are, toward us,
precious thoughts, spoken in all ages by holy men, and symbolized in the
world of nature. God has thought out all that is needful for our life.
(“What could have been done more to my vineyard, that I have
not done in it? (Isaiah 5:4) He has stored the earth, interlaced it with
rich metallic veins, filled it with limestone and coal, that all might be ready
for his child. (And like food, mentioned above, today, there are those
spiritual heathens who would ban the searching for resources which
would greatly benefit mankind - for example, coal, which they say pollutes –
all the while having NO UNDERSTANDING “that morally, they are
POLLUTING THE EARTH at a much more rapid clip which is
bringing destruction upon the earth; a la – THE END OF TIME
AND THE CONSUMATION OF THE AGE – SO TO THE
GREEN MOVEMENT and THE GLOBAL WARMING CROWD –
see Revelation 11:18 – CY – 2013) And in grace we see how God
promised a Savior, and, when his Son came into the world,
“all things are now ready.” (Luke 14:17)
· THINK OF THE FORBEARANCE THAT CONTINUES THEM.
Men have abused God’s mercies. If men destroy the nobleman’s shrubs, he
closes his grounds. If men deface the pictures, the galleries are no longer
free. And yet God bears with all the sin and frailty of man; and from
generation to generation this is the thought that should move man most —
not only the forgiveness, BUT THE FOREBEARANCE OF GOD!
· THINK OF THE PLEASURES RECEIVED FROM THEM. What
Million-fold ministrations of pleasure there are! What has not nature been to
you, and love, and thought, and home! There is no more wonderful
contemplation than the varied pleasures of heart and mind. (I was
sitting at a magazine rack this very day looking at some very beautiful
pictures of God’s Creation – CY – March 11, 2013)
· THINK OF THE UNCREATIVE POWER OF MAN. We cannot
create an atom:
Ø we can only readjust and combine.
Ø the artist cannot create his colors; he can only mix them.
Ø the physician cannot create his remedies; he can only find them.
Ø the builder cannot create his stones, he can only quarry them.
Ø the child can gather the flower; but a whole universe of men
Ø cannot give it life again.
Let every creation of God be received with thanksgiving.
A False Asceticism (v. 4)
“For every creature of God is good.” The gospel stood in a difficult
position. On the one hand was asceticism, with its hermits of every creed,
its retreats in Asia, Africa, and
Epicureanism with its philosophy of enjoyments, which ran into lawless
excess. We must judge a new religion by its first teacher; for Christ was His
own religion alive and in action. John the Baptist was an ascetic; but Chris
came eating and drinking, and His enemies said, “Behold, a wine-bibber,
and a friend of publican and sinners.” (Matthew 11:19) His first miracle was
at a marriage festival, and He dined with the Pharisees. We have here an example
in morals. Every creature or creation — not necessarily a living thing — is
good. Show that IT IS FROM GOD, and then it must be good. In the story
of Creation, after every new day, “God saw that it was good.”
· ASCETICISM MAKES A FALSE WORLD OF ITS OWN. It narrows
life; it empties the fountains of joy, it destroys the hopes of youth, it
degrades the body, and treats matter as though it were evil. God’s idea of
life is that BODY, SOUL AND SPIRIT ARE TO BE REDEEMED!
· THE CHRISTIAN. FAITH MAKES A TRUE WORLD OF MEN.
We are to be trained through use, even when use is dangerous; for test
makes manhood. “Blessed is the man that endureth temptation.”
(James 1:12) We are to have the analogy in Nature. She is to stand the
storm, and be strengthened by it. So the atmosphere is purified, so the roots
of the trees take faster hold of the soil. What a world of disease and death
this would be without currents and waves and storms!
· THE CHRISTIAN FAITH HAD FALSE INTERPRETERS. It could
but be that the surrounding tendencies affected the Christians. Just as there
were Judaistic Christians, so there were those affected by the old
Manichean doctrine “that matter was evil.” Consequently they would treat
the body as corrupt and evil. The apostle, therefore, is not only general, but
specific in his statement, “Some forbid to marry and forbid to eat meats;”
and he repeats the expression, “which God hath created.” The same
tendency appeared, and was fatally developed, in the monastic life of the
Church. The monk and the nun appeared to possess a special sanctity, but
it was not really so. The forces of nature, if they have not pure avenues of
enjoyment, will be sure to find impure channels; and history shows that
monasteries have been associated with hidden vice and criminal deeds of
shame, though softened over with vesper chants and morbid garments of
A Universal Use (v. 4)
“And nothing to be refused.” The apostle has shown that government is a
creation of God; we are to pray for kings and all in authority, and this is
acceptable in the sight of God our Savior. And he has taught us to obey the
powers that be; for they are ordained of God. He has shown that the place
of man in the Creation IS OF GOD! A woman’s lot is not to be the world’s
leader or teacher, but the equal companion of man. All social economies
break to pieces that deny God’s ordinations in the universe. No order that
he has created is to be refused.
TO REFUSE IS TO IMPLY A
GOD. The wisest must know best. He who is from everlasting to
everlasting has given a revelation for all aspects of society and all ages of
men. Individual liberty is left. We are not to forbid to marry or to command
to abstain from meats; though, if any thought the meat was offered to idols,
and that they sanctioned idolatry, they might refuse it; as our temperance
friends think that when use runs to abuse, and is a stumbling-block, they
have a perfect right to use the liberty of abstinence. “Nothing to be refused.”
Wonderful words! The imagination of the mind is a creation of God.
Poetry, affection, and art alike may be used in the Christian sphere.
(However, perversions promoted like the National Endowment of the Arts,
is a disgrace. GOD WILL JUDGE! – CY – 2019) The intellect of the wise
is a creation of God; it is not to be blindfolded (Like
but we are to use it in its own sphere, reverently looking up to God for more
light. “Come, and let us reason together, saith the Lord.” (Isaiah 1:18) All natural beauty IS OF GOD! It is no sign of religion to love ugliness. Only let your beauty not be meretricious beauty. Let it be pure, AS GOD IS PURE! “Nothing to be refused.”
5 “For it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer.” It is sanctified through the Word of God. Considerable difference of opinion prevails among commentators as to
the precise meaning of this verse, especially of the phrase, "the Word of God." Some
refer to Genesis 1:4, 10, 12, etc.; others to v. 29; 9:4, as containing the original grant
of meats for the use of man; others to the scriptural phrases embodied in the words of the ἐντεύξις – enteuxis – pleading; prayer; intercession - the prayer of thanksgiving. Another possible reference would be to the Word of God recorded in Acts 10:13,15,28, by which that which had previously been unclean was now made clean or holy; or,
lastly, it might mean "the blessing of God" given in answer to the "prayer" on each occasion, which suits well the present tense, ἁγιάζετι – hagiazeti – it is sanctified;
it is being hallowed. Prayer (ἐντευξις; see ch. 2:1, note).
Timothy Warned (vs. 1-5)
· APOSTASY. “But the Spirit saith expressly, that in later times some
shall fall away from the faith.” This was to be properly an apostasy, or
movement away from Christ from within the Church. Some who were
professed believers were to fall away from the faith. They were unworthily
to use their Christian position, Christian enlightenment and reputation,
against Christ. This was to take place in “later times,” not in the times
before the completion of the
subsequent to the time that then was, not all in one time but, as pointing to
more than one anti-Christian development, in times. This was explicitly
foretold, the prophecy being traced, not to the consciousness of the
apostle, but to the inspiration of the Spirit. The prophecy had already been
made known, but we may understand that it was still already witnessed in
the consciousness of the apostle. If the mystery of godliness was operating,
there was also, as announced in II Thessalonians, already operating the
mystery of iniquity.
· HOW THE APOSTASY WAS TO BE BROUGHT ABOUT.
Ø Source. “Giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of devils.” The
apostle points to the apostasy as having its origin from beneath. There is
the agency of those who are the tools of the devil. These are seducing
spirits, their object being TO LEAD AWAY FROM CHRIST! And they are demons, hostile to souls, who give rise to soul-destroying doctrines. This is
the quarter from which the apostates are to draw their inspiration and their
faith. It has been remarked here how we cannot stand isolated. If we are
not influenced by the Holy Spirit, we must fall under the power of one or
other — for they are a plurality, and do not agree unless in their end — of
the deceiving spirits. If we do not give heed to the doctrine of God our
Savior — one and thoroughly consistent as well as sublime — we must
give heed to one or other of the doctrines of devils, many and inconsistent.
(To check the accuracy of this statement, just analyze your attitude toward
this! CY – 2019)
Ø Instrumentality. “Through the hypocrisy of men that speak lies, branded
in their own conscience as with a hot iron.” The evil spirits are to be
thought of as working in and through these heretical teachers. They are
hidden from our view and from the consciousness of the teachers
themselves; but there seems no reason to doubt that those who pay no
heed to the leadings of the Spirit of truth lay themselves open to be
possessed, in an ordinary way, by one or other of the spirits of falsehood
whose instruments they become. The heretical teachers are suitably
described as speakers of lies. They were to give forth as truth what were
lies — what did not agree with the nature of things, what did not agree
with the nature of God, with the facts of human nature, that for which they
were without evidence, and of which they had no clear conviction. They
were to be like men wearing a mask, laying claim to superior sanctity and
to show the way to sanctity, but only to conceal their own turpitude.(depravity;
wickedness). For they were to be branded in their own conscience, branded
as criminals were branded, and branded where the marks of their crimes could not be concealed from themselves. (Are tattoos brands? CY – 2019)
· TWO POINTS IN THE HERETICAL TEACHING THAT WAS TO
BE THE PRECURSOR OF THE APOSTASY.
Ø “Forbidding to marry, and
Ø commanding to abstain from meats.”
This asceticism was already appearing in Essenism. The honorable, and even exaggerated, estimate of marriage which was characteristic of the Jew, and of
the Pharisee as the typical Jew, found no favor with the Essene. Marriage was to him an abomination. Those Essenes, who lived together as members of an order, and in whom the principles of the sect were carried to their logical consequences,
eschewed it altogether. To secure the continuance of their brotherhood,
they adopted children, whom they brought up in the doctrines and practices
of the community. (Does this not describe the dilemma that the LGBT [lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community] often used to encompass any sexual orientations or gender identities that do not correspond to heterosexual norms)
Community? CY – 2019) There were others, however, who took a different view. They accepted marriage as necessary for the preservation of the race. Yet
even with them it seems to have been regarded only as an inevitable evil.
They fenced it off by stringent rules, demanding a three years’ probation,
and enjoining various purificatory rites. The conception of marriage as
quickening and educating the affections, and thus exalting and refining
human life, was wholly foreign to their minds. Woman was a, mere
instrument of temptation in their eyes, deceitful, faithless, selfish, jealous,
misled and misleading by her passions. But their ascetic tendencies did not
stop here. The Pharisee was very careful to observe the distinction of
meats lawful and unlawful, as laid down by the Mosaic code, and even
rendered those ordinances vexatious by minute definitions of his own. But
the Essene went far beyond him. He drank no wine, he did not touch
animal food. His meal consisted of a piece of bread and a single mess of
vegetables. Even this simple tare was prepared for him by special officers
consecrated for the purpose, that it might be free from all contamination.
(Now grocery stores have on their shelves examples of this! CY – 2019)
Nay, so stringent were the rules of the order on this point, that, when an
Essene was excommunicated, he often died of starvation, being bound by
oath not to take food prepared by defiled hands, and thus being reduced to
eat the very grass of the field (Lightfoot). In Gnosticism, which came to its
full development after the apostle’s day, these points had great
prominence, being grounded in the idea of matter as being the principle of
evil. The same points come out very remarkably in Roman Catholicism. The
ordinance of marriage, which our Lord honored, is thus depreciated in a
decree of the Council of Trent: “Whosoever shall say that the married state
is to be preferred to a state of virginity or celibacy, and. that it is not better
and more blessed to remain in virginity or celibacy than to be joined in
marriage, let him be accursed.” In the same line superior sanctity, or special
merit, is connected with abstinence from meats. Thus the prophecy
received striking fulfillment. (We ought to be very careful to what we
espouse in this life, working out ”our with fear and trembling.” (Philippians
2:12 – CY – 2019)
· REFUTATION OF THE SECOND POINT IN THE HERETICAL
Ø Position to which it is opposed. “Which God created to be received with
thanksgiving by them that believe and know the truth.” God has created
meats, and He has created them for the use of all. At the same time, it is
true that the purpose of creation is only fulfilled in the case of them that
believe and know the truth. They alone can appreciate the condition
attached to the use of meats, viz. receiving with thanksgiving. “A brutish
man knoweth not; neither doth a fool understand this.” (Psalm 92:6)
But those that have experience of the truth as believers are:
o sensible of their mercies, and
o give God thanks for them.
o Broad principle. “For every creature of God is good, and nothing is to
be rejected, if it be received with thanksgiving.” This is one broad principle on which practice is to be based. “And God saw everything that he had made, and, behold, it was very good.” (Genesis 1:31) We must lay hold — against a false asceticism — of the essential goodness of whatever God has made for food. It may have to be refused on the ground of health, on the ground of moral discipline as expressed in I Corinthians 9:27, on the ground of benefit to others as expressed in (ibid. ch. 8:13. But apart from such considerations, to which only their due weight must be attached, a creature-comfort as good in itself has no unholiness to us, if the condition is fulfilled, viz. receiving with thanksgiving. It is a very important consideration, which we must not lose sight of in feeling the claims of abstinence, that by our creature-comforts God is seeking to make us glad, and to attach us to Himself in thankfulness.
o Elucidation of the good creature of God having no unholiness to us.
“For it is sanctified through the Word of God and prayer.” By conversing with God through His Word we rise above our own low
ideas and aims, and get into the region of His thoughts and purposes.
(Even though as the heavens are higher than the earth, are His ways
and thoughts higher than ours! Isaiah 55:9 – CY – 2019) We get at the
principles which are to regulate us, and the feelings which are to animate
us, in our daily life. We thereby connect God with our daily life, and are
prepared for sitting down to the meals of the day. But we are to connect
God more immediately with our meals by prayer. We are to ask God, from whom our table mercies come, to bless us in the use of them, and
to accept our thankfulness for them. Here is a very old form of grace before meat: “Blessed be thou, O Lord, who hast fed me from my
youth, who givest food to all flesh. Fill our hearts with joy and gladness, that, having always what sufficeth, we may abound unto all good works, in Christ Jesus our Lord, through whom be unto thee honor, glory, and power, for ever and ever.” By such reasonable acknowledgment of God before our food is it sanctified to us. We can partake of it as a holy thing, as that which we have as a covenant privilege. Nothing is said about the first point in the heretical teaching. But it can be refuted on much the same ground. God has instituted marriage for our happiness. The end of the institution is carried out in the case of them that believe and know the truth, by their thanking God for the happiness which is thus ministered to them. The married life is made holy by being connected with the Word of God and prayer.
The Practical Features of the Apostasy (vs. 3-5)
The apostle does not enumerate the doctrinal errors of the apostates, but
touches upon two practical characteristics which would fall under general
· THERE WAS A PROHIBITION OR RESTRAINT UPON
MARRIAGE. “Forbidding to marry.”
Ø It developed inside the Latin and
of the clergy and the religious orders.
Ø It was a tendency wholly opposed to Scripture teaching.
o It forbade what Scripture allowed: “Marriage is honorable
in all” (Hebrews 13:4).
o It forbade the marriage of ministers, while Old Testament
priests and New Testament ministers were to be “husbands of
one wife” (ch.3:2). “Have we not power to lead about a
wife, a sister?” (I Corinthians 9:5). Several of the apostles
made use of this power: “As well as other apostles.... and
o The reason why the apostle says so little here concerning the
restriction on marriage, and so much on that respecting meats,
is probably because the one was so manifestly opposed to the
whole plan of creation, that the common sense of men would
reject it as unnatural and wrong. Perhaps, also, the one
tendency had not assumed so definite a form as the other. The
very liberty allowed under the gospel to abstain from marriage
was not grounded on the idea of the superior holiness of celibacy
or virginity, but on its affording in special circumstances greater
opportunities and freedom for spiritual work (I Corinthians
· THERE WAS A PROHIBITION OR RESTRAINT UPON THE USE
OF CERTAIN KINDS OF FOOD. “And commanding to abstain from
meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving by
them who believe and know the truth.”
Ø It was contrary to God’s design in creation.
o All food was from the hand of the Maker; nothing was therefore to
be accounted common or unclean under the gospel.
o All food was good. “For every creature of God is good, and
nothing to be refused.” It was not, therefore, for man to place
restrictions upon what God had given with such a liberal hand for
his use. “The earth is the Lord’s, and the fullness thereof.”
(Psalm 24:1; I Corinthians 10:26)
Ø The conditions under which the true design of God in creation is
o The food was for all creatures; but “believers and those who
have known the truth” had a covenant right to it, and the true
end of creation was only fully satisfied in them.
o The right manner of receiving the food provided. “If it be
received with thanksgiving;” for it is sanctified by the
Word of God and prayer (vs. 4-5). This implies:
§ that food is to be gratefully received as God’s gift;
§ that our thanksgiving is presented on the objective side by
the Word of God, and on the subjective side by prayer.
Thus the custom of grace before and after meat is
grounded in a Divine command.
Creation Sanctified (v. 5)
“For it is sanctified by the Word of God and prayer.” Here, then, is an
exquisite harmony. We have been talking of creation, and now we come to
consider the Word of God. And these creative things are to be “sanctified
by the Word of God and prayer.” Men can talk with God. His fellowship is
a test of all our pleasures and companionships and associations — “Would
the Bible be out of place here?” It is never out of place in nature’s gardens
and groves. The best descriptions of nature are in the Bible. It is never out
of place in pure festivities. It records the marriage supper, and the music
and the dance when the prodigal came home. It is never out of place in
children’s joys; for it gives the picture of a glad and happy childhood. The
prophet says, “The streets of the city shall be full of girls and boys
playing” (Zechariah 8:5); and Christ took up little children in His arms, and
blessed them. It is never out of place in pure human love; for that is poetized in
one entire book of the Bible. It is not out of place in the earnest pursuit of secular
things (The purpose of Christianity is to sanctify the secular – C. H. Spurgeon);
for the proverbs appeal to personal endeavor, and to the right enjoyment of
riches and honor. The Bible sanctifies life from the cradle to the grave, and any
social economy apart from the Word of God is only a paper defense against tyranny
and wrong. “And prayer.” For we may speak to God. The neutral face of nature is
ghastly without Him. “Speak, Lord; for thy servant heareth” (I Samuel 3:10).
Can I ask God to be there at all? Can I ask Him to aid me in my work? Can I ask
Him to comfort me if I fail? Can I ask Him to quicken my powers and enlarge my
opportunities? Can I ask Him to sanctify my associations? These are vital questions;
for nothing is sanctified without him, and everything is “sanctified by the Word of
God and prayer.”
6 “If thou put the brethren in remembrance of these things, thou shalt be a good minister of Jesus Christ, nourished up in the words of faith and of good doctrine, whereunto thou hast attained.” If thou put the brethren in mind of these things (παῦτα ὑποτιθέμενος τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς – pauta hupotithemenos tois adelphois –
these things suggesting to the brethren); if thou suggest these things to the brethren,
lay them down as principles upon which their conduct is to be based; or, enjoin them (Liddell and Scott). It only occurs in this metaphorical sense here in the New Testament, but is very common in classical Greek, and not infrequent in the Septuagint. It has often the meaning of "to advise" or" counsel." Of course, "hypothesis," the assumed basis from which you start, is the same root. The brethren (τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς – tois adelphois). The distinctive name for the members of Christ's Church, throughout the Acts of the
Apostles and the Epistles. The whole body is called ἡ ἀδελφότης - tois adelphois –
to presbyters (ch. 3:2), is an indication of the early date of the Epistle, before the
distinctive names of the Church officers had quite hardened down into a technical meaning. Nourished (ἐντρεφόμενος – entrephomenos – fostering; nourishing);
here only in the New Testament, and not used in the Septuagint; but in classical Greek not uncommon in the sense of "brought up in," "trained in from childhood." In Latin, innutritus. The phrase, "nourished in the words of the faith," etc., explains the καλὸς διάκονος – kalos diakonos – good servant; ideal minister, and shows what
a man must be to deserve the appellation - one, viz., who is nourished in the words of
the faith, etc. The faith. The good doctrine, etc. In opposition to the "doctrines of
devils" in v. 1. The different epithets of this true Christian doctrine are τῆς καλῆς διδασκαλίας – taes kalaes didaskalias – the good doctrine; the ideal teaching - (as here); ὑγιαίνουσα – hugiainousa – being sound (ch. 1:10; Titus 1:9; 2:1);
ἡ κατ εὐσεβείαν διδασκαλία – hae kat eusebeian didaskalia – which is according
hae didaskalia – the teaching, without any epithet. In like manner, ἡ πίστις – hae pistis –
the faith; ἡ ἀληθεία – hae alaetheia – the truth; ἡ εὐσεβεία – hae eusebeia – holiness;
godliness, severally denote the Christian religion. Which thou hast followed until now
(ᾗ παρηκολουθήκας – hae paraekolouthaekas - which you have fully followed). This is
a rather more faithful rendering than that of the Authorized Version; it is, literally, which thou hast kept close to, either for the purpose of imitating it, or, as II Timothy 3:10, for the purpose of observing it. Or, to put it differently, in one case so as to teach it identically, and in the other so as to know it perfectly. In this last aspect it is also used in Luke 1:3. The classical use is "to follow closely any one's steps," or "the course of events," when used literally; or, metaphorically, "to follow with one's thoughts," "to understand."
A Wise Reminder (v. 6)
“If thou put the brethren in remembrance.” We cannot create truth, any
more than the artist can create nature. Revelation is not imagination. A
teacher can combine, harmonize, reproduce, and call to remembrance.
Timothy cannot add to the gospel. In the eleventh verse of the first chapter
it is called “the glorious gospel, which was committed to my trust.” A
trustee does not alter the will, neither does he add to it. All that he has to
do is sacredly to carry out the last wishes of the testator. And when Christ
had finished the gospel by His ascension, then He sent them into all the
world to preach it.
· THE CHURCH A BROTHERHOOD. “Put the brethren.” Here is no
priestly domination, no hierarchical pretension.
Ø Brotherhood in service. We may have different functions, but we are all
servants. We have it in type in the great Servant, “who came not to be
ministered unto, but to minister.” We ought never to be ashamed of
service. The old guilds in
that retirement is thought more honorable than service.
Ø Brotherhood in sympathy. The most precious element in life is the
sentiment of pity. Some men despise sentiment; but without it you take
away the atmosphere of life, as in nature atmosphere is the drapery of the
hills and the haze of the mountains. This sympathy is subtle, not merely
spoken, but breathed in tones and glances at us in looks of thoughtful love.
It is an angel of help, always swift to help, and ready to fly to sorrow.
Shakespeare calls it “Heaven’s cherubim horsed.”
Ø Brotherhood in pilgrimage. In Church life there will be absence of mere
etiquette and ceremony. It will be a contrast to the world. It will not be
easy to come and go from a true pilgrim Church. Pride may not care for it;
fashion, in its novelistic literature, may laugh at it; but the Christian knows
that there is something strengthening in the fellowship of the saints.
· THE GOSPEL A REMEMBRANCE. “Put them in remembrance;”
because of their preoccupation. Business life, the cares of home, make us
forget the heavenly Word. Too often the angels of God stand outside the
heart. In a busy age like the present there is nothing men so much need as
quiet hours for the quickening of memory. “Remembrance;” because of
familiarity. As the Swiss mountaineer thinks little of the beauty which the
traveler goes miles upon miles to see, so the gospel has been round about
our childhood and youth, and there is a danger lest we make light of that
which is so familiar to our thought. “Remembrance;” because of pride. We
forget that we need the gospel, and once felt ourselves to be chief of sinners;
forget that we were slaves, and can now go back and take up the broken
chains of old sins. “Remembrance;” because we may seek to make a new
religion for ourselves. Earnestness may take the forms of Pharisaism and
asceticism; we may try Emersonian self-dependence. We are to remember
that the gospel of the grace of God is what we all need unto the end.
Ministerial Vocation (v. 6)
“Thou shalt be a good minister of Jesus Christ, nourished up in the words
of faith and of good doctrine, whereunto thou hast attained.” Taking your
own medicines. Eating the bread you recommend. A good horticulturist
will show you his own garden. The test, therefore, of Christian faith and
good doctrine is — being nourished up.
· IT MAKES MEN STRONG TO ENDURE. Ministers are men of like
passions with others; as Shakespeare says:
“We are all men!
In our own nature, frail, incapable.
Of our flesh, few are angels.”
Paul realized all this himself, and said, “We are men of like passions with
yourselves.” (Acts 14:15) In the daily conflict, the soul that is nourished up
and made strong in Christ can “endure as seeing Him who is invisible.” (Hebrews 11:27)
· MADE STRONG TO ENJOY. Full of deep and quiet joy. It is a poor
strength that can merely show self-denial! There must be self-exercise —
the ability to show that life in God leads to a ministry of service that shall
be full of heart and hope.
· MADE STRONG TO TESTIFY. “Nourished up in the words of
faith,” so as not merely to expound them or to give elaborate exegesis of
doctrine, but to live out the heavenly truths. Timothy was to attain unto
this, and to let no man despise his youth, because age alone is not wisdom,
and Paul speaks of him as having “attained.”
7 “But refuse profane and old wives' fables, and exercise thyself rather unto godliness.” The Revised Version, by putting a full stop after "fables," disturbs the natural flow of the thought. The two imperatives παραιτοῦ - paraitou – be you
refusing and γύμναζε – gunnaze – be you exercising - connect and contrast the
thoughts in the two clauses of the verse, as the Authorized Version indicates by the insertion of "rather." Profane (βεβήλους – bebaelous - profane ch. 1:9, note) Old wives' (γράωδεις – graodeis – old womanish); only here in the New Testament; not
used in Septuagint; rare in classical Greek. Exercise thyself unto godliness (γύμναζε σεαυτόν – gumnaze seauton – exercise yourself ). The verb γυμνάζειν – gumnazein – exercised -- occurs in the New Testament only in this place, twice in the Epistle to the Hebrews (Hebrews 5:14; 12:11), and once in II Peter 2:14. In the Septuagint it occurs only once (II Maccabees 10:15), but is common in classical Greek. The metaphor is drawn from training for gymnastic exercises. As regards the whole passage, it seems that there were current among the Jews at this time many "fables" (1 Timothy 1:4; 2 Timothy 4:4; Titus 1:14; 2 Peter 1:16), childish legends and doctrines, some of them directed especially to enforcing certain rules about eating and drinking, and other "bodily exercises," which Paul utterly discountenances, and contrasts with that "good doctrine" which he directs Timothy continually to teach. This would account, naturally, for the introduction of the phrase, γύμναζε σεαυτόν (ex\ercise yourself).
The Due Equipment and Duties of a Minister of Christ
· THE MINISTER MUST BE ALWAYS TEACHING. “By setting forth
these things to the brethren, thou shalt be a good minister of Jesus Christ.”
It was the duty of Timothy to
counsel the brethren at
the present signs of the coming apostasy, and to instruct them how they
should counteract its mischiefs. It is probable that some at
already been betrayed by ascetic seductions into an unhealthy mode of life.
Timothy was to be mindful of the present truth and the present error.
· THE MINISTER MUST BE ALWAYS LEARNING. “Nourishing
thyself up in the words of the faith and of the good instruction which thou
hast diligently followed.”
Ø There must be a continuous and permanent process of self-instruction,
as the tense of the participle signifies. The minister must never cease to
learn, because he has to set the truth in new lights, and to counteract error
out of the large storehouse of Divine truth.
Ø The minister’s armory is the Word of faith and good instruction
o Nothing but God’s Word received by faith will enable Timothy to fight the battle of truth. He is not to overcome in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God.
o He is to adhere faithfully to the truth already attained. Progress in
knowledge does not imply a constant changing of opinions.
· THE MINISTER MUST BE ALWAYS WORKING TOWARD A
PROFITABLE RESULT. “But the profane and old wives’ fables avoid,
and rather exercise thyself unto godliness.”
Ø Negatively, the minister is to avoid foolish and unprofitable studies.
The apostle referred to fables familiarly known, Jewish in origin,
perhaps with a mixture of Gentile theosophy, which were morally unfruitful, but practically dangerous as preparing the way for the
apostasy of the future. The minister must himself stand free from all sympathy with such injurious formalism as was embodied in the
rabbinical studies, as leading to the neglect of the weightier matters
of the Law.
Ø Positively, the minister is to exercise himself unto godliness.
o This implies that godliness is a pursuit that demands the strenuous
application of all our energies of mind, body, and spirit.
o It implies that godliness must be the chief business of a minister as well as the chief aim of his life to promote it among the members
of his flock:
§ It has its inner seat in the heart.
§ It works outward into the life.
§ It is a progressive state.
§ It was the one chief concern of the apostle himself.
“One thing I do.” (Philippians 3:13-14)
8 “For bodily exercise profiteth little: but godliness is profitable unto all things, having promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come.”
Bodily exercise. Exercise which only affects the body, such as those rules which the Jewish ascetics enforced. Γυμνασία – Gumnasia – Exercise - only occurs here in the
New Testament, and not at all in the Septuagint, but is not uncommon in classical Greek. Another form is γύμνασις – gumnasis - exercising, and γυμνάσιον – gumnasion - is the place where such γύμνασις takes place (where we get the word gymnasium – CY – 2019). For a little; margin, for little, which is the best rendering, Πρὸς ὀλίγον – Pros oligon – toward few thing, as Ellicott well remarks, may mean either "for a little while" or "for a little" (better, "for little"), but cannot mean both. The contrast with πρὸς πάντα
– pros panta – toward all - determines its meaning here to be "for little," which is exactly the same meaning as the Authorized Version. Promise of the life. The genitive here is
the genitive of the thing promised, as in Acts 2:33; Galatians 3:14; II Timothy 1:1. And the thing promised is "the life that now is," meaning, of course, its enjoyment in peace and happiness (compare Psalm 34:12 [33, LXX]., where θέλων ζωήν – thelon zoaen - is parallel to ἀγαπῶν ἡμέρας...ἀγαθάς – agapon hameras...agathas – loving days...good); and "that which is to come," viz. eternal life). There is no occasion to strain after
greater grammatical precision. There is no contradiction between this statement of the happiness of a godly life and Paul's statement in I Corinthians 15:19 – “If in this
life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable.”
“Exercise thyself unto godliness…bodily exercise profiteth little” are metaphors drawn from training for gymnastic exercises.
“Promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come” – the
thing promised is “the life that now is”, meaning, of course, its
enjoyment in peace an happiness! compare Psalm 34:12, 16:11.
LIFE IN THE PRESENT and LIFE IN THE FUTURE!
Religious Recompense (v. 8)
“Godliness is profitable unto all things, having promise of the life that now
is.” It is a fair charge against mediaevalism, that it left out of sight the
Christianization of this present life, and became only another-worldism.
The host carried to the dying was everything; the elevation of the earthly
life was nothing. Marshes might remain undrained, habitations unimproved,
knowledge be imprisoned, science be garroted, and this earth neglected,
provided the people became true sons of the Church and possessed the
priestly passports to eternity! The religious nature (and there is that in
every man) was perverted. Man became the subject-power of those who, in
the name of God, darkened the moral sense, and degraded human nature
under the pretence of saving it. The gospel has always had the promise of
the life that now is; it saves men from selfishness and sin, as well as from
· THE LIFE THAT NOW IS WAS CREATED BY GOD. Human life
and human history are not accidents. God created us, and not we
ourselves. Better to be born and to die in the same hour, than to live on
through weary years, if human life has not a heavenly purpose in it. GOD
THOUGHT OUT THIS WORLD! God designed us to use it; and when
we mourn over sin and ignorance and darkness, we rejoice that Christ came
to put away sin, and to bring in an everlasting righteousness. Nature
is ours, with all her mountains and seas, her pastures and flocks, the silvery
thread of her rivers, and the Gothic arches of her forests, richly to enjoy.
Christ came to claim humanity, to redeem humanity. The broken harp he
will restring and set to divinest music. We will not put sepia into all the
pictures of earth’s to-morrow; for “the crooked shall be made straight,
and the rough places plain: and the glory of the Lord be revealed,
and all flesh see it together.” (Isaiah 40:5)
· THE LIFE THAT NOW IS TO BE MOLDED BY GOSPEL
INFLUENCES. We read that Paul “persuaded and turned away much
people” (Acts 19:26). If the gospel has the promise, we must help in the
fulfillment of the promise. When we see wrongs, we must try to remedy them.
When God gives us the remedy, we must take care to point to THE
GREAT PHYSICIAN ALONE! We need not be afraid. The gospel is
unique; it stands alone. IT HAS DONE MORE FOR THIS SIN-
STRICKEN WORLD than any words of man can tell. And Christ
still lives on, and His Spirit is one of restraint in men, even when it is
not a salvation. If caricature could have crushed Christianity, it would have
been silenced long ago. The life that now is was MOLDED BY THE
GOSPEL so that men who were once darkness had light in the Lord.
Humanity breathed again; slavery felt its grasp grow weaker; polygamy
became a cruelty and a shame; and as we look at its beneficent progress,
and see orphanages and homes and refuges rising up on every hand
(of course this was in the days prior to abortion-on-demand – CY –
2013), we have abundant evidence that the gospel is promise of the life
that now is. Suicide, that
had been the euthanasia of
is now resurrected in the
satiety of its pleasures, and to whom death was a relief from its ennui, gave
place to a race who found new hope and new joy in the pursuit and
pleasures of the life that now is, UNDER THE LORDSHIP OF
The Great Beyond (v. 8)
“And of that which is to come.” It is not too much to say that the gospel
alone, in this age, is the witness to IMMORTALITY — a witness preserved in
o it is taught by Christ’s words;
o illustrated in Christ’s life; and
o attested by Christ’s resurrection.
Outside the gospel we have materialism, which denies it; agnosticism, which says
it does not know about it; and the modern school who use the word “immortality,”
but mean immortality of influence, or a life which has on earth its permanent
pervasive power after we are gone: just as the oak is immortal which sends on,
from acorn to acorn, its being. Before Christ came:
o Immortality had its place as an instinct. The philosophers
o It had its place as an imagination. The poets made dreams out
o It had its place as an ancient revelation.
The Hebrews had knowledge of it. But secularism, in the fashionable
AND IMMORTALITY to light by the gospel. It is this light in which the
gospel is bathed; the perspective behind all its picture-teachings; the consolation of
apostles, confessors, and martyrs. But Paul links it with the life that now is,
because he would not let the doctrine of immortality become basely used,
as it was in
to the oppressed, the poor, the serf, the miserable, “Never mind, Ormuzd
will make it right hereafter!” Not so says Paul. Religion has its rectitude’s
and its rewards here as well. The gospel has the promise of THE LIFE
THAT NOW IS and of THAT WHICH IS TO COME!
· THEN LIFE IS CONTINUOUS; THERE IS NO BREAK.
Death is not a dividing power. It is a dark arch through which the
river flows. If a pure river, then he which is holy shall be holy still.
(Revelation 22;11). If a fetid river, then he which is filthy shall be
filthy still. (Ibid.). This is life eternal — TO KNOW CHRIST and,
having Him, we have glory and immortality. The insect does not die when it
changes its garment from the grub to the winged being, when it exchanges
earth for air. Nor do we die. We are unclothed that we may be clothed
upon with our house which is from heaven. (II Corinthians 5:2). The body
sheds itself often. At seventy we have had ten bodies (at 69 ½ I can relate
to that – CY – 2013); but the mind, the heart, the conscience, the memory,
have a consciously unbroken continuity. We never shed them!
The road is seen today from the child’s first step; the river flows through
town and city, but it is the same river. We feel this; it is the mystery of
personality; it is the symbol of continuity. Through all the years we have
had one being, and through the dark arch of death it flows on into the life
that is to come. (I recommend Thomas Cole’s The Voyage of Life –
CY – 2013)
· THEN LIFE IS A PROPHECY. There is no difficulty here. As the
child is the prophecy of the man, so the man is the prophecy of the
immortal. In a mirror, and that mirror himself, man may read the future
world. His tastes, desires, pursuits, pleasures, all globe themselves in the
microcosm of his heart. He need consult no augurs about future destiny.
Here are the mystic pages: “He that believeth on the Son hath life”
(John 3:36); its form, shape, color, quality. Christ has changed the nature,
and made it GOD-LIKE AND DIVINE! The Christian life may be shady,
imperfect, and stained with evil; but it is a God-like thing; its pity, purity,
righteousness, holiness, are attested. Perfect it, and you have heaven.
(“But my God shall perfect that which concerneth me” (Psalm 138:8).
It were well for men to think, not only of what is, but of WHAT IS
TO COME! Even bad men hope to alter. Men think a sudden change
at last may come; a turn of the helm just as the vessel nears the rapids
may cause it to glide into the river of life. But life here is a prophecy.
It is the earnest of the inheritance of reward or shame — the life that is to
come, with its advent hour so quiet, so sure, so solemn; COMING
BUT ONCE, but coming to ALL. We thank God for the great
sky of immortality above us, and for THE REST THAT REMAINETH
FOR THE PEOPLE OF GOD! (Hebrews 9:4)
9 “This is a faithful saying and worthy of all acceptation.” Faithful is the saying for this is a faithful saying, Authorized Version (ch. 1:15, note). Here, however, the πιστὸς λόγος – pistos logos – faithful saying
is that which precedes, viz. that "godliness is profitable for all things," etc., which we thus learn was a proverbial saying.
The Advantage of True Godliness (vs. 8-9)
The apostle gives a reason for his exhortation to godliness.
· THE SUPERIORITY OF GODLINESS TO ANY MERE BODILY
EXERCISE. “For bodily exercise profiteth to a small extent.”
Ø The allusion here is not to the ascetic discipline already noticed,
o Though it might apply to the more developed austerities of later
times — flagellations, pilgrimages, and weary vigils — it cannot
fairly apply to the disuse of marriage and of certain kinds of food.
There is no bodily exercise implied in such a quiescent habit or
aspect of life.
o It is impossible to think that the apostle should even concede that
such austerity was profitable to the smallest extent, for he is
opposed to the whole idea of it.
o Besides, this was not the immediate subject in hand, which was
the excellence of true piety.
Ø The allusion is to the gymnastic training which occupied so much
of the time and energy of the Greek youth. It was profitable for the
healthful development of bodily life, but by its very nature it was both
temporal and temporary in its results and its rewards.
· THE GROUND OF THE SUPERIORITY OF GODLINESS. “But
godliness is profitable unto all things, having the promise of the life
that now is, and of that which is to come.” It has the profit and the
promise of a double life.
Ø It has the profit and the promise of this present life.
o There is the promise of length of days. “The wicked live
not half their days.” (Psalm 55:23)
o There is the prophetic promise that they “shall inherit the
earth.” (Psalm 37:11; Matthew 5:5)
o There is the profit:
§ of a good name,
§ of riches and honor; for they will want no good thing.
o Godliness is profitable for all things included in the
scheme of a holy life.
Ø It has the profit and the promise of the life to come.
o This does not signify that it merits eternal life, but that it is
essentially connected with it in the Divine scheme of
o Thus godliness is “great gain” for the whole life of man in
the next life. It involves the highest blessedness of man.
o Happy is the man whose future is provided for as well as
· CORROBORATION OF THE APOSTLE’S ASSERTION
RESPECTING GODLINESS. “Faithful is the saying, and worthy
of all acceptation.” (v. 9) It was a truth of universal acceptance among
Christian people, because, in spite of all the drawbacks of a persecuting time,
it had been happily realized in their checkered experience
10 “For therefore we both labor and suffer reproach, because we trust
in the living God, who is the Savior of all men, specially of those
that believe.” Therefore. To this end; or, with this in view. He
thus justifies his assertion that the saying he had quoted is a faithful one, by
showing that the promise and all that it contained was the ground of all his
labors and those of his fellow-laborers in the gospel. Labor. (ἀγωνιζόμεθα –
agonizometha – strive - ὀνειδιζόμεθα;– oneidizometha - suffer reproach; we
are being reproached);; but the reading is doubtful. The sense conveys
something more than mere labor — the bitter reproaches and persecutions which
he endured (II Timothy 3:11; I Corinthians 4:9-13; II Corinthians 11:23-27); and
all because of his firm trust IN THE PROMISES OF THE LIVING GOD!
We trust in the living God. ἠλπίκαμεν ἐπὶ Θεῷ ζῶντι – haelpikamen epi
Theozonti - we trust in the living God; we rely on the living God. In ch.5:5 we
have ἤλπικεν ἐπὶ Θεόν – haelpiken epi Theou – trusteth in God; relies on the
God - with no appreciable difference of sense. Specially of them that believe;
and therefore we who believe HAVE SPECIAL CAUSE TO HOPE IN HIM,
AND TO TRUST HIS PROMISES!
Guidance of Timothy (vs. 6-10)
· AS TO THE TRUE FAITH.
Ø Positively. “If thou put the brethren in mind of those things, thou shalt
be a good minister of Christ Jesus, nourished in the words of the faith, and
of the good doctrine which thou hast followed until now.” The apostle has
been referring more immediately to the principles of asceticism which were
to have their development in subsequent times. That Timothy should put
the brethren (not excluding holders of office like himself) in mind of these
things, was the condition of his being a good minister of Christ Jesus.
Whereupon Paul takes occasion to give his idea of “the good minister,”
under a particular aspect. He is one who makes the Divine words his
continual nourishment. As there are foods which are nutritive for the body,
so what is nutritive for the soul is what God says to us, especially about
Himself and His feelings toward us. These Divine words are words of faith,
or words which require faith for their apprehension. They are also words of
good doctrine, or words in which instruction is given. It is well that there
are infallible words for faith, and that we are not left to the unreliable
guidance of reason. It is upon these that teaching must be founded, if it can
be called good. The good minister is one who has his own soul nourished
in words which he cordially believes, and in which he is well instructed.
Paul had been the instructor of Timothy, and he testifies that his
instructions had hitherto been followed by him.
Ø Negatively. “But refuse profane and old wives’ fables.” The apostle, we
may understand, refers to such doctrines of the current philosophy (mystic
in its character) as, mingling with Christianity, would form what was
known as Gnosticism. These doctrines, such as that of emanations (endless
genealogies), were myths, or what had no foundation in reality. They were
profane, or fitted to shock religious feeling. They were also anile, or only
fit for mindless and credulous old women. Timothy was to resist all
tendency to incorporate Eastern mysticism with Christianity. And, when
we consider the danger that arose to the Church from this quarter, we must
recognize the wisdom of the apostolic advice.
· AS TO THE HIGHER GYMNASTIC. “And exercise thyself unto
godliness.” There was a straining in connection with ascetical exercises.
Timothy was also to strain himself, but in such exercises as prayer and
meditation, which lead to godliness, or the cherishing of right feelings
toward God and the practice that is pleasing to Him.
Ø Bodily gymnastic. “For bodily exercise is profitable for a little.” The
apostle apparently has in his eye such bodily exercise as was associated
with asceticism; but it is as separated from asceticism, not as part of
asceticism, that he says it is profitable to a small extent. Of asceticism in
this century the most notable example is Lacordaire. “Once in the convent
at Chalais, after having delivered an affecting sermon on humility, he felt
irresistibly impelled to follow up precept by example. He came down from
the pulpit, begged the assembled brethren to treat him with the severity he
deserved, and, uncovering his shoulders, received from each of them
twenty-five strokes.” “The chapter-room of the convent at Flavigny was
supported by a wooden pillar; he made of it a column of flagellation, to
which, after confession, he would cause himself to be bound.” “In the
church of the Carmelites at
subterranean chapel, in which, one Good Friday, he raised a cross, and,
bound to it with cords, remained upon it three hours.” The apostle views
asceticism in respect of bodily exercise. For, although it may not always
exalt it into a religion, yet it lays great stress on it as a means of
suppressing the corruption of the heart, of entering into sympathy with the
crucified Savior, and of making atonement for the sins of men. The apostle
lays hold upon this, and says that it is profitable to a small extent. It is
profitable for the health of the body, for the improvement of its powers, for
the obtaining of a living. It may even be allowed to have a bearing, not by
itself, but in connection with right principle, on holy living (I Corinthians 9:27).
Ø The gymnastic that is universally profitable. “But godliness is profitable
far all things.” The apostle regards it as recommended by its profitableness.
“It is that which will exceedingly turn to account, and bring in gains unto
us exceedingly vast; in comparison whereto all other designs, which men
with so much care and toil do pursue, are very unprofitable or detrimental,
yielding but shadows of profit or bringing real damage to us. Godliness
enables a man to judge of things in their true nature and proportions, and
to fulfill his duties in all his relations. It enables him to act uniformly, so
that he understands what he is doing, and can make himself understood. It
enables a man to act in his own best interest.” “If we mark what preserveth
the body sound and lusty, what keepeth the mind vigorous and brisk, what
saveth and improveth the estate, what upholdeth the good name, what
guardeth and graceth a man’s whole life — it is nothing else but
proceeding in our demeanor and dealings according to the honest and wise
rules of piety.” It fits a man for all conditions, makes him humble, grateful,
and faithful in prosperity, makes a man trustful, and full of comfort in
adversity. It furnishes us with fit employment, “alone fasteneth our
thoughts, affections, and endeavors upon occupations worthy the dignity of
our nature, suiting the excellency of our natural capacities and
endowments, tending to the perfection and advancement of our reason, to
the enriching and ennobling of our souls.” It furnishes us with the best
friendships. It is said even, “Thou shalt be in league with the stones of the
field, and the beasts of the field shall be at peace with thee.” (Job 5:23)
It unites us to good men in holy communion. It makes our friends doubly precious to us.
o Its profitableness for this life. “Having promise of the life which now
is.” Godliness has a tendency to promote a man’s earthly good,
in making him industrious, temperate, prudent. On the
other hand, there are respects in which it may be said to hinder his earthly
good. It keeps him back from that greed which would lead him to devote his
whole time to worldly business, which would forbid him to work for others. It
debars him from seeking gain by unworthy means. It may call upon him to make
liberal contributions from his income for benevolent objects. It may bring him
into a position in which his health is injured. It may call upon him to give up
all his goods, and even life itself. Yet it is true that it has the promise of
8:28) It is the godly who stand in a right relation to this life. They put the right value upon it. They regard all that they receive as a gift from God, as what they are unworthy of, as what may be taken away from them, as what they ought to be grateful for, as what they are faithfully to use for God.
o Its profitableness for the life to come. “And of that which is to come.”
If the godly man has the true enjoyment even of this life, to him especially belongs the life to come with its incomparably greater blessings. He has the inheritance uncorruptible, undefiled, never-fading. He has an exceeding, even an eternal, weight of glory. He has the beatific vision of God, the satisfaction of awaking with God’s likeness.
o Formula of confirmation. “Faithful is the saying, and worthy of all acceptation.” This calls attention to what has gone before as deserving
of our best consideration.
· UPBEARING HOPE. “For to this end we labor and strive, because
we have our hope set on the living God, who is the Savior of all men,
specially of them that believe.” With a view especially to the promised life
to come, the apostle placed himself at worldly disadvantage. Instead of
consulting his ease, he toiled. Instead of consulting his popularity, he
suffered reproach, as the true reading is. Under this he was borne up by
hope, which was set, not on a dead idol which could do nothing, but on
THE LIVING GOD living who could do all things for him. He who was able
to fulfill His promise was also disposed. He is designated “the Savior of all men.” There is a universality in His benevolence. He willeth that all should
be saved. And what He has performed in Christ has been FOR ALL MEN!
Ø He has provided satisfaction for the sin of all men.
Ø He has entered into a covenant on behalf of all men.
Ø He has procured competent aids for all men.
Ø He has thus made all men salvabiles, capable of salvation, and
salvandos, that should be saved, though all men are not in effect saved.
“As he that freely offers a rich boon is no less to be accounted a benefactor and liberal, although His gift be refused, than if it were accepted; as He that opens a prison is to be styled a deliverer, although the captive will not go forth; as he that
ministers an effectual remedy, although the patient will not use it, deserves
the honor and thanks due to a physician; so is God, in respect of what he
has performed for men and offered to them, to be worthily deemed and
thankfully acknowledged Savior, although not all men, yea, although not
one man, should receive the designed benefit.” While this is true, He is the
Savior specially of them that believe. He is our Savior before we believe,
but it is when we believe that we realize in our personal experience all
that He is and has done for us. It is by hoping in Him as our Savior,
peculiarly, that we are borne up under toils and reproaches.
Apostolic Endurance (v.10)
“We suffer reproach.” This is hard to bear, even when it is not deserved.
All who have broken old ties of Church or home know its power. Men ever
brand with heresy that which conflicts with their own opinions. Against
Paul men brought false charges. We must not surround the gospel then
with the glory associated with it now. We put the nimbus on the heads of
the saints and martyrs; their enemies crowned them with shame.
· THERE WAS THE CONSCIOUS LOSS OF ALL THAT THE
WORLD HOLDS DEAR. A good name and a fair fame, how
precious these are to us all! But if we move daily in an atmosphere of
suspicion and false accusation, how full of misery the outward lot becomes!
It is a proof of how precious Christ was to Paul, that he counts all things but
offal that he may win Christ. Reproach itself became a source of joy when
he felt that it was endured for the Master’s cause. “If ye be reproached
for the Name of Christ, happy are ye.” (I Peter 4:14)
· IT WAS A SURE PROOF OF THE REALITY OF THEIR
RELIGION. “Because I testify of it that the works thereof are evil,”
said Christ, “therefore they have hated me” (John 7:7). The Master
was reproached as a blasphemer, a wine-bibber, a seditionist, a friend
of publicans and sinners. It was a testimony to His earnest character that
Paul suffered reproach. Wolves do not worry a painted sheep, and the
world does not persecute a mere professor. In every age of religious
earnestness reproach has
had to be endured. The Covenanters of
in their wilderness-worship, when they spread the white communion cloth
on the yet whiter snow; the Puritans in their hidden assemblies; and
missionaries like Carey, satirized by the reviews! Even now it is not an
easy thing to be a Christian; but we find in the gospel that which no
secular inspiration can give — THE POWER TO LIVE IN THE
FACE OF AN ANTAGONISTIC WORLD.
Sustaining Motive (v. 10)
“Because we trust in the living God.” One remarkable fact in the history of
Paul was that nothing damped his ardor. It was not so with such men as
Luther, who seemed to feel at last that all is vain. There were no outward
forces to sustain the life of the new Church. Well may the ancient words be
used in contrasting the cause of Mohammed with that of the gospel: “Some
trust in chariots, and some in horses, BUT WE TRUST IN THE
NAME OF THE LORD, OUR GOD.”
· “IN THE LIVING GOD.” The tendency of Judaism was to leave God in
the past! The age of inspiration had passed, the prophetic roll had closed,
and the Jews became scribes and traditionists. They had a codex of finished
Law, and gathered up the opinions of the rabbis upon the minutest matters
of ceremonial and duty. Paul preached a God who was then baptizing men
with fire — a Holy Spirit that was working in the hearts of the faithful.
· “THE LIVING GOD” BECAUSE THE GOSPEL SHOWED ALL
THE MARKS OF LIFE. It embodied Divine power, it manifested a living
purpose. It had an echo in the conscience and heart of men. God, who in
times past had spoken to the fathers by the prophets, had in these last days
spoken unto them by his Son. God was manifest in the flesh (Hebrews 1:1-2;
ch. 3:16). The Spirit had descended after Christ’s ascension, and Pentecost
had already taken its place in history.
· “THE LIVING GOD” HAD SHOWN THAT HE COULD TAKE
CARE OF HIS SERVANTS. He had opened ways for them; He had
touched the hearts of men. As they preached, the message had been
accompanied with POWER FROM ON HIGH and Paul in his
imprisonment had received grace according to his day.
· “THE LIVING GOD” WHO WOULD CONTINUE HIS WORK IF
HIS SERVANTS DIED. Empires might fall; dynasties might change; the
ancient Jewish Church might fulfill its day; but THE LIVING GOD had
designed a new heaven and a new earth, wherein righteousness
should dwell; and thus his apostles trusted, not in an arm of flesh, but
in A LIVING GOD!
The Universal Redeemer (v. 10)
“Who is the Savior of all men, specially of those that believe.” Paul had no
limited atonement to preach, but that CHRIST DIED FOR ALL and was the
propitiation for the sins of the whole world (Romans 3:23-25). There was
no court of the Gentiles; for all alike — Jew and Greek — were included under
sin that THAT THE GRACE OF GOD MIGHT APPEAR TO ALL MEN!
In Christ Jesus there is neither Greek nor Jew, bond nor free; all are one in the
provision; ALL NEED IT; ALL MUST HAVE IT! (Galatians 3:28; Colossians
3:11; “Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.”
· HE IS THE SAVIOR SPECIALLY OF THEM THAT BELIEVE; for
unless faith looks up and lays hold on Christ, the virtue will not come out
of Him, either of forgiveness or life. It matters not that the lifeboat is
provided for all in the sinking ship, unless men will leap into the lifeboat. It
matters not that the electric cord conveys the current, unless men adjust it
to their wants and bring it to their house!
· AND THIS SALVATION IS MADE MANIFEST IN EVERY AGE.
In that age:
Ø it stayed suicide,
Ø it raised hospitals,
Ø it emancipated Ephesians and Corinthians from lust,
Ø it uplifted women,
Ø it purified law, and
Ø it created brotherhood between Samaritan, Gentile, and Jew.
In the early centuries we see it at work in the varied peoples that united
in its worship, whilst the bishops of the Church were African, Greek,
Roman, and Armenian. It saved men in the catacombs from despair,
and constrained them to write on their epitaphs words that breathed
of hope; and IT CONTINUES
TO SAVE! It enlarges the
Christ; it breaks up the heptarchy of evil in the heart, as province after
province becomes loyal to God; and it redeems body, soul, and spirit.
“Beside me there is no Savior” (Isaiah 43:11) is as true today as
ever. The love of beauty often ends in mere sensuous aestheticism. The
seeking after righteousness often leaves the upas tree of the heart with its
deadly leaves within. New ideals of social economy find man’s selfishness
supreme in every new adjustment of law. Selfishness never has been slain,
SAVE AT THE CROSS OF JESUS! But this gospel saves them that
believe today. Men too often prefer costly ritual and formal ceremonial; but
a new heart means a new life, and the gospel saves them that believe.
Adequate Reasons (v. 10)
“For therefore we [both] labor.” To understand a man’s history, we must
understand his philosophy of life — that is, his motives and his reasons.
For no life has unity without this. It may have spasmodic activities and
instinctive virtues, but no completeness or consistency. Here is:
· THE ARGUMENT OF A TRUE FAITH — “THEREFORE.” A man’s
thought does not always rule his life, even though conscience enforces
truth as a duty. A man’s conscience does not always rule his life. It is said
that man is a will; and this is true, for it is ever the supreme power. Man is
made up of three things:
Ø “I can,”
Ø “I ought,”
Ø “I will.”
Christ had become the Master of Paul’s life; therefore he labored, because the gospel was a fact, not a fable (v. 7) spun out of Jewish brains. Men like Strauss have tried to prove it a myth — something that grew up in the minds of men.
Imagine the Jewish mind that had grown more ritual and legal, developing
into the simplicity of Christianity! Imagine philosophy that had grown more
and more proud and exclusive, developing a religion for the common
people! The gospel was a faithful saying, and Paul did not alter and
improve his doctrine and teachings; he preaches the same gospel in his
earlier and later Epistles. He was a man of sober judgment and of
intellectual power, and no mere rhapsodist (a classical Greek professional performer
of epic poetry). He says, “It is worthy of all acceptation” — by the scholar and
the peasant, the Jew and the Gentile, the bond and the free. The Jew would
find it fulfilled his Law, his symbols, his prophecy. The Gentile would find it answered to his instinct, his hidden desire, his deepest intuition. “Therefore”
is the argument of a true faith. We are not the disciples of a new sentiment or
a mere romantic embassy; for the new temple is built, like
· THE TOIL OF A TRUE FAITH. “Therefore we labor,” not simply
“we teach” nor “formulate opinions.” That might be done with ease, like
philosophic teachers, in the garden and the porch. “We labor!” A word
involving pain and tears, as well as toil. The tendencies of the times are
against us. The corrupt taste of a degenerate age is against us. The cross is
to the Jew a stumbling-block, and to the Greek foolishness. We do not
please men, like the rhetoricians. We do not amuse men, like the sophists,
We labor in journeyings, in perils, in hunger, in stripes. Think of Paul’s
outcast condition, so far as his own countrymen were concerned. Think of
his relation to the Roman power — suspected of sedition; and accusations
of his fellow-countrymen, the Jews. At a time when
spies, he was laboring in the face of certain danger and death.
The Practical Effects of this Truth in Apostolic Experience
Looking to the realization of this promise, the apostle reminds Timothy how he was borne up by it in all his labor and suffering.
· ITS SUSTAINING EFFICACY. “For to this end do we labor and suffer
Ø The apostle did not regard the life promised to godliness as one of mere
Ø His life was actually one of severe and toilsome labor as well as of
trying but unmerited reproach.
Ø Yet he was stimulated to increased toil and supported under the
infliction of unjust reproach by the thought of the promise involved
in the life of true godliness.
· THE SOLID BASIS OF CHRISTIAN EXPECTATION UNDER
TOIL AND SHAME. “Because we have set our hope upon the living God,
who is the Savior of all men, especially of those that believe.”
Ø The blessed nature and continuity of this hope.
o It is the good hope through grace which we enjoy.
o Life would be a blank without it. “If in this life only we have
hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable.”
(I Corinthians 15:19)
o It is linked with patience. “But if we hope for that which we see not, then do we with patience wait for it” (Romans 8:25).
o It is a permanent and continuous hope, as the tense of the verb
Ø The ground or basis of this hope. “Upon the living God, who is the
Savior of all men, especially of those that believe.”
o This hope is from the “God of hope” (Romans 15:13), who is
the living God; that is, no mere God of imagination, but a real personal Agent, the very Fountain of life in infinite sufficiency.
o It is a hope linked to salvation in its widest sense — both “the life that now is, and that which is to come.” For God is “the Savior
of all men, especially of those that believe.”
§ The Saviorship here has relation to the two lives of men,
as expressed in the context. In the one sense, God is a Savior of all men, since by His watchful and sustaining providence H e preserves them from destruction; in
the other, he offers and bestows eternal life.
§ The words do not warrant the Universalist conclusion that all men will be ultimately saved. The passage makes an express distinction between all “men” and “believers” inconsistent with this view.
11 “These things command and teach.” Command (παράγγελλε - paraggele –
command; be you charging – see ch.1:3, note; 5:7; 6:13, 17). It is used very
frequently in the Gospels of our Lord’s commands to the apostles and others,
and by Paul of his own apostolic directions to the Churches (I Thessalonians 4:11;
II Thessalonians 3:4, 6, etc.).
12 “Let no man despise thy youth; but be thou an example of the
believers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in
purity.” Let no man despise thy youth (compare I Corinthians 16:11;
Titus 2:15). The construction of the sentence is manifestly that adopted in
the Authorized Version and followed in the Revised Version. Timothy would
certainly be under forty years at this time, and might be not above thirty-five.
Either age would be decidedly early for so responsible an office — one in which
he would have many elders (πρεσβύτεροι)- presbuteroi) under him (ch. 5:1, 17,19).
An ensample (τύπος – tupos example; model; type); properly the original “pattern”
or “model” after which anything is made or fashioned; hence a “pattern” or
“example.” It is used in the same sense as here in Philippians 3:17; I Thessalonians
1:7; II Thessalonians 3:9; Titus 2:7; I Peter. 5:3. Of the believers.. οἱ πιστοί –
oi piston - are simply “believers,” or “Christians” — “the flock,” as
Peter has it, and had better be so rendered. Timothy is exhorted to make it
impossible for any one to question his authority on the score of his youth
by being a model of the Christian graces required in believers. In word.
Specially in his teaching. The exhortation to Titus (2:1, 7) is very
similar, “Speak thou the things which befit the sound doctrine. In all things
showing thyself an ensample of good works; in thy doctrine showing
uncorruptness, gravity, sound speech (λόγον ὑγιῆ – logou hugiae)” etc.
(compare too ch. 5:17; II Timothy 1:13). Conversation - (ἀναστροφῇ –
anastrophae conversation; Manner of life - see ch. 3:15, note). Purity
(ἁγνείᾳ – hagneia); elsewhere in the New Testament only in ch.5:2,
where it has the same special sense (compare ἀγνός,– hagnos – pure;
chaste - II Corinthians 11:2; ch.5:22; Titus 2:5; I Peter 3:2).
“be thou an example of the believers (a “pattern” or “model”) in:
Timothy is exhorted to make it impossible for any one to question
his authority on the score of his youth by being a model of the
Christian graces required in believers.
WE SHOULD LIVE OUR LIVES IN SUCH A MANNER THAT
IF SOME ONE WOULD SAY SOMETHING BAD ABOUT US,
NO ONE WOULD BELIEVE IT!
Paul gave Titus similar advice – “speak thou the things which
become sound doctrine…..in all things showing thyself a pattern
of good works: in doctrine showing uncorruptness, gravity,
sincerity, sound speech, that cannot be condemned; that he that
is of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say
of you” – (Titus 2:1,7-8)
A Series of Admonitions for the Guidance of Timothy
· TIMOTHY IS ENJOINED TO EXERCISE A DUE AUTHORITY.
“These things command and teach.” He is to instruct the Church at
dangers to be guarded against, and the duties to be faithfully discharged.
· TIMOTHY IS ENJOINED TO CULTIVATE A GRAVITY OF
DEPORTMENT THAT WOULD MAKE HIS YOUTH RESPECTED.
“Let no man despise thy youth.”
Ø Timothy was only relatively a young man. It is highly probable that he
was very young when he first joined the apostle (Acts 16:1-3) - perhaps nearly twenty-five years of age — and as eleven years had since
intervened, he would probably now be about forty years old.
Ø As Timothy had to give counsel to persons much older than himself
(ch. 5:1), and even to call them to account (ibid. v. 19), it was
necessary that he should cultivate a gravity of manner that would admit
of his age being forgotten. Perhaps, also, as he was of a rather timid
disposition — more disposed to obey than to command — the counsel of
the apostle was more needed. He must be firm and manly, and destitute
of every aspect or element of pretentious assumption.
· TIMOTHY IS ENJOINED TO BECOME A PATTERN TO ALL
BELIEVERS. “But become thou a pattern of the believers in word, in
behavior, in love, in faith, in purity.” Thus would he counteract any
disadvantage arising from his youth. He was to be a pattern in all the
leading characteristics of the Christian minister.
Ø “In word.”
o As to his public teaching, which must be according to God’s Word, showing in it uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity, sound
speech that could not be condemned. (Titus 2:7)
o As to social relations, which must be
§ not corrupt, vain, or foolish;
§ but always with grace, seasoned with salt — wise, grave,
Ø “In behavior.” In the Church, the family, the world, he must maintain a
deportment becoming the gospel of Christ, in all godliness and honesty,
with simplicity and godly sincerity, so as to stop the mouths of
gainsayers and earn a good report from them that are without.
Ø “In love, in faith.” These are the two motive forces of the Christian life
to influence both the speech and conduct of the minister. The one is set
in motion by the other; for “faith worketh by love.” (Galatians 5:6)
o He is to be a pattern in love to God and man, without which,
even if he has the tongue of angels, he is nothing.
o In faith, in the grace of faith, in the doctrine of faith, in the profession of faith.
Ø “In purity.” The minister must be pure in life, in thought, in language,
and in all his relations to the world.
A Young Teacher (v. 12)
“Let no man despise thy youth.” Apart from the direct reference of these
words to the Christian apostolate, they are appropriate to us all in the
season of youth. Spring-time is so different from autumn! Nature then is
full of promise. As in spring the buds are bursting, and the birds building,
and Nature’s flower-show preparing, and her orchestra tuning, still we
pause to think what may come. Locusts may eat up all green things; the hot
sirocco winds may wither the verdure, and the fruit of the vine may fail.
Still there is a blessed promise in early days. No sane man will be found to
despise youth in itself. As well despise the acorn because it is not an oak,
or the orange blossom because it has not fruited. The spirit of the text is
this: Do not act so as to lead men to despise you.
· MEN DESPISE MERE WORD-HEROISM. Be an example:
Ø in word;
Ø in conversation, which means citizenship;
Ø in charity, which means every aspect of love to God and man;
Ø in spirit, which means the atmosphere that surrounds your life;
Ø in faith, which means vital obedience to the doctrines of the gospel; and,
in purity, the absence of which was the curse of
Nothing gives greater power than conduct. “Character,” says Ossili, “is
higher than intellect.”
· MEN DESPISE THE TRIFLER AND THE IDLER. If the word and
the conversation be frivolous; as death and life are in the power of the
tongue; then the man who is the rattle-brain of society is not likely to be
the ornament of the Church or the admiration of the world. Men will, and
ought, to despise such. There may be a dignified youth as well as a
dignified age. It is not necessary to have a formal and unnatural decorum,
but it is necessary for those who speak on the high matters of religion to
show that they live in that world of solemn realities of which they speak.
13 “Till I come, give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine.”
Till I come (ch.1:3; 3:14). Reading (τῇ ἀναγνώσει - tae anagnosei). The
public reading of the Scriptures (the Lessons, as we should say). This we know
was the practice in the synagogue (Luke 4:16; Acts 13:27; 15:21; II Corinthians
3:15). We see the beginning of reading the New Testament in the Christian
assemblies in Ephesians 3:4; and Colossians 4:16; and generally in the fact of
Epistles being addressed by the apostles to Churches. The ἀναγνώστης –
anagnostaes – reading - the reader, lector, was a regular order in the third and
fourth centuries. Exhortation (τῇ παρακλήσει – tae paraklaesei – exhortation;
entreaty); see Acts 4:36, where Barnabas’s name is interpreted as meaning “Son
of exhortation” (Revised Version), and 13:15; compare Romans 12:7 (where, as
here, παράκλησις – paraklaesis – exhortation and διδασκαλία - didaskalia –
doctrine; teaching - are coupled together); I Thessalonians 2:3, etc. Teaching
(διδασκαλία); almost always rendered “doctrine” in the Authorized Version.
But here, where the act of teaching (like the act of reading, the act of exhorting,
in the two preceding clauses) is intended, “teaching” is perhaps the best word
according to our modern usage. As regards the difference between διδασκαλία
and παράκλησις, the former would express “doctrinal teaching,” whether of
dogma or of precept, the latter entreaties to believe the one and practice the
other (see Acts 11:23 and 14:22 for good examples of παράκλησις).
“give attendance” or heed to:
The Duties of Timothy’s Public Ministry (v. 13)
The apostle urges him to the diligent exercise of his calling. “Till I come give
attention to the reading, the exhortation, the teaching.”
the Church. The Old Testament Scriptures, and probably part of the New
Testament, would thus be read at such meeting of the saints. This reading
was necessary because
Ø the Scriptures were the sources of all religious knowledge;
Ø the test or standard of doctrine by which opinions were to be
Ø the means of sanctification (John 17:17);
Ø the spring of Christian hope and comfort (Romans 15:13).
· THE EXHORTATION. This refers to public ministry. Timothy was
practically to enforce the duties of Christian life out of the Scriptures.
Thus full provision would be made for building up the saints in their most
holy faith, and in all the graces and virtues of a holy life.
14 “Negllect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by
prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery.”
The gift (χάρισμα – charisma - gift). The verb χαρίζομαι – charizomai –
“to give anything freely,” gratuitously, of mere good will, without any payment
or return (Luke 7:42; Acts 27:24; Romans 8:32; I Corinthians 2:12, etc.). Hence
χάρισμα came to be especially applied to the gifts of the Holy Spirit, which are
preeminently “free gifts” (see Acts 8:20). It is so applied in Romans 1:11; 12:6;
I Corinthians 1:7; 12:4, 9, 28, 30-31; I Peter 4:10. Here, then, as in the
similar passage, II Timothy 1:6, the “gift” spoken of is the special
grace given by the Holy Ghost to those who are separated for “the office
and work of a priest in the
(Ordering of Priests). This gift Paul bids him “not neglect” (μὴ ἀμέλει –
mae amelei – carelessness, make light of). The word contains the idea of
contemptuous neglect — neglect as of an unimportant thing. In Matthew
22:5 the persons invited to the feast made light of it, and went away to other
things which they cared more about. In Hebrews 2:3, τηλικαύτης ἀμελήσαντες
σωτηρίας - taelikautaes amelaesantes sotaerias – neglect so great salvation and 8:9, imply a contemptuous disregard. So here Timothy is reminded that in his ordination
he received a great χάρισμα (gift), and that he must value it duly, and use it diligently.
It must not be let lie slumbering and smoldering, but must be stirred up into a flame.
The lesson here and in II Timothy 1:6 seems to be that we must look back to our ordination, and to the spiritual grace given in it, as things not exhausted. The grace
is there, but it must not be lightly thought of. Which was given thee by prophecy.
This seems to be explained by Acts 13:1-3, where Barnabas and Saul were separated for their work by the laying on of the hands apparently of the prophets and teachers, at the express command of the Holy Ghost, speaking doubtless by the mouth of one of the
prophets. Timothy, it appears, was designated for his work by a like command
of the Holy Ghost, speaking by one of the Church prophets, and received his
commission by a like “laying on of hands” by the elders of the Church. If
Paul refers, as he appears to do, to the same occasion in 2 Timothy 1:6,
then it appears that he laid his hands on Timothy, together with the presbyters,
as is done by the bishop in the ordination of priests. Timothy is reminded that in
his ordination he received a great χάρισμα, and that he must value it duly,
and use it diligently. It must not be let lie slumbering and smoldering, but
must be stirred up into a flame. The lesson here and in II Timothy 1:6
seems to be that we must look back to our ordination, and to the spiritual
grace given in it, as things not exhausted. The grace is there, but it must
not be lightly thought of. (You and I may not be ordained, but God has
called us to be a part of this world and to do our part, we also, must not
neglect the gift given us – may we utilize the grace given us by the
Holy Spirit and not lightly think of, or neglect, our gift! – CY – 2009)
The presbytery (τοῦ πρεσβυτερίου) – tou presbuteriou – presbytery; eldership.
The word is borrowed from the Jewish nomenclature (see Luke 22:6; Acts 22:5).
Spiritual Negligence (v. 14)
“Neglect not the gift that is in thee.” This is a counsel specially for Timothy
as a teacher; but it applies to us all.
beings. A lake, unless the living waters flow through it, is stagnant and
dangerous. The world of youth and beauty is a world of life. The sun parts
with its beams. The ocean exhales its moisture. The tree yields its fruit. The
air passes through the lungs. The river makes music of progress as it passes
to the sea. Here in nature there is no arresting hand, no force of self-restraint,
no self-hood. God has “set in order” the courses of the rivers, and
made a path for the light; and they obey His will. Man can say “No” to
God’s moral ordinations — not, of course, without harm and penalty;
But he can, and too often he does:
Ø pervert the gift, and turn it to disloyal uses; and at other times
Ø he neglects it — he lays up the talent in a napkin. (Luke 19:20).
He turns selfish, and mars the use of his gift by misuse and by personal
Ease and indulgence. The world is no better for his birth. The Church
finds him A SELFISH EPICURE at THE BANQUET OF GOD’S
Ø THE GIFT VARIES. It is, however, somewhere within us. There are
forces of life hidden in the soul, gracious gifts of help and healing; but man
neglects them. Sometimes he undervalues them with a perilous modesty,
which forgets that the weakest vessel can hold some water; the simplest
speech be eloquent for its Lord; the slender time be rich with opportunities.
God has not made a mistake in our creation. There are gifts of service,
gifts of sympathy, gifts of prayer, which, if envy were angelic, angels might
envy. Neglect not thy gift. It will be required of thee again. It needs not age
to ripen it and make it ready. “Let no man despise thy youth; be thou an
example of the believers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit,
in faith, in purity” (v. 12). “Be great in act as you have been in thought,”
says Shakespeare. This is our danger — neglect. We know what it means in
education, which has its now; in the dwelling, which, however well
furnished, soon becomes unhealthy and unlovely through disuse and dust;
in exercise, which, neglected, imperils muscle and blood and nerve. So in
religion we are to be active and earnest, not resting on the couch of
personal comfort, or merely enjoying, from the observatory of revelation,
the vision of the heavenly shores.
The Duty of Improving the Divine Gifts of Exhortation and Teaching
“Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee through prophecy, with laying on of the hands of the presbytery.”
Ø It is not mere intellectual equipment, nor the mere possession
of Divine grace, but the gift, which qualified Timothy for
preaching the gospel. “For the work of an evangelist”
(II Timothy 4:5). It was a gift:
o of interpreting the Scriptures,
o of dispensing the mysteries of grace with edification,
o of bringing forth things new and old out of the good treasure
of a holy heart informed with truth.
Ø It was a gift conferred by means of prophecy. The Holy Spirit
had, by one or more of the prophets, declared His will to confer
this gift upon Timothy. The prophecy was the Divine assurance
as to Timothy’s qualifications. “Neglect not the gift that is
Ø The response to this Divine act is signified by the action of the
presbytery in formally designating him to his special ministerial
“Neglect not the gift that is in thee.” There were several reasons to
enforce this duty.
Ø The prophetic declaration accompanied by the concurrence of the
whole body of presbyters would fill his mind with a sense of his high
privilege and great responsibility in the possession of such a gift.
Ø The exercise of a gift is the only method of preventing its
complete lapse. The disuse of a limb causes it to atrophy.
All faculties must be kept bright and vivid by constant exercise.
Ø Our Lord, by the parable of the talents, teaches us the sin
and danger of hiding our talent uselessly in the ground.
15 “Meditate upon these things; give thyself wholly to them; that thy profiting
may appear to all.” Be diligent. (αῦτα μελέτα - auta meleta ). Give all your
attention and care and study to these things. It is just the contrary to μὴ ἀμέλει –
mae amelei – neglect not - in v. 14. The verb μελετάω,– meletao, besides this
passage, occurs in its classical sense of “premeditating” or “getting up a
speech,” in Mark 13:11 (where, however, the reading is doubtful), and
again in Acts 4:25, in the sense of “premeditating” certain actions. A
kindred use in classical Greek is “to practice” or “exercise” an art, as
rhetoric, dancing, shooting with a bow, and the like. It is very common in
the Septuagint, in the sense of “meditating,” practicing in the thoughts. Give
thyself wholly to them (ἐν τούτοις ἴσθι – en toutois isthi); literally, be in
these things; i.e. be wholly and always occupied with them. (Proverbs 23:17).
thy profiting (ἡ προκοπή – hae prokopae - Thy progress ). Progress, advance,
or growth, is the idea of προκοπή. It is used twice in Philippians 1:12, 25.
The use of the verb προκόπτω for “to advance,” “make progress,” is still
more common (“And Jesus increased in wisdom, stature, and in favor with
God and man” Luke 2:52; (May that be true of us as well! CY – 2009)
Romans 13:12; Galatians 1:14; II Timothy 2:16; 3:9, 14). It is used equally
of progress in good or evil. To all. The Received Text reads πᾶσιν – pasin
for ἐν πᾶσιν – en pasin in the Textus Receptus, which may be rendered either
“to [or, ‘among’] all persons” or “in all things.”
Mental Absorption (v. 15)
“Meditate upon these things.” They need and will bear meditation. Divine
truths are too awful and august m their deep significance to be exhausted
by superficial notice. They need to be focused to the eye, and studied in all
their central depth and beauty.
It requires the silent study that we may enjoy “the harvest of a quiet eye,” and
see deeply into the “wondrous things” of the Divine Law (Psalm 119:18).
Meditate; for thus only will you understand your real self, and so know better
the adaptation of the gospel to your need and your sin.
These require on our part time and insight. This is the fault of our age — it
does not meditate. (Too much time required for television, entertainment,
video games, etc. – CY – 2013). It is superficially critical; apt to fly off at
some tangent of mental difficulty; and is so impatient with the key that it
injures the lock. We cannot think well in a hurry, any more than we
can work well in a hurry. Many of the worst human mistakes of life we
should avoid IF WE MEDITATED MORE!
“Evil is wrought by want of thought,
As well as want of heart.”
Our prayers would be wider in scope and richer in feeling if we meditated
more; and our judgment would not be so hard about the dealings of God
with us if we meditated on “the way the fathers trod,” and the Divine
revelation of our need of discipline. Meditate, and then the cross will stand
out in its august significance; the heart will feel that it needs a Savior
as well as a Teacher; and instead of feeling that you know all about that
wondrous mystery of Divine provision, you will pray that you, like Paul,
may “know the love of Christ,” which passeth knowledge and “filled with
all the fullness of God.” (Ephesians 3:19). “Meditate on these things.”
They are pluralized; for they are many. The gospel facts and the gospel doctrines
constitute a wide range of subjects affecting alike our temporal and ETERNAL
The Observation of Others (v. 15)
“That thy profiting may appear to all.” The Christian teachings are not like
Eleusinian Mysteries; they are revelations to be lived out in THE BROAD
DAYLIGHT OF HISTORY! A religion that ends in meditation makes the mystic
a religion that confines itself to solitudes — makes the ascetic, who shuts
himself out from the world.
or, in other words, is no mere emotionalism that may coexist with lax
character and feeble morality. Too often this has been the case, and the
Church has been apt to palliate the sins of the fraudulent trader or the
bankrupt trustee, if, though he has wronged others and brought whole
families to beggary and ruin, he has still preserved his spiritual emotions,
his seraphic rhapsodies of expression, and his fervent interest in missionary
come to the touchstone of action and character. It must energize the
conscience, quicken the passive virtues of humility and submission, and
brace the will for the stern obedience of the soldier and the faithful
obligations of the steward.
16 “Take heed unto thyself, and unto the doctrine; continue in them: for
in doing this thou shalt both save thyself, and them that hear thee.”
Take heed (ἔπεχε) – epeche – give heed; attend; as in Acts 3:5 (see too
Luke 14:7). The doctrine. The Authorized Version, the doctrine, is the better
rendering though the difference of meaning is very slight. The use of ἡ διδασκαλία - hae didaskalia – in ch.6:1 and 3, and Titus 2:10 strongly supports
the sense of “doctrine,” i.e. the thing taught (see note on v. 13). Continue in
them” - (ἐπίμενε αὐτοῖς - epimene autois); compare Acts 13:43;
Romans 6:1; 11:22-23; Colossians 1:23. It is impossible to give a satisfactory
solution to the question — What does αὐτοῖς - autois – them - refer to? It seems
to me necessarily to refer to what immediately precedes, viz. seautw σεαυτῷ καὶ τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ - seauto kai tae didaskalia - yourself and the teaching; doctrine -,
and so to refer rather to the sense of the words than to the exact grammar. The
things which he was to “take heed to” were his own conduct and example
(included in σεαυτῷ (yourself) and the doctrine which he preached; and in a
steady continuance in these things — faithful living and faithful teaching — he
would save both himself and his hearers. The application of the words to
the ταῦτα – these of v. 15, or to all the things enumerated from v. 12 onwards,
or, taken as a masculine, to the Ephesians, or the hearers, as variously proposed by eminent commentators seems alike possible.
Latter-Day Apostasies (vs. 1-16)
The history of the Christian Church is the history of the sowing of tares as
well as of the sowing of good grain; and it describes the work of seducing
spirits as well as that of the Spirit of God. The work of heresy is not merely
the denial of true doctrine, but it is the invention and propagation of a
multitude of FALSE DOCTRINES. Nor, again, are the false doctrines so
invented and promulgated, on the face of them, necessarily ungodly doctrines.
On the contrary, they often assume to themselves to be holier, stricter, more
heavenly doctrines, than those of the
not holy enough for these spirit-taught separatists; the precepts of Jesus
Christ do not attain a standard high enough for their exalted aspirations;
the apostles do but grovel in the dust of commonplace piety, while these
self-sent teachers soar to the heights of the true knowledge of the Infinite.
But not only does Church history record the rise, in a lamentable
succession, of the various troublers
of the spiritual
have done more to hinder God’s work on earth than all the persecutors and
atheists put together have accomplished — the Cerinthuses, and Marcions,
and Montanuses, and Manicheuses, and Socinuses, and countless other
sectaries of later times — but the spirit of prophecy revealed beforehand
for the Church’s warning that so it should be. The Holy Ghost, in no
obscure or doubtful words, made it known to the Church that there would
be apostasies many and grievous from the faith once delivered to the saints,
that the leaders of those apostasies would be seducing spirits — spirits of
antichrist, as John has it — and that some of them at least would put on
the hypocritical appearance of greater holiness, for the purpose of the
better deceiving the hearts of the simple. Thus while Christ taught by His
apostle that “marriage is honorable in all,” (Hebrews 13:4), these forbade
to marry; while the Word of God declared that “every creature of God is
good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving” (v.4)
these commanded “to abstain from meats,” saying, “Touch not, taste not,
handle not” (Colossians 2:21). The Word of God teaches that God gives
us richly all things to enjoy (ch. 6:17); these enjoined every kind of austerity
to the body — “bodily exercises” which profited little (v.8). The Word of
God bids us approach bodily to the throne of grace through the mediation
of Jesus Christ; these would keep men back from God, and substitute, in the
name of humility, the worship of angels. And that these pernicious doctrines
were not confined to the first ages of the Church, the history of the Church
too sadly teaches. The most opposite forms of heresy which have in all ages
distracted the Church have always had this in common, that, pretending
to improve upon the sound, sober, and wise teaching of the Word of God,
they have corrupted and forsaken it by:
adorning the gospel in it;
those things to be virtues which God has not made virtues;
these have ever been the characteristics of those “doctrines of devils,”
the purpose of which is to turn the simple away from THE TRUTH.
“The good minister of Jesus Christ” must hold his course boldly and
Straight-forwardly in the teeth of all such false doctrine. He must not parley
with the teachers of heresy, nor mix the wine of the gospel with the water
of falsehood. He knows that the Word of God is purer, and holier, and wiser,
and higher, than all the subtleties of human invention, and will stand in its glory
when they are ALL SWEPT AWAY INTO NOTHINGNESS. . And, knowing
this, he must give himself wholly to teaching the truth, whether men will hear or
whether they will forbear (Ezekiel 2:5; 3:11, 26-27), being fully assured that in
so doing he will both save himself and them that hear him.
Directions to Timothy (vs. 11-16)
· DIRECTION FOUNDED ON PRECEDING CONTEXT. “These things
command and teach.” What was enjoined on him he was to hold up before
the community over which he presided at
or hold up before them, an authoritative standard of conduct. This was to
be characteristically godliness; not a working on the mere human ground,
but a bringing God into connection with the life, cherishing proper feelings
towards Him, and observing His rules. He was also to teach, or hold up
before them, revealed views of truth. While laying down faith as the
condition of salvation, he was not to forget to set forth GOD as the
SAVIOUR OF ALL MEN!
· DIRECTION WITH REFERENCE TO HIS YOUTH. “Let no man
despise thy youth; but be thou an ensample to them that believe, in word,
in manner of life, in love, in faith, in purity.” Timothy was a youth, still
living with his parents, when Paul first took him as his companion. After
the lapse of perhaps fifteen years, he is still regarded as a young man. We
may understand that he was still young for the work entrusted to him; he
was young to instruct, and, it might be, to exhort (ch. 5:1) elders (many of
them old men). A young minister is placed in the same position; he has to speak to men whose experience goes far beyond his. He has in this respect a difficult position to fill, and it becomes him to consider well the course he takes, and, if need be, to take counsel of more experienced men in the ministry, so that he shall have thus the gravity of years, and shall give none occasion to despise him on account of his youth. The idea of a minister is that he is to be an ensample to them that believe, especially to them over whom he is placed. There are five things in which he is to lead the way. The first two go together.
Ø There is the external life of word. A minister is to have the right tone in his private utterances (what seem principally to be referred to as public utterances are introduced in the next verse); he is to be able to direct the minds of others away from trifles to important matters.
Ø There is also the external life of deed. His actions are to go along with his words; he is to give direction by the very way in which he acts. Word and deed reveal the inner life, the motive forces of which are next expressed.
Ø There is the motive force of love. He is impelled by love for an unseen Savior, and for souls purchased by Him.
Ø There is also the motive force of faith. He is impelled by what faith reveals, viz. a Master to whom he is responsible, whose honor he is
to be careful of, whose reward for faithfulness he is earnestly to covet. Thus moved in his inner being, then, as the fifth and last thing,
Ø his life is characterized by purity. He does not receive the contamination of the world, but a pervading holy influence from a source above the world. The young minister who seeks to go before
his people in these five things is taking the right plan of placing himself
above being despised for his youth.
· DIRECTION AS TO HIS USE OF THE SCRIPTURES. “Till I
come, give heed to reading, to exhortation, to teaching.” Timothy was not
so much a resident minister as Paul’s assistant, which involved his moving
from place to place. The special arrangement by which he presided over the
which was expected at no distant date. Meantime he was to give his
attention to his public duties. There was first of all the reading of the
Scriptures. This was carried down from the Jewish synagogue, in which
the Old Testament Scriptures were regularly read. And the Christian
Church, in the lifetime of the apostles, being under infallible guidance, we
can understand that parts of the New Testament would gradually be
introduced into the Christian sanctuary. This public reading of the
Scriptures served a purpose then beyond what it does now. There were
very few copies of the sacred Books to be obtained then. Members of
Churches were, therefore, to a great extent, dependent for their Bible
knowledge on what was publicly read. Meetings would require to be
frequent, and a large place in these meetings would require to be given to
mere reading, in order that the people might become familiar with THE
EXACT LANGUAGE OF SCRIPTURE! With reading was associated exhortation and teaching. We are to understand this as being on the basis of
what was read. “Scripture is the fountain of all wisdom, from which pastors
ought to draw whatever they bring before their flock” (Calvin). There was exhortation to duty, or an appeal to the feelings, conscience, to influence men
to be DECIDED FOR CHRIST and to keep closely by the Law of Christ.
And there was teaching of truth, or the opening up of Scripture in its facts
and principles, to show especially what Christ was and had effected for them.
It was possible to combine the hortatory and instructive, though at one time
attention would be directed more to appeals, at another time more to
· DIRECTION AS TO THE USE OF HIS GIFT. “Neglect not the gift
that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying-on of the
hands of the presbytery.” There is reference to his ordination, which
probably took place years before he was assigned his present work in
governing and the power of handling the Word, was imparted to him. Not
that he was altogether without qualification before; for there were
prophecies going before on him, apparently founded on the proof that he
was making of himself. But then, in all its authoritativeness, and in the
fullness of the qualification in a special influence of the Spirit, the gift was
imparted to him. There were two coexistent circumstances which entered
into the ordination. The first was extraordinary in its nature, viz. prophecy,
or any inspired utterance. Apparently it amounted to an intimation to the
assembled congregation that Timothy was really called, and there and then
fully endowed. The second concomitant, or circumstance entering into the
ordination, was the laying-on of the hands of the presbytery. This was
ordinary, and therefore continues to be connected with ordination,
prophecy being represented by the ordination prayer and address. The
presbytery then apparently consisted of the elders of the particular
congregation in ‘connection with which the ordination took place. As we
learn from the Second Epistle, Paul was associated with them. It is to be
noted that ruling elders took part in ordaining a teaching elder. The
imposition of hands is symbolic of the impartation of a gift. Christ employs
those who have been themselves gifted by Him to be the medium of
imparting His gift to others. The ministerial gift Timothy was not to neglect
or to allow to be unused. We have read of fishes inhabiting the water of a
dark cave that, never needing to use their eyes, eventually, after successive
generations of them, a modification has been produced in their organism.
And there not being the need, nature has ceased to make provision for it,
the strange spectacle being presented of an eyeless race. So, for want of
use, pleading for Christ would become a lost gift to him.
· DIRECTION AS TO HIS APPLYING HIMSELF. “Be diligent in
these things; give thyself wholly to them; that thy progress may be manifest
unto all.” Paul had not the idea that a communication of the Holy Spirit
superseded application. After saying that the gift in Timothy was not to lie
unused, he now says that he was to be diligent in these things, viz. in the
duties of his calling, as set down in the thirteenth verse. And, in the way of
strengthening this, he adds that he was to give himself wholly to them. A
minister has to make himself thoroughly acquainted with the meaning of
Scripture, in order that he may open it to others. He has to know how to
apply Scripture truth to the wants of his people, that he may incite them to
right action. This he cannot well do along with the demands of a secular
business. He needs to have his whole time to devote to it, and he needs, in
the time that he has, to put out to purpose his whole strength. Close
application will soon tell. His profiting will appear in a more skilful
handling of the Word, in a more earnest pleading with souls.
· RECAPITULATION WITH ENFORCEMENT. “Take heed to
thyself, and to thy teaching. Continue in these things; for in doing this thou
shalt save both thyself and them that hear thee.” He first recapitulates what
was said in v. 12. “Take heed to thyself.” A minister is to take heed to
himself, that he is really a subject of saving grace, that he is making
satisfactory increase in grace, that his conduct does not run counter to his
teaching. He next recapitulates what is said in v. 13. “And to thy
teaching.” A minister is to see that he makes every endeavor to bring out
the meaning of the Word of God, and to bring it to bear upon the wants of
his hearers. Having thus recapitulated, he makes it stronger by adding,
“Continue in these things,” viz. in his private and public exercises. And a
minister is encouraged to do this by the consideration that, in doing this, he
shall save the souls of them that hear him. He shall reach his end; and what
a felicity to be the means, UNDER GOD, of saving souls! He can only expect
to do this by exacting from himself a high standard of living and of
preaching. And, through this, he shall reach the end of his own salvation.
He has to win or lose, as well as his hearers. “And many shall say at that
day, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy Name?” who shall be answered
with, “I never knew you; depart from me, ye that work iniquity.” (Matthew
7:23-24) He has the same evil heart to contend with. “Sin dwelleth in us
when we have preached never so much against it; one degree prepareth the
heart for another, and one sin inclineth the mind to more.” He may expect to be
more severely tempted than others, as the honor of Christ lies more on him
The Necessity of a Minister Giving His Whole Energies to His Work
The apostle here concludes his solemn instructions to his
chosen representative at
MINISTRY. “These things do thou care for: be in them.”
Ø A minister’s heart ought to be anxious about his work. It is this
anxiety that secures the efficiency of work in this world. But the
minister’s concern is:
o full of an inspiring zeal for God’s honor, and
o is sustained by encouraging promises of help from on high.
Ø A minister ought to devote himself exclusively to his work.
“Be in them.” The obstacles to this devotion are:
o the pressure of duties right in themselves, but lying outside the
sphere of the ministry.
progress may appear to all.”
Ø This does not imply that Timothy was to have exclusive regard to
his right standing with the Church. This might be a questionable
Ø It implies that his devotion to his work should be so altogether
conspicuous that it could not but be seen by all.
THE OFFICIAL WORK OF THE MINISTER. “Take heed to thyself
and to the teaching; continue in them: for in so doing thou shalt save
both thyself and them that hear thee.”
Ø The direct object of the minister of the gospel is the salvation
Ø This salvation comes by hearing the gospel. “Faith cometh
by hearing and hearing by the Word of God.” (Romans 10:17)
Ø It is the duty of the minister to persevere with a pious insistency
on all the objects of his ministry. “Continue in them.”
Ø Nothing is so well adapted for the salvation of ministers as
their pious labors in behalf of the salvation of others.
Ø There is to be a double service in this ministry. The minister
must first look well to his life, exemplifying the holiness of the gospel
in word and deed (v.12); and then his teaching must be good (v. 6) and
salutary (ch.1:10). Thus he will be the instrument of much good; he
will thus cover the multitude of sins, and save a soul from death
A Dual Heed (v.16)
“Take heed unto thyself, and unto the doctrine.” These two God hath
joined together, and let no man put them asunder. Let not self-hood
become a self-righteousness, which ignores the doctrine that we need
Christ as our Strength and our Savior, and the Holy Spirit as our
Sanctifier. Taking heed to ourselves must not make us daringly self-
confident. Some superficial men think that they can go this warfare on their
own charges. The whole amour of God is needful, and not the mere
equipment of personal judgment and unaided strength. But taking heed to
the doctrine, let us remember that it is not a dead dogma, but that the
Christian verities are spirit and life. We must not be hearers for others or
critics of others, judging one another, and measuring our own virtue by the
shock produced in us at the inconsistencies and failings of others.
FLESH TO DEAL WITH. Knowing what war there still is in our
members. Knowing that this same gospel says, “The spirit indeed is willing,
but the flesh is weak” (Matthew 26:41). Remembering that the richest lives
have made shipwreck, and the loftiest monuments been the first to be shattered
by the storm. We must remember that the teacher elevated by honor may be
the first to fall. (“Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth take
heed lest he fall.” - I Corinthians 10:12)
THIS FOR US. We know more of ourselves than any other can know. Our
tastes, our tendencies, our secret desires, our constitutional weaknesses.
We see how the “needle” trembles in the presence of certain loadstones of
evil, and we must therefore look within, and be watchful.
The Life-Endurance (v. 16)
“Continue in them.” There must be perseverance or pressing forward. And
this is the great point. “Ye did run well” applies to many who were first in
the Atalanta race. “That your fruit may remain,” said Christ (John 15:16).
Permanence. This is beautiful. How many actual blossoms never come to fruit
at all! And how much fruit becomes the subject of blight and withering. Young life,
like Timothy’s, is lovely in its enthusiasm; but:
perils of the way! Churches may
become corrupt like
shipwreck. Opposition may increase. Enemies may multiply. The work may
grow harder; and the atmosphere in which it is done grow colder.
Continue in them!
vessel with her freshly painted hull, her gay bunting, her trim sails, her
beautiful lines, may float swan-like in the harbor, and then skim the waters
like a thing of life. But she is nobler when, with battered sides, and gaping
bulwarks, and rent sails, and dismantled rigging, she reaches her destined
haven. “Continue in them.” The sword may not be so bright with the
silvery sheen of newness; the helmet may not be so undinted; the apparel
may not be so unstained; but the hero has won the war, fought the good
fight, and finished his course. (II Timothy 4:7)
Saving Others (v. 16)
“For in doing this thou shalt both save thyself, and them that hear thee.”
Not, of course, as providing the salvation or applying it; the first is done by
the Savior, the second by the Holy Spirit; but in working out the salvation
— in making use of all Divine means and instrumentalities.
· PERSONAL SALVATION. “Save thyself;” for in the heaven-voyage
the captain is not to be lost while the company and the crew are saved. In
this war the enemy is not to pick off the sentinels and the captains alone.
No; Divine grace is sufficient for pastor as well as for people; but it would
be a terrible thing — alas! not an unknown thing — that the minister who
has taught others, himself should be a castaway. Next follows:
· THE SALVATION OF OTHERS. “Them that hear thee.” A simple
word, “hear.” The pulpit must not be the place for the airing of personal
crotchets, or the use of arrows and shafts of mere wit, or the discussion of
mere critical themes. “The things that ye have heard” are such as the
apostle defines — august and real, vital and eternal realities. To hear may
seem a light thing, and so it is if the message be light. But the true minister
does not tremble before his audience, any more than Paul did before Felix.
Ø If the congregation be his patron, he may please them to secure his
Ø if they are his Sanhedrim, he may be heard before them in test of
Ø if they are his guests, and not the Master’s, he may cater for a
banquet suited to their tastes;
but if he is the minister of God to them for good, if woe is his if he preach
not the gospel, if he has the sacred responsibility of one who is put in trust
with the gospel, — then hearing is a solemn thing. On that may hang
character, influence, destiny.
Ø He is not there as lord over God’s heritage.
Ø He is not there to have dominion over their faith.
He appeals to reason, to conscience, and all that we mean by
heart and soul. But he does not create a gospel or propound some new
philosophy — he is to preach (ch. 2:5-6) “one God, and one
Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus,” and yet Christ
Jesus the Lord; the God who was “manifest in the flesh, justified in the
Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world,
received up into glory” (ch. 3:16). “And them that hear thee.”
Ours is a solemn relationship; but it may be a sweet and sublime one too.
In the far-away land we may greet each other as victors in the same war,
winners of the same race, companions on the same pilgrimage. Saved with
the ancient swords stored in the heavenly armory. Saved, with the great sea
behind us and
Eshcol, and more triumphant strains of victory than those of Miriam. I say
it may be so with us, and with some who have heard and whispered the
sacred words to themselves as on the last pillow they went home to God.
The very sentence, “them that hear thee,” has in it all the pathos of the
past, as well as all the realism of the present. The lips that speak are only
these of man, but the message is the Word of Him who “would have all men
to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth.” (ch. 2:4) Is it true of
us, as we face each other, that we shall see one another again — yea, years to
come — and that these words may rise up against preacher, and hearers, or
both? Is it true that waiting angels will bear back the message, “This and
that man [woman,
child] was born there”? (Psalm
87:6) The living
attractive but in reality having no value) to make our ministry pleasant, or to
make the Church harmonize with the age. Eternity will reverse many of the verdicts of time. Much of our judgment now is touched and tarnished with the worldly ideal. The hour is coming when He who said, “Go... and speak in the temple... all the words of this life” (Acts 5:20), will call us all alike into His presence; and then it will be seen and known before God and the holy angels whether we have both saved ourselves and them that heard us.
"Excerpted text Copyright AGES Library, LLC. All rights reserved.
Materials are reproduced by permission."
This material can be found at:
If this exposition is helpful, please share with others.