II Timothy 4



1 “I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who

shall judge the quick and the dead at His appearing and His kingdom;”

I charge thee (diamartu>romai diamarturomai); as ch.2:14 and I  Timothy

5:21 (where see note).  At His appearing and His kingdom. The reading of the

Textus Receptus, kata< th<n ejpifa>neian kata taen epiphaneian - at

his appearing and kingdom -  makes such excellent sense, and is in such

perfect accordance with the usual grammar, and with the usual connection

of events, that it is difficult not to believe that it is the right reading (see

Matthew 27:15, kata< eJorth>n  kata heortaen -  at the feast;  kata< pa~n

sa>bbaton kata pan sabbaton - on every sabbath; Acts 13:27, kata< th<n

hJme>ran kata taen haemeran - in the day; Hebrews 3:8 for the grammar;

and the universal language of Scripture and the Creeds connecting the judgment

with the Lord’s appearing and kingdom). On the other hand, the reading kai< kai -

(and) is almost impossible to construe. No two commentators scarcely are agreed

how to do so. Some take th<n ejpifanei>an kai< th<n basilei>an taen

epiphaneian kai taen basileianthe advent of Him and the kingdom of Him –

 as the object governed by diamartu>romai (I call to witness) is in the Septuagint

of Deuteronomy 4:26, “I call to witness… Christ’s epiphany and kingdom,”

taking diamartu>romai in two senses or two constructions. Others take them as

the accusatives of the things sworn by, “I charge thee before God and Jesus Christ,

and by His epiphany and kingdom,” as Mark 5:7, to<n Qeo>n - ton Theon - by God;

Acts 19:13, to<n jIhsou~n – ton Iaesoun - by Jesus;  I Thessalonians 5:27, to<n Ku>rion

 ton Kurion - by the Lord.  But how awkward such a separation of the thing sworn by

from the verb is, and how unnatural it is to couple with kai< the two ideas,

before God” and “by Christ’s epiphany,” and how absolutely without

example such a swearing by Christ’s epiphany and kingdom is, nobody

needs to be told. Others, as Huther, try to get over part at least of this

awkwardness by taking the two kai’s as “both:” “by both his epiphany and

his kingdom.” Ellicott explains it by saying that as you could not put “the

epiphany and the kingdom” in dependence upon ejnw>pion enopionbefore;

in the sight of; (as if they were persons like God and Christ), they “naturally

pass into the accusative.” But surely this is all thoroughly unsatisfactory. The

Textus Receptus is perfectly easy and simple. (ejpifanei>a epiphaneia appearing);

v. 8; ch. 1:10; II Thessalonians 2:8; I Timothy 6:14; Titus 2:13. His kingdom. So in

the Nicene Creed: “He shall come again with glory to judge both the quick

and the dead: whose kingdom shall have no end” (compare Matthew 25:31,

followed by the judgment).


“I charge thee in the sight of God, and of Jesus Christ.” Unseen by Timothy,

they were really present as Witnesses of the charge now to be laid on him.

The first Witness, who is the First Person of the Godhead, is simply designated

GOD. It is the highest, most comprehensive, of names. With God is associated

the historical Jesus with the Divine commission.  JESUS,  who died thirty-eight

years before the writing of this Epistle, is thought of as present with Paul in

his dungeon, witnessing to the charge in all its particulars that is to be sent

on to Timothy.  Christ is He “Who shall judge the quick and the dead.”

The time was to come when Christ was to return to earth. Before His judgment

seat were to be gathered the quick  (the alive but suddenly changed) and the

dead (raised from their graves – John 5:24-29). Timothy, (changed or awakened)

would have to take his place along with others, to give an account to the Judge

especially of his official work.  Christ is now concealed from human view, and

men may dispute his being the Son of God, may dispute the fact that He died.

 (One of my favorite verses of the Bible is:  “If we believe not, YET HE


CY - 2013).  Christ is now reigning, but many never think of His reigning at

all. The time is to come when His kingdom is to be established, ESTABLISHED


NEITHER MODIFICATION NOR END!  Another one of my favorite

verses is:  “Of the increase of His government and peace there shall be


THIS.”  (Isaiah 9:7)  To His people the time of his appearing, and from which

his kingdom dates, will be full of joy and a time when THEIR OWN SHARING

WITH HIM  shall stand out in its full meaning.


2 “Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove,

rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine.” Preach the Word.

(kh>ruxon to<n lo>gon  - Kaeruxon ton logon – proclaim you or herald

You the word). It is impossible to exaggerate the dignity and importance here

given to preaching by its being made the subject of so solemn and awful an

adjuration as that in v.1 (compare the designation of kh>rux kaerux – preacher –

which Paul gives to himself in I Timothy 2:7; ch. 1:11). Be instant. (ejpi>sthqi

epistaethi – be you standing by, urgent). The force of the exhortation must be

found, not in the verb itself taken alone, but by coupling eujkai>rwv ajkai>rwv

 eukairos akairosin season; out of season - closely with it. Be

at your work, attend to it always, in and out of season; let nothing stop

you; be always ready, always at hand. Reprove (e]legxon elexonrebuke;

expose); see ch.3:16, note (compare Matthew 18:15; Ephesians 5:11; I Timothy

5:20).  Generally with the idea of bringing the fault home to the offender. Rebuke

(ejpiti>mhson - epitimaeson); a stronger word than e]legxon, implying

more of authority and less of argument (Matthew 8:26: 17:18; Luke 19:39;

Jude 1:9, etc.). Exhort (paraka>leson parakalessonexhort; entreat you).

Sometimes the sense of “exhort,” and sometimes that of “comfort,” predominates

(see I Timothy 2:1; 6:2, etc.). Every way of strengthening and establishing

souls in the fear and love of God is to be tried, and that with all long

suffering and teaching. (For makroqumi>a makrothumialongsuffering;

patience -  see ch. 3:10, note.) For “teaching” or “doctrine” (didach>

didachae),  Paul more frequently uses didaskali>a didaskaliateaching –

in the pastoral Epistles (1 Timothy 1:10; 4:6, 13, 16; 5:17; ch. 3:10, 16, etc.);

but there does not seem to be any great difference of meaning. Possibly didach>

points more to the act of teaching. The use of it here, coupled with “long suffering,”

directs that the man of God, whether he preaches, reproves, rebukes, or exhorts,



Timothy had not to create a gospel, but to preach one; and the “Word” is broad

and vast enough for any preacher. The cross has for its circumference all truth,

and is to be carried into all spheres of life, and throughout the world!  (Acts 1:8)

It is not a mere philosophy to interest students as an esoteric study; nor is it a

mere elaborate theological thesis to be proven true. It has to do with “the present

salvationand the future well being of man. The time of the preaching IS NOW!

Tomorrow the  preacher or hearer, or both may be gone!  (II Corinthians 6:2;

Hebrews 3:7-8; 4:7; Psalm 95:7).  The truth is never out of season. We need it

always, in all places, in all our duties, temptations, and trials.


The Word of God is to be preached WITH ALL AUTHORITY.  That is, with the

authority of truth, not your own ex-cathedra  (literally ‘from the chair’ -  a

theological term which signifies authoritative teaching, more particularly,

given by the definitions of the Roman pontiff) authority. “Meekly;” but not

as though your congregations were patrons to be pleased, or Sanhedrims to

try your opinions. Modestly; but with authority; not, as I said, your own authority,

but the authority of truth, which has its own witness within. So you will

reprove men fearlessly, never hiding them from themselves by cunning

words of flattery. And you will “rebuke” — for evil soon spreads if it be

not exposed and condemned at once — just as Nathan boldly faced David,

and said, “Thou art the man.”  (II Samuel 12:7).


The teacher is not to be merely a scornful satirist of immorality — a sort of

Juvenal. Nor is he to be a lightning conductor of Divine wrath; he is to seek  

to save men. He has not done his work when he has revealed the Law of God

against evil. He is to remember that the Christ he preaches is the Son of man

who is come, “not to condemn the world, but that the world through Him

might  be saved.”  (John 3:17)


 Long suffering (and “speaking the truth in love” – Ephesians 4:15) is to be

 the spirit of his method. Remembering that humanity is frail and fallen,

the preacher must be sympathetic, as himself needing mercy.  His doctrine

is to be the great revelation of a DIVINE SAVIOUR and the promised

HOLY SPIRIT, THE COMFORTER!  (I recommend How to Be Saved!

# 5 – this web site – CY – 2013)


3 “For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine;

but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers,

having itching ears;   hJ uJgiai>nousa didaskali>a hae hugiainousa

didakalia  sound doctrine; sound teaching - is characteristic of the

pastoral Epistles, having arisen, no doubt, from the growth of heresy (see

I Timothy 1:10; 6:3. II Timothy 1:13; Titus 1:9, 13; 2:1, 8). In classical Greek,

uJgih>v hugiaes is frequently applied to words, sentiments, advice, etc., in the

sense of “sound,” “wise;” and uJgiai>ein hugiaiein is also applied

to the mind and character. Applied to the body means good health. 

Endure (ajne>xontai anexontaithey will be tolerating); usually, as

applied by Paul to persons as the object, as elsewhere in the New Testament

(Matthew 17:17; Acts 18:14; Ephesians 4:2, etc.); but not invariably (see

II Thessalonians 1:4; so too Hebrews 13:22). In classical Greek, ajne>cesqai,

followed by persons or things, usually governs an accusative case, if any, but a

genitive frequently in Plato. Having itching ears (knhqo>menoi th<n ajkoh>n

 knaethomenoi taen akoaen); only here in the New Testament. The phrase,

knhse>wv w]twn knaeseos oton is ascribed by Plutarch to Plato –

scratching the (itching) ear;” kna~sqai ta< w=ta, “to tickle the ears” (Lucian);

 ajpoknai>ousin hJmw~n ta< w|]ta (Philo). The verb knh>qw - knaetho( i.q.

kna>w –-  knao ) means “to scratch;” “to tickle,” and in the passive “to itch.”

Shall heap to themselves (ejpiswreu>sousi episoreusousi – they shall

be heaping up); a contemptuous word (found only here in the New Testament,

and nowhere in early classical Greek), implying the indiscriminate

multiplication of teachers (compare our use of “exaggerate”). The simple

swreu>ein soreuein ladened; heaped - occurs in ch. 3:6. After their

own lusts. The measure of the number or the quality of their self-chosen

teachers will be their own insatiable and ever-varying fancies and mental

appetites, not the desire to be taught GOD’S TRUTH  by teachers SENT

FROM GOD!  Compare Jeroboam’s conduct in ordaining a feast “in the month

 which he had devised of his own heart” (I Kings 12:33).


The sound or healthful teaching of the Bible, according to I Timothy 3:16,

is that which, founded on the facts of redemption, leads to godliness. Some

men find it intolerable, because it binds them down to thoughts and courses

which are contrary to “their own lusts.”  Their relief is not to get rid of all

teachers (although I am beginning to wonder, with all the anti-Christian

propaganda today – CY – 2013), but to get teachers after their own lusts.

These teachers will parrot and reflect their own depraved sentiments.

Those who strive to have their desires regulated by the Word of God are

satisfied with the gospel teachers; those who have their desires unregulated

(i.e. in the state of lusts) are not easily satisfied. “Having itching ears, they

heap to themselves teachers.” “And will turn away their ears from the truth,

 and turn aside unto fables.” Their duty is to turn their ears to the truth, but

they turn aside to listen to fablesnot truth, BUT INVENTIONS.  When

men do not find the truth agreeable to the ear,


o       they may take the wildest fancies, and,

o       the most CHILDISH BELIEFS!


Those who had to do with myths had not clearness and caution of mind,

but were intoxicated with their own wisdom. Timothy was to avoid their fault.


4 “And they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be

turned unto fables.”  Shall turn away, etc. The sober, sound doctrine

of the Word of God, teaching self-discipline, humility, and purity of heart and life,

will not assuage their itching ears, and therefore they will turn away from it,

and go after more congenial fables — those taught by THE HERETICS.

Shall be turned.   (ejktraph>sonai -- ektrapaesonaishall be being

urned aside; turn aside); as I Timothy 1:6, note. Fables (mu>qouv muthous

myths; fables); see I Timothy 1:4; 4:7; Titus 1:14; II Peter 1:16.


The reason for the APOSTASY - “For the time will come when they will not

endure the sound doctrine.” The gospel doctrine is sound, because it necessitates

 a holy life, and holds the gratification of sinful passions to be INCONSISTENT

with  the hopes of salvation.  This evil men cannot endure, because it is so opposed

to the corruption of human nature, and therefore treat it with neglect, if not with contempt.

The Apostle Paul foresees the growth of evil in the Church, and therefore seeks to

prepare ministers to war against it.


The effect of this MORAL DISGUST with the gospel is to heap to themselves

teachers after their own lusts.. They wanted to hear new things or smooth things,

such as would reflect the caprices of a corrupt nature.  They wished to have their

fancies gratified — “after their own lusts.” They wanted indulgent guides, who

would flatter the pride of human nature, and not lay too great a stress upon the

importance of a holy life. However, sound doctrine is necessarily for a



The retribution that awaits such PERVERSION OF JUDGMENT.

 “And will turn away their ears from the truth, and turn aside unto fables.”

It is a solemn fact in Divine providence, that when men do not like to return to the

knowledge of the truth, God gives them up to a reprobate mind, so that they lose

all relish for sound doctrine.  (Romans 1:28)  God has designed us to be

religious beings and the heart cannot long remain empty (Luke 11:24-26). 

Fables rush in to occupy the place which denies a footing to truth,

(witness the results of the United States’ policy of “separation of church and

state – CY – 2013),  just as infidelity has a vacuum-creating power, which

superstition immediately rushes in to fill up. WHAT A WASTE OF SOUL

profitless fables taken in exchange for SOUL SAVING TRUTH!


5 “But watch thou in all things, endure afflictions, do the work of an

evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry.”  But watch thou.  (su de nh~fe

 naephe - be you being sober) as I Thessalonians 5:6, 8; I Peter 1:13; 4:7; 5:8.

The adjective nhfa>lion naephalionsober - occurs in I Timothy 3:2 (where see

note), 11; Titus 2:2. Here “Be sober in all things” clearly does not refer to literal

sobriety, which Timothy was in little danger of transgressing (l Timothy 5:23), but

comprehends clearness, calmness, steadiness, and moderation in all things.

Endure afflictions.   (kakopa>qhson kakopathaeson - suffer hardship;

suffer evil); as ch.2:3 (Textus Receptus) and 9. An evangelist (eujaggelistou~

 euaggelistou - of evangelist); one whose business it is to preach the gospel,

according to Matthew 11:5. The verb eujaggeli>zein euaggelizein - to preach the

gospel - and aujagge>lion auaggelion - the gospel.  are of very frequent use in

the New Testament. But eujaggelisth>v euaggelistaes - an evangelist occurs

elsewhere only in Acts 21:8 and Ephesians 4:11. Full proof of thy ministry.

This is rather a weak rendering of  the Greek plhrofo>rhson plaerophoraeson

fully discharge you;  fulfil thy ministry., adopted also in the Revised Version

of Luke 1:1. The verb occurs elsewhere in Romans 4:21; 14:5, and v. 17 of this

chapter. The phrase is metaphorical, but it is uncertain whether the metaphor is

that of a ship borne along by full sails, or of full measure given. If the former is the

metaphor, then the derived meaning, when applied to persons, is that of full

persuasion, entire and implicit faith, which carries men forward in a bold

and unwavering course; or, when applied to things, that of being undoubtedly

believed. But if the metaphor is taken from “bringing full measure;” then the sense

in the passive voice when applied to persons will be “to be fully satisfied,” i.e.

 to have full assurance, and, when applied to things, “to be fully believed.”

Applying the last metaphor to the passage before us, the sense will be

discharge thy ministry to the full.” Let there be no stint of ministerial labor,

but carry it out in its completeness, and to the end.


6 “For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is

at hand.”  For I am now ready to be offered. I am already being offered.

The ejgw> - ego – I - is emphatic, in contrast with the su> (you) of v. 5: “Thou, who

hast still life before thee, suffer hardship, do the work of an evangelist, make

full proof of thy ministry. I can do so no longer, for my martyrdom has already

commenced, and my end is close at hand. Thou must take my place in the great

conflict.”  Am …..to be offered.  (spe>ndomai spendomai am being poured out,);

as the drink offering, or libation, is poured out. Paul uses the same figure in Philippians

2:17, where he couples it with the sacrifice and service (or offering up) of the faith of

the Philippians by himself as the priest, and looks upon the pouring out of his own life

as the completion of that sacrifice. The libation always formed the conclusion of

the sacrifice, and so the apostle’s martyrdom closed his apostolic service

which had been a continual sacrifice, in which he had been the ministering priest

(Romans 15:16). So that the use of spe>ndomai here exactly agrees with that in

Philippians 2:17. “My sacrificial work,” Paul says, “being now finished and

 ended, I am performing the last solemn act, the pouring out of my own life

 in martyrdom, to which I shall pass out of the prison where I now am.”

The time of my departure (th~v ejmh~v ajnalu>sewv taes emaes analuseos

of my dissolution). The word is found nowhere else in the New Testament, but

Paul uses the verb ajnalu~sai analusai - to depart, in Philippians 1:23,

where, the verb being in the active voice, the metaphor clearly is from

weighing anchor, as in common use in classical Greek; hence simply “to

depart.” The classical use of ajna>lusiv analusis rather favors the sense,

either of “release” or of  “dissolution.” But Paul’s use of ajnalu>w analuo

to depart – in Philippians 1:23, and the frequent use of the same verb in the

Septuagint and by Josephus, in the sense of “to depart,” favors the rendering of

ajna>lusiv by “departure,” as in the Authorized Version  and Revised Version.

Is at hand.   (ejfe>sthke epestaeke ); the same verb as ejpi>sthqi epistaethi

instant; urgent in v. 2.


Mark the calmness with which the Paul contemplates a violent death.

There is no tremor, or hurry, or impatience in his last days. The language is

singularly composed. He knew that Nero would soon put an end to his life,

for that monster of cruelty and crime was even then striking out wildly

against the Christians. Nothing but an assured hope and a living faith could

maintain the spirit in such trying circumstances.


7 “I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept

the faith:” I have fought a  good fight; as I Timothy 6:12 (to<n ajgw~na to<n

kalo>n - ton agona ton kalon), meaning that, however honorable the contests

of the games were deemed, the Christian contest was far more honorable

than them all.   (Translate more honorable than THE SUPER BOWL;



Etc. – CY – 2013).   The word “fight” does not adequately express by ajgw~na

(a contest; conflict or fight) hich embraces all kinds of contests — chariot race,

foot race, wrestling, etc. “I have played out the honorable game” would give

the sense, though inelegantly. My course (to<n dro>mon – ton dromon – the

course; the running; my career); Acts 13:25; 20:24. The runner in the race

had a definite dro>mov (course) to run, marked out for him. Paul’s life was that

course, and he knew that he had run it out. (So do you and I have a course

marked out for us by a loving Heavenly Father – CY – 2013). I have

 kept the faith. Paul here quits metaphor and explains the foregoing figures.

Through his long eventful course, in spite of all difficulties, conflicts, dangers, and

temptations, he had kept the faith of Jesus Christ committed to him,

inviolable, unadulterated, whole, and complete. He had not shrunk from

confessing it when death stared him in the face; he had not corrupted it to

meet the views of Jews or Gentiles; with courage and resolution and

perseverance he had kept it to the end. Oh! let Timothy do the same.

(With God’s help,  let YOU AND I DO THE SAME! – CY – 2013)


The good fight ended.  Every Christian is a soldier. He has to fight against the

threefold enmity of:


o       the world,

o       the flesh, and

o       the devil.


 He overcomes through faith as his sole weapon.  (I John 5:4-5).


The race ended.  There is a limit to the duration of the fight. Death ends it.


o       It is a long race;

o       a wearying race;

o       yet a glorious race,


because it has a happy ending.  Faith has been preserved,  a precious deposit

placed  in our hands (ch.1:14).  Errorists of all sorts are continually striving to

wrest it out of our hands by their specious sophistries.  Believers keep it safest

who treasure it in their hearts as well as their minds.


8 “Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which

the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to

me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing.”

Henceforth (loipo>n – loipon - furthermore); as Hebrews 10:13. The work

of conflict being over, IT ONLY REMAINS TO RECEIVE THE CROWN!

A crown of righteousness means that crown the possession of which marks

the wearer as righteous before God. The analogous phrases are, “the crown

 of glory” (I Peter 5:4) and “the crown of life” (James 1:12; Revelation 2:10).

The righteousness, the glory, and the life of the saints are conceived as

displayed in crowns, as the kingly dignity is in the crown of royalty. The

righteous Judge (krith>v kritaes - Judge). In Acts 10:42 the Lord Jesus

is said to be ordained of God Krith<v zw>ntwn kai< nekrw~n Kritaes zonton

 kai nekron - the Judge of quick and dead -  and in Hebrews 12:23 we read,

Krith~| Qew~| pa>ntwn   Kritae Theo panton -  God the Judge of all. But nowhere

else, either in the Old Testament or the New Testament, is this term applied directly

either to God or to Christ. Surely its use here is influenced by the preceding metaphor

of the ajgw>n (fight; contest) and the dro>mov (course) and the ste>fanov (crown) and

the righteous Judge” is the impartial brabeu>v brabeus or judge, who assigned

the prizes at the games to those who had fairly won them. And this is the proper

meaning of krith>v, “the umpire,” applied, especially at Athens, to the “judges”

at the poetic contests). Thucydides contrasts the krith>v and the ajgwnisth>v

agonistaes -  Aristophanes the kritai > kritaijudges and the qeatai> - 

theatai spectators -  and the word “critic” is derived from this meaning of

krith>v kitaesjudge and kritiko>v -  kritikos – discerner.  The whole

picture is that of the apostle running his noble race of righteousness to the

 very end, and of the LORD HIMSELF assigning to him the well earned



(So, if the world is a conflict; test; fight, contest, and the trophies will be

passed out at A CEREMONY, with all heaven and earth assembled,








  • Winner?
  • Loser
  • Also played?
  • Cast Away?
  • Cut from the scene (team)


Ephesians 1:10 tells us that Jesus Christ is in the process of gathering

together in one all things….which are in heaven and which are

on earth.”  My prayer is that after this ceremony, that you will be ushered

into heaven to be with God, His Christ, the Holy Spirit, with all angelic

beings that have been faithful to Him throughout eternity, and finally, with

all God’s people who have had the opportunity of life and have responded

to God’s call to life!  THEY WILL COME FROM EVERYWHERE,

 many shall come from the east and west, and shall sit down with

Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven” – Matthew

8:11 - and out of  all nations of them which are saved.”  - Revelation 21:24 –

If you are in danger of being among those who are “THRUST OUT”

Luke 13:28 – I recommend highly #5 – How to Be Saved – this web

site – CY – 2013)  (What chance do you think an abortionist has on that

day?  A person who has done all he or she could to keep an individual,

yea, many individuals, from BEING IN THAT NUMBER!  The Bible

says, “For the time is come that judgment must begin at the house

of God:  and if it first begin at us, what shall the end be of them

that obey not the gospel of God?  And if the righteous scarcely be

saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?  - I Peter

4:17-18 – CY - 2013)  That love His appearing. That have loved His

appearing. It will be a characteristic of those who will be crowned at

 that day that all the time they were fighting the good fight they were

 looking forward with hope and desire for their Lord’s appearing

and kingdom.Thy kingdom come” was their desire and their petition.

They will be able to say at that day, “So, this is our God; we have

 waited for Him, and He will save us:  this is the Lord; we have

waited for Him, we will be glad and rejoice  in His salvation”

 (Isaiah 25:9).


 True believers do not dread Christs appearance in judgment.

They look forward with hope, satisfaction, and joy, to the day of final

account.  All who love Him now will love Him at His appearing, when

they shall see him in His glory.  (“Beloved, now are we the sons of

God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be:  but we know

that, when He shall appear, we shall be like Him; for we shall

see Him as He is!”  (I John 3:2)


Some men dread that appearing. They never have liked thoughts of God,


who have lived in pleasure, and said to God, “Depart from us!” may well

tremble at His appearing. But the true Christian, who has walked by faith,

loves Christ’s appearing.


We long to see equity or righteous judgment triumphant in the universe.

So much judgment seems to miscarry now.  (The only way I know

how to relate how I feel for the apostasy in the United States in

the 21st century, is “I MOURN! – CY – 2013)



The Last Charge (vs. 1-8)


The words of this chapter have the peculiar interest which attaches to the

last words of one who was prominent above his fellow men, and they have

this striking character, that the apostle, knowing that the time of his

departure was at hand, when the great work of his life must cease as far as

he was concerned, was intensely solicitous that the work should go on

after his death with uninterrupted course and with undiminished force. It is

one of the features of the holy unselfishness of Paul’s character that he

was not anxious for the success of the gospel only as far as that success

was connected with his own labors, and was the fruit of his own apostolic

energy; but that the growth of Christ’s kingdom, and the increase of

Christ’s Church, and the salvation of souls, were things that he intensely

longed for for their own sake, and without the slightest reference to

himself. Accordingly, in the words before us, he throws his whole soul into

the task of urging Timothy to carry on the work of the ministry with a

vigor equal to his own. By the most solemn motives. speaking as in the

immediate presence of the great Judge of the quick and the dead, with the

expectation of the great epiphany in full view, with all the glories of the

mediatorial kingdom spread out before his mind’s eye, he urges him to the

work — the ministerial work; the evangelistic work; the work in which

Paul had spent his strength, and ungrudgingly used his splendid faculties;

the work which is described in three words, “Preach the Word.” For these

words do really comprehend all the details which are added. Go as God’s

herald, and deliver to the people God’s message:


o       His message of abounding grace,

o       His Word of pardon and forgiveness,

o       His Word of love and reconciliation.


Preach the Word which tells:


o       of Jesus Christ,

o       of death to sin by His death upon the cross,

o       of life to God by His resurrection from the dead.


Preach the Word :


o       of holy obedience,

o       of charity, and purity,

o       of patience, gentleness, and peace;

o       the Word of like mindedness with Christ,

o       of conformity to the will of God; the Word

of truth and righteousness;

o       the unerring Word, which is like God, and cannot lie.


Preach the Word :


o       as one who knows its worth and its power;

o       as one who knows that the issues of life and death

are bound up with it;

o       as one who will brook no delay in preaching it.


Preach it with special application to the varying needs of those who hear it.


o       Reprove sin by its searching light.

o       Rebuke offenders by its sharp two-edged blade.

(Hebrews 4:12)

o       Exhort the weak and sluggish by its comforting and

animating truths.

o       Exemplify its excellence by the spirit in which you teach it.

(Ephesians 4:15)


And be prepared for hardships and opposition and contradiction in your work.

You may have to stand alone. You may see popular preachers all around you,

leading astray silly souls by hundreds and thousands; tickling their ears with

foolish fancies; ministering to their idle lusts; leading them away from the truth.

But do thou “preach the Word.” Flinch not, shrink not, wince not.


Do the work of an evangelist:


o       faithfully,

o       steadfastly,

o       boldly.


Fill my place; take up my work; witness for Christ as I have witnessed;

 suffer for Christ as I have suffered; and then join me in the kingdom

 of glory.  Such is the tenor of the last apostolic charge. The Lord

grant to his Church an unfailing succession of men to carry out its

directions, and to fulfil it in its spirit and in its letter!


All preachers must one day give an account of their stewardship. Such

a thought ought to stimulate them to greater faithfulness.  Their

responsibility is to God and Jesus Christ, who are Witnesses of their work,

as they have made them good ministers of the New Testament.


9 “Do thy diligence to come shortly unto me:” Do thy diligence

(spou>dason - spoudason – hasten to do a thing; to exert oneself;

Endeavor , give diligence); see ch. 2:15, note. Paul’s affectionate longing

for Timothy’s company in present danger and desertion is very touching.


10 “For Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this present world, and

is departed unto Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia, Titus unto

Dalmatia.”  Demas. Nothing more is known of Demas than what is gathered

from the mention of him in Colossians 4:14 and Philemon.1:24. We learn from

those passages that he was a fellow laborer of the apostle, and it is remarkable

that in them both he is coupled, as here, with Luke and Mark (Colossians 4:10).

Having loved this present world. It would appear from this that Demas had not

the faith or the courage to run the risk of sharing Paul’s imminent

martyrdom at Rome, but left him, while he was free to do so, under

pretence of an urgent call to Thessaloniea; just as Mark (John Mark) left Paul

and Barnabas (Acts 13:13). But there is no ground to believe that he was

an apostate from the faith. The coupling together of Demas and

Aristarchus in Philemon 1:24 suggests that Demas may have been a

Thessalonian, as we know that Aristarchus was (Acts 20:4). Demas is

thought to be a shortened form of Demarchus. If so, we have a slight

additional indication of his being a Thessalonian, as compounds with

archos or arches would seem to have been common in Thessalonica

(compare Aristarchus and polita>rchv - politarchaes  - rulers of the city;

city magistrates - Acts 17:6, 8). Crescens (Krh>skhv); only mentioned here.

It is a Latin name, like Pou>dhv - - Poudaes - Pudens, in v. 21. There was a

cynic philosopher of this name in the second century, a great enemy of the Christians.

The tradition (‘Apost. Constit., 7:46) that he preached the gospel in Galatia is

probably derived from this passage. Titus. The last mention of Titus, not reckoning

the Epistle to Titus, is that in II Corinthians 12:18, from which it appears that Paul

had sent him to Corinth just before his own last visit to that city. How the

interval was filled up, and where Titus passed the time, we know not. He is

not once named in the Acts of the Apostles, nor in any of Paul’s

Epistles written during his first imprisonment. But we gather from Titus

1:5 that he accompanied Paul to Crete, presumably after the apostle’s

return from Spain; that he was left there for a time to organize the Church;

that later he joined the apostle at Nicopolis (Titus 3:12),and, doubtless

by Paul’s desire, went to Dalmatia, as mentioned in this verse. And here our

knowledge of him ends. Tradition pretty consistently makes him Bishop of

Gortyna, in Crete, where are the ruins of a very ancient church dedicated to

St. Titus, in which service is occasionally performed by priests from the

neighborhood (Dean Howson, in ‘Dict. of Bible:’ art.“Titus”).


The desertion of Demas was caused, like so many, for  Having loved this

present world.” It may have been love of life or love of ease, or the desire

to get back to old associations at Thessalonica (probably his native place),

or the desire for pleasure or wealth. But it was a fatal passion. THE LOVE


LIFE for all that is in the world is evil — “the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye,

and the pride of life.” (I John 2:16).  It is all (because of sin and Satan)  in the

present order of things, OPPOSED TO GOD and DESTRUCTIVE TO


of this present evil world


11 “Only Luke is with me. Take Mark, and bring him with thee: for he

is profitable to me for the ministry.” Luke; probably a shortened form of

Lucanus. Luke was with Paul in his voyage to Rome (Acts 27:1; 28:11, 16),

and when he wrote the Epistles to the Colossians and Philemon (Colossians 4:14;

Philemon 1:24), having doubtless composed the Acts of the Apostles during Paul’s

two years’ imprisonment (Acts 28:30). How he spent his time between that

date and the mention of him here as still with Paul, we have no

knowledge. But it looks as if he may have been in close personal

attendance upon him all the time. if he had been permitted to write a

supplement to the Acts, perhaps the repeated “we” would have shown this.

Take Mark. Mark had apparently been recently reconciled to Paul

when he wrote Colossians 4:10, and was with him when he wrote

Philemon 1:24. We know nothing more of him till we learn from this passage

that he was with or near to Timothy, and likely to accompany him to Rome

in his last visit to Paul. He is mentioned again in I Peter 5:13, as

being with Peter at Babylon. The expression, “take” (ajnalabw>n - analabon),

seems to imply that Timothy was to pick him up on the way, as the word is

used in Acts 20:13-14; and, though less certainly, in Ibid. ch. 23:31.

He is profitable to me.  (eu]crhstov euchraestos - He is useful to me,);

as ch. 2:21 (where see note). This testimony to Mark’s ministerial usefulness,

at a time when his faithfulness and courage would be put to a severe test, is very

satisfactory.  For the ministry. (eijv diakoni>an eis diakonian - For

ministering; into service). It may be doubted whether diakoni>a here

meansthe ministry,” and I Timothy 1:12, or, as in the Revised Version

 more generally “for ministering,” i.e. for acting as an assistant to me

in my apostolic labors. The words, “to me,” favor the latter rendering.

The sense would then be the same as that of the verb in Acts 19:22,

where we read that Timothy and Erastus “ministered unto him,” i.e. to

Paul, and that of uJphre>thv hupaeretaesto their minister; subservient

deputy -  applied to Mark in Acts 13:5.


12 “And Tychicus have I sent to Ephesus.” Tychicus was with

Paul when he wrote the Epistle to the Colossians (Colossians 4:7),

as was also Timothy (Ibid. ch.1:1). The presence of Luke, Timothy,

Tychicus, Mark, with Paul now, as then, is remarkable (see v. 10).

I sent to Ephesus. Theodoret (quoted by Alford, ‘Proleg. to II Timothy,’

ch. 9. sect. 1) says, “It is plain from this that Timothy was not at this

time living at Ephesus, but somewhere else.” And that certainly is the

natural inference at first sight. But Bishop Ellicott suggests the possibility

of Tychicus being the bearer of the First Epistle to Timothy, written not

very long before, and this being merely an allusion to that well known fact.

Another and more probable idea is that he was the bearer of this Epistle,

that the object of his mission, like that of Artemas (Titus 3:12), was to

take Timothy’s place at Ephesus during Timothy’s absence at Rome, and

that he is thus mentioned in the Epistle in order to commend him to the

reverent regard of the Ephesian Church. It is argued against this that pro>v se

 pros se – unto thee  (Titus 3:12) - would have been the more natural

expression after the analogy of Colossians 4:7 and Titus 3:12. But this

objection would be removed if we suppose that the Epistle was sent by

another hand, and that it was very possible that Timothy might have started

for Rome before Tychicus could arrive at Ephesus. He might have orders

to visit Corinth or Macedonia on his way.


13 “The cloke that I left at Troas with Carpus, when thou comest, bring

with thee, and the books, but especially the parchments.” The cloke

(to<n felo>nhn - ton phelonaentraveling cloke -  more properly written

faino>lhn phainolaen);  the Latin paenula, the thick overcoat or cloke.

Only here in the New Testament. Some think it was the bag in which

the books and parchments were packed. The parchments (ta<v membra>nav

tas membranas). This, again, is a Latin word. It occurs only here in the New

Testament. They would probably be for the apostle to write his Epistles on.

Or they may have been valuable manuscripts of some kind. In v. 20 we

learn that Paul had lately been at Miletus; and in I Timothy 1:3 that

he was then going to Macedonia. Troas would be on his way to

Macedonia, Greece, and Rome (Acts 16:8-9, 11), as it was on the

return journey from Macedonia to Miletus (Acts 20:5, 15). It should

further be observed that the journey here indicated is the same as that

referred to in I Timothy 1:3, which confirms the inevitable inference

from this chapter that Paul, on his way to Rome from Miletus, whither

he had come from Crete (Titus 1:5), passed through Troas, Macedonia,

and Corinth (v. 20), leaving Timothy at Ephesus.


14 “Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil: the Lord reward him

according to his works:” Alexander; apparently an Ephesian, as appears by

 the words, “of whom be thou ware also” (v. 15).  It seems probable, though

it is necessarily uncertain, that this Alexander is the same person as that mentioned

in I Timothy 1:20 as “a blasphemer,” which agrees exactly with what is here said

of him, “he greatly withstood our words” (compare Acts 13:45, “contradicted the

things which were spoken by Paul, and blasphemed”). He may or may not

be the same as the Alexander named in Acts 19:33. Supposing the

Alexander of I Timothy 1:20 and this place to be the same, the points

of resemblance with the Alexander of Acts 19:33 are that both resided

at Ephesus, that both seem to have been Christians (see note on I Timothy 1:20),

and both probably Jews, inasmuch as I Timothy 1 relates entirely to Jewish

heresies (vs. 4, 7-8), and Acts 19:33 expressly states that he was a Jew.

The coppersmith (oJ calkeu<v - ho chalkeus only here in the New Testament);

properly, a coppersmith, but used generally of any smith — silversmith, or goldsmith,

or blacksmith. Did me much evil (polla> moi kaka< ejndei>xato polla moi kaka

endeixato). This is a purely Hellenistic idiom, and is found in the Septuagint of

Genesis 50:15, 17; Song of the Three Children, 19; II Maccabees 13:9. In classical

Greek the verb ejndei>kuumai endeikuumai in the middle voice, “to

display,” can only be followed by a subjective quality, as “good will,”

virtue,” “long suffering,” an “opinion,” and the like.  And so it is used in

I Timothy 1:16; Titus 2:10; 3:2. The question naturally arises — When and where

did Alexander thus injure Paul? — at Ephesus or at Rome? Bengel suggests Rome,

and with great probability. Perhaps he did him evil by stirring up the Jews at Rome

against the apostle at the time of “his first defense;” or by giving adverse testimony

before the Roman tribunal, possibly accusing him of being seditious, and bringing up

the riot at Ephesus as a proof of it; or in some other way, of which the

memory has perished. Will render. The Received Text has the future, ajpodw>sei

 apodosei  - will render; may be paying - for the optative ajpodw>h apodoae

a late and incorrect form for  ajpodoi>h apodoiae


15 “Of whom be thou ware also; for he hath greatly withstood our

words.”  Of whom be thou ware.  (o{n fula>ssou - hon phulassou – whom

be guarding against). This is the proper construction in classical Greek, the

accusative of the person or thing, after fula>ssomai phulassomaikeep

from; to being guarded.   But it is only found in Acts 21:25. In Luke 12:15 the

equally correct phrase, Fula>ssesqe ajpo< th~v pleonexiav Phulassesthe

apo  taes pleonexias – beware of covetousness -  is used. The inference from

this caution to Timothy is that Alexander had left Rome and returned to his

native Ephesus. The Jews were always on the move. He hath  greatly withstood

our words (ajnte>sth antestae – he hath withstood). For an exactly similar use,

see Acts 13:8, where Elymaswithstood” Paul and Barnabas; and ch.3:8, where

Jannes and Jambres “withstood” Moses. In this case we may be sure that

Paul, in pleading for his life, did not omit to preach the gospel to his

Gentile audience. Alexander tried to refute his words, not without effect.

The apostle says “our words” (not “my words”), perhaps to associate with

himself those other Christians who were with him. It certainly cannot mean

“yours and mine,” as Timothy was not with him when the “words” were



16 “At my first answer no man stood with me, but all men forsook me:

I pray God that it may not be laid to their charge.”  Answer.  (ajpologi>a

 apologia  - verbal defense ). “The technical word in classical Greek for a defense

in answer to an accusation;” as Acts 22:1 (where see note for further illustration),

and Philippians 1:7.  Stood.  parege>neto paregeneto – stood; took my part;

Received Text  for sumparege>neto sumparegeneto – came together -of the

Textus Receptus,  which occurs elsewhere in the New Testament only in Luke 23:48,

in a somewhat different sense. The simple paragi>nomai paraginomai -

is very common in the New Testament, but nowhere in the technical sense in which

it is used here. In classical Greek both forms are common in the sense of “coming to

aid,” “standing by any one,” “assisting.” Here it represents the Latin assistere or

 adesse in its technical sense of “standing by” an accused person as friend or assistant,

to aid and abet them in their defense. Powerful men sometimes brought such a

multitude of assistants as to overawe the magistrate, as Orgetorix the

Helvetian, when summoned to trial, appeared with ten thousand followers,

and so there was no trial. Paul, like his Lord and Master, of whom it is

written, “All his disciples forsook him and fled” (Mark 14:50), had no

one to stand with him in his hour of need.


17 “Notwithstanding the Lord stood with me, and strengthened me; that by

me the preaching might be fully known, and that all the Gentiles might hear:

and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion.” Stood with me (moi<

pare>sth - moi parestae – stood by me) as in Acts 27:23; Romans 16:2 (where

see also the use of prosta>tiv prostatissuccorer;  a helper). Pari>stamai

 paristamai means simply to stand by the side of a person — to be present. But,

like paragi>nomai paraginomai -  it acquires the meaning of standing by for

the purpose of helping. The contrast between the timid faithless friends who failed

him like a deceitful brook (Job 6:15), and the faithfulness of the Lord who was

A VERY PRESENT HELP IN TROUBLE,  is very striking.  (Psalm 46:1).

Strengthened me.  (ejneduna>mwsen> me enedunamosen me – He invigorates

me); see I Timothy 1:12, note, and Acts 6:8. The preaching.  (kh>rugma

 kaerugma – preaching; heralding). Paul means that gospel which he was

commissioned to preach, and which he did preach openly in full court when he

was on his trial (see v. 15, note).  Might be fully known.  (plhroforh>qh

plaerophoraethae - might be fully proclaimed); see v.5, note; and compare

Romans 15:19. All the Gentiles might hear (compare Philippians

1:12-14). The brave, unselfish spirit of the apostle thinking more of the

proclamation of the gospel than of his own life, is truly admirable. I was

delivered out of the mouth of the lion. Surely there can be no doubt that,

this is a quotation from Psalm 22:20-21. The verb ejrjrJu>sqhn errusthaen

 I was delivered -  comes from the twentieth verse, “Deliver my soul from

the sword,” and the phrase, ejk sto>matov le>ontov ek stomatos leontos

from the lion’s mouth - is found verbatim in v. 21. The apostle means his

deliverance from the executioner’s sword. In the next verse we find both the

 words ru>setai rhusetai – deliver; rescue - and sw>sei sosei – save -

and the whole tone of the psalm breathes the same spirit as the saying,

“The Lord stood by me.” Dean Alford’s suggestion that the lion

here is Satan, as in I Peter 5:8, and the danger which the apostle

escaped was not death, which he did not fear, but betraying the gospel

under the fear of death, is ingenious, but rather far fetched, though not

impossible. It may possibly have been part of what was in Paul’s mind.


18 “And the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve

me unto His heavenly kingdom: to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.”

Deliver me... save me (see preceding note). The language here is also very like

that of the Lord’s Prayer: JRu~sai hJma~v ajpo< tou~ ponhrou~ sou~ ga<r ejstin hJ

basilei>a… kai<do>xa eijv tou<v aijw~nav jAmh>n Rhusai haemas apo tou

ponaerou sou gar estin hae basileia....kai doxa eis tous aionas. Amaen.

Deliver us from the evil for thine is the kingdom…and glory for ever. Amen.

(Matthew 6:13). Every evil work.  Interpreted by the Lord’s Prayer, and by its

own internal evidence, the meaning clearly is, “The Lord, who stood by me at my

 trial, will continue to be my Saviour. He will deliver me from every evil

 design of mine enemies, and from all the wiles and assaults of the devil, in

 short, from the whole power of evil, and will bring me safe into his own

kingdom of light and righteousness.” There is a strong contrast between

the evil work” and “His heavenly kingdom.” A triumphant martyrdom is

as true a deliverance as escape from death. Compare our Lord’s promise,

“There shall not an hair of your head perish” (Luke 21:18 compared with

v. 16). Paul’s confidence simply is that the Lord would, in His own good time and

way, transfer him from this present evil world, and from the powers of darkness,



19 “Salute Prisca and Aquila, and the household of Onesiphorus.”

Prisca and Aquila. Prisca is elsewhere always called Priscilla (Acts 18:2, 18, 26;

Romans 16:3; I Corinthians 16:19). A similar variation of names is seen in Drusa and

Drusilla, Livia and Livella, etc. She is named before her husband, as here

in Acts 18:18; Romans 16:3. The mention of them here is in favor

of Timothy being at Ephesus at this time, as Ephesus is one of the places

where they were wont to sojourn (Acts 18:19, 26). The household (as in

Authorized Version -  ch. 1:16) of Onesiphorus (see ch. 1:16, 18, note). This

repetition of the “house of Onesiphorus is almost conclusive as to the recent

death of Onesiphorus himself.


20 “Erastus abode at Corinth: but Trophimus have I left at Miletum sick.”

Erastus abode at Corinth. We learn from Romans 16:3 that Erastus was the

chamberlain of Corinth, which accounts for his abiding there, he was one

of Paul’s companions in his missionary journey, and we learn from

Acts 19:22 that he was sent by Paul with Timothy into Macedonia

just before the great riot at Ephesus. The mention of him here clearly

indicates that Paul had gone from Troas, where he left his cloke, to

Corinth on his way to Rome. Trophimus is first mentioned in Acts 20:4,

where we learn that he was an Asiatic, and more definitely in

Acts 21:29, that he was an Ephesian. He had traveled with Paul’s

party from Macedonia to Troas, and thence to Miletus and Jerusalem,

where we lose sight of him till we find him again in this passage journeying

towards Rome with Paul and others, but stopped at Miletus by

sickness. Miletus, not Miletum, is the correct form.


21 “Do thy diligence to come before winter.  Eubulus greeteth thee, and

Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren.”  Do thy diligence

 (spou>dason spoudason – be diligent; endeavor you); see v. 9 and 

ch.2:15, note. Before winter; lest, when winter storms come, it be impossible to

do so.  Paul’s longing to have Timothy with him is apparent throughout. Eubulus;

mentioned nowhere else. The name is not uncommon as a Greek name, and appears

also in the patronymic Eubulides, and the female name Eubule. And Pudens,

and Linus, and Claudia. Of these persons Linus is probably the same as is

mentioned by Irenaeus and Eusebius as the first Bishop of Rome. Irenaeus

(3:111, 3) says, “When the apostles, therefore, had founded the Church (of

Rome) they entrusted the office (leitourgi>an) of the episcopate to Linus,

of whom Paul makes mention in his Epistles to Timothy.” Eusebius (‘Ecc.

Hist.,’ 3:2) says, “Linus was ordained the first Bishop of Rome (prw~tov

klhrou~tai th<n ejpiskoph>n) after the martyrdom of Paul and Peter” (see,

too, § 4 of the same book). Some identify him with a certain Llin in Welsh

hagiography, said to be the son of Caractacus. As regards Pudens and

Claudia, nothing is known about them unless the very ingenious and

interesting theory of Archdeacon Williams is true, which is necessarily very

uncertain. According to this theory, Claudia is the foreign lady, a Briton,

whose marriage with Pudens is spoken of by Martial in two epigrams, and

who also bore the cognomen of Rufina. It is supposed that she was the

daughter of the British king Cogidubnus, the ally of the Romans and of the

Roman governor, Aulus Plautius, whose wife Pomponia is said by Tacitus

to have been impeached of the crime of embracing a “foreign superstition,”

which was probably Christianity. Cogidubnus appears by an ancient

inscription now at Goodwood to have taken the name of the Emperor

Claudius, being called Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus, which would

naturally lead to his daughter being called Claudia. And if further she was

adopted by the wife of her father’s ally, the name Rufina would be

accounted for, as a distinguished branch of the gens Pomponia bore the

name of Rufus. And Martial’s epigram is addressed to “Rufus,” as one

interested in the marriage. Claudia may either have learned Christianity from

Pomponia, or may have conveyed the knowledge of the gospel to her. On

the other hand, the name of Pudens appears on the Goodwood inscription

as having given, while still a heathen, a site for a temple of Neptune and

Minerva, which was built “pro salute” of the imperial family under the

authority of King Cogidubnus — curiously connecting him with the British

king. It is probable that Pudens and Claudia were not yet married. Thus it

will be seen that, while this theory is borne out by many coincidences, it

cannot by any means be adopted as certain (see Dean Alford’s excussus in

the ‘Proleg. to 2 Timothy;’ and Conybeare and Howson’s ‘Life of St.

Paul,’ vol. it. p. 501). Lewin (‘Life and Epist. of St. Paul,’ vol. 2, p. 392)

warmly espouses the theory, but hesitates between Caractacus and

Cogidubnus as the father of Claudia. Farrar rejects the whole theory “as an

elaborate rope of sand” (‘Life of St. Paul,’ vol. 2, p. 569). If Linus was the

son, and Claudia the daughter, of Caractacus, they would be brother and



22 “The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit. Grace be with you. Amen.”

The Lord …be with thy spirit, etc. The manuscripts vary. The salutation as it

stands in the Received Text  is like the versicles, “The Lord be with you.

And with thy spirit.” It is a peculiarity of the salutation here that it is double —

one to Timothy personally, meta< tou~ pneu>mato>v sou - meta tou pneumatos sou

with the spirit of you - the other to the Church, hJ ca>riv meq uJmw~n hae charis

 meth humon – the grace be with you.  I Corinthians 16:24 exhibits another variety.

Grace.  (see I Timothy 6:21, note). The Received Text omits the “amen” at the end,

as in I Timothy 6:21. Thus does our last authentic account of this great apostle; these

are, perhaps, the last words of him who wrought a greater change in the condition of

mankind by his speech than any man that ever lived. Honor be to his blessed memory!


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