Vs 1-4 - The prophecy begun in ch. 9:8 terminates with this stanza, which contains a
against injustice and oppression, addressed to
accompanied by the threat of a "day of desolation," when those who have refused to
make God their Refuge will have no resource, but to go into captivity with the
"prisoners," or to perish with the "slain." A foreign conquest, accompanied by
slaughter, and the deportation of captives, is plainly intimated.
1 “Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees, and that write grievousness
which they have prescribed;” Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees
seat is the sin rebuked. It was certainly prevalent in
been practiced in
the writers that enregister oppression. The decrees of courts were, it is clear,
carefully engrossed by the officials, probably upon parchment, every outward
formality being observed, while justice itself was set at naught.
2 “To turn aside the needy from judgment, and to take away the right from the poor
of my people, that widows may be their prey, and that they may rob the fatherless!
The poor... the widow... the fatherless. These were the classes who were the chief
sufferers by the perversion of justice (compare ch.1:17, 23). They were exactly
the classes for whom God had most compassion, and whom He had commended
in the Law to the tender care of His people (see note on ch. 9:17).
3“And what will ye do in the day of visitation, and in the desolation which
shall come from far? to whom will ye flee for help? and where will ye leave
your glory?” What will ye do in the day of visitation? "The day of visitation" is the
day when God reckons with His servants, and demands an account from each of
the work done in His vineyard, being prepared to recompense the good and
punish the bad (compare Hosea 9:7). It is often used in a bad sense because,
unhappily, so many more are found to deserve punishment than reward. The
desolation which shall come from far; rather, the crashing ruin (Cheyne).
It is sudden, and complete destruction, rather than mere desolateness, that is
threatened. Previous prophecies, especially ch. 7:17-20, had informed the Jews
that it was to "come from far," "by them that were beyond the river." To whom will
ye flee? The prophet speaks in bitter irony. Is there any one to whom ye can flee?
any one who can protect you from the wrath of God? Ye well know there is no one.
Where will ye leave your glory? With whom will ye deposit your riches, your
magnificence, your jewels, your grand apparel? You cannot save them. They will
all make to themselves wings, and "fly away like a bird" (Hosea 9:11).
4 “Without me they shall bow down under the prisoners, and they shall fall
under the slain. For all this His anger is not turned away, but His hand is
stretched out still.” Without me. That this is a possible rendering of the word
used seems proved by Hosea 13:4. But here it scarcely suits the context. God
does not speak directly, in the first person, elsewhere in the entire prophecy
(from 9:8 to this verse), but is spoken of in the third person throughout,
as even in the present verse, where we have "His anger," "His hand."
It is better, therefore, to give the word its ordinary meaning - "unless," "except."
Have they anywhere to flee to, unless they shall crouch amid the captives that
are being carried off, or fall amid the slain? In other words, there is no escape for
them; they must either submit to captivity or death. For all this, etc. Even when
the two kingdoms were destroyed, and the captivity of both was complete, God's
wrath was not fully appeased, His anger was not wholly turned away. Both peoples
suffered grievous things in their captivity, as appears from the Book of Daniel
(Daniel chapters 3 and 6) and other places. It took seventy years for God's
anger to be appeased in the case of Judah (II Chronicles 36:21), while in
the case of
heel of their conquerors,
PROPHECIES OF WOE UPON FOREIGN NATIONS
SHALL HERSELF BE PUNISHED IN HER TURN
The wicked are a sword in the hand of God (Psalm 17:13), wherewith He executes
His judgments; but this fact is hid from them, and they imagine that they are successful
through their own strength and might. So it was with
long career of victory had made proud and arrogant above measure. God now,
by the mouth of Isaiah, makes known His intention of bringing down the pride of
after she has served His purposes
5 “O Assyrian, the rod of mine anger, and the staff in their hand is mine
indignation.” O Assyrian; literally, Ho! Asshur. "Asshur" is the nation personified,
and is here addressed as an individual. The transition from vs. 1-4 is abrupt,
and may be taken to indicate an accidental juxtaposition of two entirely distinct
though not in his words, when he spoke of "prisoners" and "slain" in the
first clause of v. 4. The rod of mine anger (compare Jeremiah 51:20, where it is
I break in pieces the nations, and with thee will I destroy the kingdoms").
in the hand of
6 “I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my
wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and
to tread them down like the mire of the streets.” I will send him against an
hypocritical nation; or, against
a corrupt nation.
"the people who are the object of my wrath." Will I give him a charge.
In II Kings 18:25 Sennacherib Says, "Am I come up without the Lord (Jehovah)
against this land, to destroy it? The Lord (Jehovah) said to me, Go up against
this land, and destroy it" (compare below, ch. 36:10). It has been usual to
consider Sennacherib's words a vain boast; but if God instructed Nebuchadnezzar
through dreams, may He not also by the same means have "given charges" to
Assyrian monarchs? To take the spoil, and to take the prey; rather, to gather spoil,
and seize prey. The terms used carry the thoughts back to ch. 8:1-4, and to the
symbolic name, Maher-shalal-hash-baz. And to tread them down; literally,
to make it a trampling. "It" refers to "nation" in the first clause.
7 “Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart think so; but it is in his
heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few.” Howbeit he meaneth not so.
merely God's instrument in working out His will. On the contrary, it is in
her heart to destroy the nations for her own advantage, and she imagines that
she is doing it by her own strength."
8 “For he saith, Are not my princes altogether kings?” One mark of the superiority
officers, but vassal kings under him. Hence the title "king of kings" assumed
by so many Assyrian monarchs. While conquered territories were by degrees
and to a certain extent absorbed into the empire and placed under prefects
(see the 'Eponym Canon'), an outer zone of more loosely organized dependencies
was always maintained by the Assyrians; and these dependencies continued
ordinarily to be administered by their native monarchs (see 'Ancient Monarchies,'
vol. 2. pp. 524-526). These are the "princes" who were "altogether kings."
9 “Is not Calno as
ground of confidence, lay in the further fact, that the strongest cities had, one
and all, succumbed to the Assyrian army, and been laid in ruins to punish them
for offering resistance. Six such cities are mentioned:
Calneh, probably Niffer, in
of the cities of Nimrod (Genesis 10:10), and, according to the
Septuagint, was "the place where the tower was built." It may have
been taken by Tiglath-Pileser in
one of his expeditious into
Amos (Amos 6:2) speaks of it as desolate in his day.
been called "their northern capital." Long confounded by geographers with
Circesium at the junction of the Khabour
been proved to have occupied a far more northern position, and is now
generally identified with the ruins discovered by Mr. George Smith at
Jerabis or Jerabhs. It was conquered by Sargon in B.C. 717, when
"its people were led captive, and scattered over the Assyrian empire,
while Assyrian colonists were brought to people the city in their place;
governor" (G. Smith, 'Assyria,' p. 97).
· Hamath, the "great Hamath" of Amos (Amos 6:2), in Coelesyria on the routes;
Hamath was originally a Canaanite city (Genesis 10:18). By the time of
David it had become the seat of an independent monarchy (II Samuel 8:9-10),
and so continued until its reduction by the Assyrians. We find it leagued
with the Hittites, the Syrians of
About B.C. 720 it was taken by Sargon, who beheaded its king, and
probably reduced it to ruins (ibid., p. 411; comp. Amos 6:2). The name
remains in the modern
been recently dug up.
Tiglath-Pileser in the early part of his reign, and reduced to subjection.
It revolted in conjunction with Hamath from Sargon, and was severely
punished ('Ancient Monarchies,' l.s.c.).
and of extreme fertility, which lies east of the great chain of Anti-Libanus,
on the edge of the desert. This fertile plain, which is nearly circular and
about 30 miles in diameter, is due to the river Barada , which is probably
the "Abana" of Scripture. Two other streams the Wady Helbon upon the
north and the Awaj, which flows direct from Hermon upon the south, increase
the fertility of the Damascene plain, and contend for the honor of representing
the "Pharpar" of
Scripture. According to Josephus,
by Uz grandson of Shem. It is first mentioned in Scripture in connection
with Abraham, ( Genesis 14:15 ) whose steward was a native of the place.
( ibid. 15:2 ) At one time David became complete master of the whole
in league with Baasha, king of
II Chronicles 16:3 ) and afterwards in league with Asa against Baasha.
( I Kings 15:20 ) Under Ahaz it was taken by Tiglath-pileser,
(II Kings 16:7-9)
the city itself destroyed, the inhabitants being carried captive into
passed successively under the dominion of the Assyrians, Babylonians,
Persians, Macedonians, Romans and Saracens, and was at last captured
by the Turks in 1516 A.D. Here the apostle Paul was converted and
preached the gospel. ( Acts 9:1-25 )
center for trade. Its present population is from 1.7 million (2009).
(Smith’s Bible Dictionary)
the subjugated and ruined cities may undoubtedly be prophetic; but the
by Sargon within the years B.C. 720-717 - points rather to the verse being
historical, and would seem to indicate that the date of the entire prophecy –
vs. 5-19 - is subsequent to the capture of the cities, and so not earlier than
10 “As my hand hath found the kingdoms of the idols, and whose graven images
did excel them of
kingdoms of the idols. "Found" here means "reached," "punished... subjugated."
It is quite in accordance with Assyrian ideas that the conquered countries should
be called "kingdoms of the idols" (literally, "no gods"). The Assyrian monarchs
regarded their own gods as alone really deserving of the name, and made war
very much with the object of proving the superiority of their deities over
those of their neighbors. Hence their practice of carrying off the idols from the
various cities which they conquered, or else of inscribing on them
"the praises of Asshur." And whose graven images; rather, and their graven images.
Did excel. In preciousness of material or in workmanship, or both. The Assyrians
went near to identifying the idols with the gods
themselves. Those of
high hill and under every green tree" (II Kings 17:10), images of Baal, and
perhaps Beltis, and Chemosh,
and Moloch. Even in
(II Chronicles 28:2). The
brazen serpent was worshipped as an idol at
until Hezekiah destroyed it; and probably, even after the reformation of
Hezekiah (II Kings 18:4), many Jews retained privately the images, which he
required them to destroy (II Chronicles 31:1). Isaiah had already declared,
worship the work of their own hands, that which their own fingers have made"
11 “Shall I not, as I
have done unto
not... so do to
the fact of any difference in kind between the religion of
the neighboring countries. He speaks as if he knew nothing of any religion
without idols. No doubt Assyrian ideas on the subject of the religion of the
Jews were at this time, as they were even later (II Kings 18:22), exceedingly
vague and incorrect.
12 “Wherefore it shall come to pass, that when the Lord hath performed
whole work upon
of the stout heart of the king of
Wherefore; rather, but. The final result shall be such as "the Assyrian" little
expected. When the Lord hath performed His whole work. The "work"
assigned to Assyria was
the destruction of the
in the trial,
punishment, and discipline of
been the humiliation of Manasseh, which brought about his repentance
(II Chronicles 33:11-13). Soon after this the troubles began which led to her
destruction. I will punish. The sudden change from the third to the first person
is harsh and abnormal, but not without parallels in other passages of Isaiah
etc., which flowed from the stoutness of heart - such language, e.g., as that of
vs. 8-11 and 13-14. Of the King of
against any one particular king, as Sargon, or Sennacherib; but against the
monarchy itself, which from first to last was actuated by the same spirit, and
breathed the same tone, of pride, selfishness, and cruelty. (See the royal
inscriptions, passim, which become more revolting as time goes on.)
13 “For he saith, By the strength of my hand I have done it, and by my wisdom;
for I am prudent: and I have removed the bounds of the people, and have
robbed their treasures, and I have put down the inhabitants like a valiant man:”
For he saith. Neither this speech nor that in vs. 8-11, nor again that given in
ch. 37:24-25, is to be regarded as historical in the sense of being the actual
utterance of any Assyrian monarch. All are imaginary, speeches, composed by
the prophet, whereby he expresses in his own language the thoughts which Assyrian
kings entertained in their hearts. I have removed the bounds of the people; rather,
of peoples. Assyrian monarchs take as one of their titles "the remover of
boundaries and landmarks" (G. Smith's 'Assyrian Discoveries,' pp. 243, 244).
And have robbed their treasures (compare gs 15:19; 18:14-16).
The plunder of conquered countries is constantly recorded by the Assyrian
monarchs as one of the most important results of each successful expedition.
It is not infrequently represented in the sculptures (see 'Ancient Monarchies,'
vol. 2. p. 85). I have put down the inhabitants like a valiant man. The passage
is obscure; and many different renderings have been given. Perhaps the best is
that of Mr. Cheyne, "I have brought down, like a mighty one, those that sat on
thrones." Abbir, however, the word translated "a mighty one," as often means
14 “And my hand hath found as a nest the riches of the people: and as one
gathereth eggs that are left, have I gathered all the earth; and there was
none that moved the wing, or opened the mouth, or peeped.”
My hand hath found as a nest the riches of the people; rather, of the peoples.
The Assyrians are fond of comparing their enemies to birds ('Records of
the Past,' vol. 7. pp. 36, 62, etc.); but the exact metaphor here used does not,
I believe, occur in the inscriptions. The nations' treasures are like eggs
found in deserted nests, which the hunter gathers without any, even the
slightest, risk. All the earth. Oriental hyperbole. Assyrian monarchs often
say that they "have subdued all the races of men," or "carried the glory of
their name to the ends of the earth," or "overthrown the armies of the whole
world in battle." Peeped; rather, chirped (see note on ch. 8:19). None of the
inhabitants offered even such feeble resistance as a bird makes when its nest
15 “Shall the axe boast itself against him that heweth therewith? or shall the
saw magnify itself against him that shaketh it? as if the rod should shake
itself against them that lift it up, or as if the staff should lift up itself, as if it
were no wood.” Shall the axe boast itself? Here the prophet takes the word,
a mere instrument, like an axe, a saw, a rod, or a stuff. The saw... him that
shaketh it; rather, him that moveth it to and fro. The action of sawing is
alluded to. As if the rod should shake itself against them that lift it up;
rather, as if a rod were to move them
to and fro that lift it up.
assert herself as if she were independent of God is like a rod attempting
to sway the hand that holds it. It is a complete inversion of the natural order
of things. Or as if the staff should lift up itself, as if it were no wood.
Translate, or as if a staff should lift up that which is not wood; i.e. "as if a
staff should take action and lift up its holder, who is not wood, but flesh and blood."
16 “Therefore shall the Lord, the Lord of hosts, send among his fat ones leanness;
and under his glory he shall kindle a burning like the burning of a fire.”
Therefore shall the Lord... send among his fat ones leanness. A continuation of
v. 12, showing
what the nature of
expresses it by two images - first, that of a wasting sickness; and secondly,
that of a fire. The first image expresses that gradual decay of national spirit
which saps the vital strength of a nation; the second is more suited to denote
some external attack under which the weakened nation should succumb.
traces, in the later history of
weakness through luxury and effeminacy, and of violent external
attacks culminating in the combined Median and Babylonian invasion,
before which her power collapsed (Abyden. ap. Euseb., 'Chronicles Can.,'
pars i.e. 9; Syncell., 'Chronograph.,' p, 210, B; Tobit 14:15).
17 “And the light of
and it shall burn and devour his thorns and his briers in one day;”
The light of
enlightens His people, cheers them, comforts them spiritually, as the light of
the sun enlightens, cheers, and comforts men physically. Christ, as true God,
is "the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world"
(John 1:9). Shall be for a fire. As the same material fire which gives light,
warmth, and comfort may burn and destroy, so the spiritual light, finding fit
material, scorches and consumes. The fire which devours
by God. His Holy One; i.e. "the Holy One of Israel" (see ch. 1:4). It shall burn
and devour his thorns and his briers. The destruction
complete, as terrible, and as final. In one day. Scarcely "in one battle"
(Cheyne); for the destruction of
sieges, and much exhausting ravage. "In one day" rather means "at one and
the same time," "within a brief space." It is not to he taken literally.
18 “And shall consume the glory of his forest, and of his fruitful field, both
soul and body: and they shall be as when a standard-bearer fainteth.”
united together, sometimes contrasted. Literally, they denote wild and cultivated
woodland. Used symbolically, as here, they are not so much intended to
designate different parts of
the destruction will be universal. Both soul and body. Here metaphor is
suddenly dropped, and Isaiah shows that he is speaking of the Assyrian
people, not of the land or its products. Their destruction, wicked as they were,
would be one both of body and soul. As when a standard-bearer fainteth;
rather, as when one that is faint fainteth. Utter prostration and exhaustion
is indicated, whichever way the passage is translated.
19 “And the rest of the trees of his forest shall be few, that a child may write
them.” The rest of the trees; i.e. these that escape the burning, shall be few; literally,
a number; i.e. so few that their number shall be apparent.
FOR THE FAITHFUL IN
of a "remnant of
(Why could they not have been faithful and served God in their own land?
CY – 2020) The remnant, however, shall be but a remnant - judgment shall
have overtaken the bulk of the people (vs. 22-23). Still, there is reason for the
faithful to take courage and be of good heart;
(vs. 24-27) - when her armies swoop
20 “And it shall come
to pass in that day, that the remnant of
as are escaped of the house of Jacob, shall no more again stay upon him that
smote them; but shall stay upon the LORD, the
Holy One of
In that day; i.e. "at that time" - the time of
the destruction of
of this faithful remnant and its return, in the name which he had given to his son,
Shear-Jashub (see note on ch. 7:3). The escaped. Those who escape from the
destruction to be caused by the Assyrian invasion. Shall no more again stay
upon him that smote them. We are told in II Chronicles 28:23 that Ahaz
to the gods of
also trusted to Tiglath-Pileser, who "distressed him and strengthened him not"
(ibid. v. 21). Among the "remnant" there shall be no such mistaken confidences.
But shall stay upon the Lord; i.e. "shall put their trust in God; and Him only"
21 “The remnant shall return, even the remnant of Jacob, unto the mighty God.”
The mighty God (compare ch. 9:6). The name is not, however, Messianic in this place.
vs 22-23 - These verses are exegetical of the term "remnant," and bring out its
full force. The promise had been made to Abraham that his seed should be
"like the sand of the sea for multitude" (Genesis 22:17). This promise had
been fulfilled (I Kings 4:20); but now the sins of the people would produce a
reversal of it. It would be a remnant, and only a remnant, of the nation that
(see Ezra 2:64).
22 “For though thy people
shall return: the consumption decreed shall overflow with righteousness.”
The consumption decreed shall overflow with righteousness; rather, the consummation
(Daniel 9:27) determined on is one that overflows with righteousness (compare
ch. 28:22). The prophet means that God is about to visit the land in such a spirit
of severe justice that it cannot be expected that more than a remnant will survive
the awful visitation.
23 “For the Lord GOD of hosts shall make a consumption, even determined,
in the midst of all the land.” The Lord... shall make a consumption; rather,
a consummation - a final and decisive end of things. Even determined; i.e.
"determined on beforehand." In the midst of all the land. "Throughout the
entire land," not merely in some portions of it.
24 “Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD of hosts, O my people that dwellest
shall lift up his staff against thee, after the
O my people... be not afraid. God now addresses those who are faithful to Him
among the people; they have no need to fear - He will bring them safely through
all the coming troubles. He shall smite thee; rather, if He smite thee; or,
though He smite thee. After the manner of
the oppression that preceded the Exodus. The yoke of
even upon the nations that submitted to her. She claimed to march her armies
through their territories at her pleasure, and probably pressed men and cattle
into her service. She exacted a heavy tribute, and otherwise "distressed" her
25 “For yet a very little while, and the indignation shall cease, and mine anger
in their destruction.” The indignation shall cease; rather, there shall be an end
of wrath; i.e. "my
sufficiently punished. And mine auger in their destruction; rather, and my
anger shall be to their destruction; i.e. to the destruction of the Assyrians
(see the margin of the Revised Version).
26 “And the LORD of hosts shall stir up a scourge for him according to
the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb: and as His rod was upon
the sea, so shall He lift it up after the
The Lord... shall stir up a scourge for him; or, lift up a scourge over him.
Isaiah uses the metaphor of the "scourge" again in ch. 28:16,18. It is rare
in Scripture, though common among the Greek and Latin writers.
According to the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb (compare ch. 9:4).
The "slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb" was that great destruction of
the Midianites which was begun by the three hundred under Gideon, and
completed by the men of Ephraim, whereof we have an account in
Judges 7:19-25. Its counterpart in Assyrian history would seem to be the
destruction of Sennacherib's army, as related in II Kings 19:35.
As His rod was upon the sea. An allusion to the drowning of Pharaoh's host
army than the slaughter of the Midianites, since it was wholly miraculous.
By "His rod" we may understand the rod of Moses, endued by God with
i.e. "after the manner of His action in
27 “And it shall come to pass in that day, that his burden shall be taken away
from off thy shoulder, and his yoke from off thy neck, and the yoke shall be
destroyed because of the anointing.” The yoke shall be destroyed because of
the anointing; literally, before the oil; i.e. "the Anointed One" - primarily
Lamentations 4:20) for the time being, but with a further reference to the
Messiah, who breaks all the bands of the wicked asunder, and casts away
their cords from Him (Psalm 2:2-3); and who is represented by each prince
of the house of David, as He was by David himself.
“We have an unction from the Holy One” (1 John 2:20), if we are
Christians at all, and through that unction obtain more blessings than
we can enumerate; as:
(John 14:26), who encourages humble souls, and cheers up those who
are depressed, and infuses hope into those who are ready to despair of
hearts, and give us the power both to will and to do of His good
to overcome Satan, and release us from slavery to evil habits, and make
us free and willing servants of God;
among whose gifts are wisdom, and knowledge, and faith, and
discerning of spirits, and prophecy (1 Corinthians 12:8-10);
holiness” (Romans 1:4).
The anointing of the Holy Spirit once received through the mercy
of God, naturally and almost necessarily, unless we grieve and vex
the Spirit by our perversity, abides in us (1 John 2:27), and teaches
us, and guides us, and strengthens and sustains us, and purifies our
hearts and lives, and enables us to grow in grace, and press on ever
towards the mark of our high calling in Christ, and become more
and more conformed to the image of Him to whom God gave not
His Spirit “by measure” (John 3:34).
vs 28-32. - This graphic portraiture of the march of an Assyrian army on
(ch. 1:1), and describes it like an eye-witness. There are at present no sufficient
means of deciding to what particular attack it refers, or indeed whether the march
is one conducted by Sennacherib or Sargon. Sargon calls himself in one inscription
of the present prophecy, especially v. 9, suit the reign of Sargon rather than
that of his son, so that on the whole it is perhaps most probable that some
expedition of Sargon's is portrayed.
28 “He is come to Aiath, he is passed to Migron; at Michmash he hath laid up
his carriages:” He is come to Aiath. "Aiath" is probably Ai (Joshua 8:1-28), with
a feminine termination. It lay about three miles south of
Assyrian with the conquest of
it would naturally enter Judaean territory at Ai. He is passed to Migron; rather,
he has passed through Migron. "Migron"
is mentioned as a village in the
of Gibeah of Benjamin (I Samuel 14:2); but the Migron of this passage must have
been further to the north. He hath laid up his carriages; i.e. "has left his
was about seven miles nearly due north of
The heavy baggage might conveniently be left there, especially as it was difficult
of attack (ibid. vs. 4-13), while a lightly equipped body of troops made a dash
29 “They are gone over the passage: they have taken up their lodging at Geba;
Ramah is afraid; Gibeah of Saul is fled.” They are gone over the passage. The
"passage of Michmash" (I Samuel 13:23) - the deeply sunken valley, called now
the Wady Sutveinit, between Michmash (Mukkmas) and Geba (Jeba). They have
taken up their lodging at Geba; or, at Geba they rest for the night. Having crossed
the wady, they bivouac on the crest of the hills enclosing it on the south. Ramah...
Gibeah of Saul. Ramah is, no doubt, Er-Ram, a village on an eminence, as
the name implies, about six miles north of
from Beitin. Gibeah of Saul is thought to have occupied the site of the modern
Tuleil-el-Ful, two miles nearer
Geba. The inhabitants evacuate these two places during the night.
30 “Lift up thy voice, O daughter of Gallim: cause it to be heard unto Laish,
O poor Anathoth.” Lift up thy voice, O daughter of Gallim. Gallim and Laish
must have been villages between Geba
to fix their site. Anathoth (now Anata) obtains mention in Joshua as a city
of refuge in the
(Jeremiah 1:1). Gallim was the birthplace of the man who became the second
husband of Michal, Saul's daughter. (I Samuel 25:44) Laish is not elsewhere
mentioned. Cause it to be heard unto Laish; rather, hearken, O Laisha.
31 “Madmenah is removed; the inhabitants of Gebim gather themselves to flee.”
Madmenah...Gebim. These are, like Gallim and Laisha, villages otherwise unknown.
They must have
been within a mile or two of
inhabitants fly as the Assyrians approach.
32 “As yet shall he remain at Nob that day: he shall shake his hand against the
mount of the daughter of
at Nob that day; literally, yet that day (is he) at Nob to halt. The Assyrians pitch
their camp at Nob, the priestly city destroyed by Saul (I Samuel 22:19), which
was evidently within sight of
occupied the site of the later Scopus, is probable.
33 “Behold, the Lord, the LORD of hosts, shall lop the bough with terror: and
the high ones of stature shall be hewn down, and the haughty shall be humbled.”
The Lord... shall lop the bough with terror. A check to the Assyrian arms is
intended, but of what nature is not clear. The "lopping of the bough with terror"
might indicate a panic, such as that which seized the Syrians and made Benhadad II
raise the siege of
" hewn down," "cut down," "shall fall," rather imply a defeat.
34 “And he shall cut
down the thickets of the forest with iron, and
fall by a mighty one.” He shall cut down; or, one shall eat down; Jehovah
being, no doubt, intended.
Assyrian was a
rather, a glorious one (compare ch. 33:21, where the word here used - adir –
is an epithet of Jehovah).
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