(The following texts highlighted in this color of blue is taken from

The Treasury of David by Charles Haddon Spurgeon)  "Excerpted text

Copyright AGES Library, LLC. All rights reserved.  Materials are reproduced

by permission."



                                                Psalm 110



TITLE. A Psalm of David. Of the correctness of this title there can be

no doubt, since our Lord in Matthew 22:1 says, "How then doth David in

spirit call him Lord." Yet some critics are so fond of finding new authors

for the psalms that they dare to fly in the face of the Lord Jesus Himself. To

escape from finding Jesus here, they read the title, "Psalm of (or

concerning) David, "as though it was not so much written by him as of

him, but he that reads with understanding will see little enough of David

here except as the writer. He is not the subject of it even in the smallest

degree, but Christ is all. How much was revealed to the patriarch David!

How blind are some modern wise men, even amid the present blaze of

light, as compared with this poet prophet of the darker dispensation. May

the Spirit who spoke by the man after God's own heart give us eyes to see

the hidden mysteries of this marvelous Psalm, in which every word has an

infinity of meaning.



None of the kings of Israel united these two offices, though some endeavored to

do so. Although David performed some acts which appeared to verge upon the

priestly, yet he was no priest, but of the tribe of Judah, "of which tribe Moses

spake nothing concerning the priesthood" (Hebrews 7:14);  and he was far

too devout a man to thrust himself into that office uncalled. The Priest King here

spoken of is David's Lord, a mysterious personage typified by Melchizedek,

and looked for by the Jews as the Messiah. He is none other than the apostle

and high priest of our profession, Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews.

The Psalm describes the appointment of the kingly priest, his followers, his battles,

and his victory. Its center is v. 4, and so it may be divided, as Alexander suggests,

into the introduction, vs.1-3; the central thought, v. 4; and the supplementary vs.5-7.



1   “The LORD said unto thy Lord,” - Jehovah said unto my Adonai:

David in spirit heard the solemn voice of Jehovah speaking to the Messiah

from of old. What wonderful intercourse there has been between the Father

and the Son! From this secret and intimate communion springs the

covenant of grace and all its marvelous arrangements. All the great acts of

grace are brought into actual being by the word of God; had He not

spoken, there had been no manifestation of Deity to us; but in the

beginning was the Word, and from of old there was mysterious fellowship

between the Father and His Son Jesus Christ concerning His people and the

great contest on their behalf between Himself and the powers of evil. How

condescending on Jehovah's part to permit a mortal ear to hear, and a

human pen to record His secret converse with His coequal Son! How

greatly should we prize the revelation of His private and solemn discourse

with the Son, herein made public for the refreshing of His people! Lord,

what is man that thou shouldest thus impart thy secrets unto him!

Though David was a firm believer in the Unity of the Godhead, he yet

spiritually discerns the two persons, distinguishes between them, and

perceives that in the second he has a peculiar interest, for he calls Him "my

Lord." This was an anticipation of the exclamation of Thomas, "My Lord

and my God"  (John 20:28), - and it expresses the Psalmist's reverence,

his obedience, his believing appropriation, and his joy in Christ. It is well to

have clear views of the mutual relations of the persons of the blessed Trinity;

indeed, the knowledge of these truths is essential for our comfort and growth in

grace.  There is a manifest distinction in the divine persons, since one speaks to

another; yet the Godhead is one. “Sit thou at my right hand, until I make

thine enemies thy footstool.”   Away from the shame and suffering of His earthly

life, Jehovah calls the Adonai, our Lord, to the repose and honors of His celestial

seat. His work is done, and He may sit; it is well done, and He may sit at His right

hand; it will have grand results, and He may therefore quietly wait to see the complete

victory which is certain to follow. The glorious Jehovah thus addresses the Christ

as our Savior; for, says David, He said "unto my Lord." Jesus is placed in

the seat of power, dominion, and dignity, and is to sit there by divine

appointment while Jehovah fights for Him, and lays every rebel beneath His

feet. He sits there by the Father's ordinance and call, and will sit there

despite all the raging of his adversaries, till they are all brought to utter

shame by His putting His foot upon their necks. In this sitting He is our

representative. The mediatorial kingdom will last until the last enemy shall

be destroyed, and then, according to the inspired word, "cometh the end,

when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God even the Father."

(I Corinthians 15:24) – The work of subduing the nations is now in the hand of

the great God, who by His Providence will accomplish it to the glory of His Son;

His word is pledged to it, and the session of His Son at His right hand is the guarantee

thereof; therefore let us never fear as to the future. While we see our Lord

and representative sitting in quiet expectancy, we, too, may sit in the

attitude of peaceful assurance, and with confidence await the grand

outcome of all events. As surely as Jehovah liveth Jesus must reign, yea,

even now He is reigning, though all His enemies are not yet subdued.

During the present interval, through which we wait for His glorious

appearing and visible millennial kingdom, He is in the place of power, and

his dominion is in no jeopardy, or otherwise He would not remain quiescent.

He sits because all is safe, and He sits at Jehovah's right hand because

omnipotence waits to accomplish His will. Therefore there is no cause for

alarm whatever may happen in this lower world; the sight of Jesus

enthroned in divine glory is the sure guarantee that all things are moving

onward towards ultimate victory. Those rebels who now stand high in

power shall soon be in the place of contempt, they shall be His footstool.

He shall with ease rule them, He shall sit and put His foot on them; not

rising to tread them down as when a man puts forth force to subdue

powerful foes, but retaining the attitude of rest, and still ruling them as

abject vassals who have no longer spirit to rebel, but have become

thoroughly tamed and subdued.


2   “The LORD shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion:” -  It is in

and through the church that for the present the power of the Messiah is

known. Jehovah has given to Jesus all authority in the midst of His people,

whom He rules with His royal scepter, and this power goes forth with divine

energy from the church for the ingathering of the elect, and the subduing of

all evil. We have need to pray for the sending out of the rod of divine

strength. It was by his rod that Moses smote the Egyptians, and wrought

wonders for Israel, and even so whenever the Lord Jesus sends forth the

rod of His strength, our spiritual enemies are overcome. There may be an

allusion here to Aaron's rod which budded and so proved his power; this

was laid up in the ark, but our Lord's rod is sent forth to subdue His foes.

This promise began to be fulfilled at Pentecost, and it continues even to

this day, and shall yet have a grander fulfillment. O God of eternal might, let

the strength of our Lord Jesus be more clearly seen, and let the nations see

it as coming forth out of the midst of thy feeble people, even from Zion,

the place of thine abode - “rule thou in the midst of thine enemies.” –

as He does whenever His mighty scepter of grace is stretched forth to renew

and save them. Moses' rod brought water out of the flinty rock, and the gospel

of Jesus soon causes repentance to flow in rivers from the once hardened heart

of man. Or the text may mean that though the church is situated in the midst of a

hostile world, yet it exerts a great influence, it continues to manifest an inward

majesty, and is after all the ruling power among the nations because the

shout of a king is in her midst. Jesus, however hated by men, is still the

King of kings. His rule is over even the most unwilling, so as to overrule

their fiercest opposition to the advancement of His cause. Jesus, it appears

from this text, is not inactive during His session at Jehovah's right hand, but

in His own way proves the abiding nature of His kingdom both in Zion and

from Zion, both among His friends and His foes. We look for the clearer

manifestation of His almighty power in the latter days; but even in these waiting

times we rejoice that to the Lord all power is given in heaven and in earth.


3   “Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties

of holiness from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth.”

In consequence of the sending forth of the rod of strength, namely, the

power of the gospel, out of Zion, converts will come forward in great

numbers to enlist under the banner of the Priest King. Given to Him of old,

they are His people, and when His power is revealed, these hasten with

cheerfulness to own His sway, appearing at the gospel call as it were

spontaneously, even as the dew comes forth in the morning. This metaphor

is further enlarged upon, for as the dew has a sparkling beauty, so these

willing armies of converts have a holy excellence and charm about them;

and as the dew is the lively emblem of freshness, so are these converts full

of vivacity and youthful vigor, and the church is refreshed by them and

made to flourish exceedingly. Let but the gospel be preached with divine

unction, and the chosen of the Lord respond to it like troops in the day of

the mustering of armies; they come arrayed by grace in shining uniforms of

holiness, and for number, freshness, beauty, and purity, they are as the

dewdrops which come mysteriously from the morning's womb. Some refer

this passage to the resurrection, but even if it be so, the work of grace in

regeneration is equally well described by it, for it is a spiritual resurrection.

Even as the holy dead rise gladly into the lovely image of their Lord, so do

quickened souls put on the glorious righteousness of Christ, and stand

forth to behold their Lord and serve Him. How truly beautiful is holiness!

God Himself admires it (the essence of Himself – CY – 2011)). How wonderful

also is the eternal youth of the mystical body of Christ! As the dew is new every

morning, so is there a constant succession of converts to give to the church perpetual

juvenility.  Her young men have a dew from the Lord upon them, and arouse in her

armies an undying enthusiasm for Him whose "locks are bushy and black as

a raven"  (Song of Solomon 5:11) with unfailing youth. Since Jesus ever lives, so

shall His church ever flourish. As His strength never faileth, so shall the vigor of

His true people be renewed day by day. As He is a Priest King, so are His people

all priests and kings, and the beauties of holiness are their priestly dress, their

garments for glory and for beauty; of these priests unto God there shall be

an unbroken succession. The realization of this day of power during the

time of the Lord's tarrying is that which we should constantly pray for; and

we may legitimately expect it since He ever sits in the seat of honor and

power, and puts forth His strength, according to His own word, "My Father

worketh hitherto, and I work."  (John 5:17)  (The first part of this verse

is very graphic to me since I too, at His appearing, want Him to recognize me,

and I, too, will own Him as the One whom “I have waited for!” – CY – 2011)


4   “The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou are a priest for ever

after the order of Melchizedek.”  We have now reached the heart of the psalm,

which is also the very center and soul of our faith. Our Lord Jesus is a Priest King

by the ancient oath of Jehovah: "He glorified not Himself to be made an high priest,"

but was ordained there unto from of old, and was called of God an high priest

after the order of Melchizedek. It must be a solemn and a sure matter

which leads the Eternal to swear, and with Him an oath fixes and settles the

decree for ever; but in this case, as if to make assurance a thousand times

sure, it is added, " and will not repent." It is done, and done for ever and

ever; Jesus is sworn in to be the priest of His people, and He must abide so

even to the end, because His commission is sealed by the unchanging oath

of the immutable Jehovah. If His priesthood could be revoked, and His

authority removed, it would be the end of all hope and life for the people

whom He loves; but this sure rock is the basis of our security —the oath of

God establishes our glorious Lord both in His priesthood and in His throne.

It is the Lord who has constituted Him a priest for ever, He has done it by

oath, that oath is without repentance, is taking effect now, and will stand

throughout all ages: hence our security IN HIM  is placed beyond all

question.  The declaration runs in the present tense as being the only time with

the Lord, and comprehending all other times. "Thou art, "i.e., thou wast and

art and art to come, in all ages a priestly King. The order of Melchizedek's

priesthood was the most ancient and primitive, the most free from ritual

and ceremony, the most natural and simple, and at the same time the most

honorable. That ancient patriarch was the father of his people, and at the

same time ruled and taught them; he swayed both the scepter and the

censer, reigned in righteousness, and offered sacrifice before the Lord.

There has never arisen another like to him since his days, for whenever the

kings of Judah attempted to seize the sacerdotal office they were driven

back to their confusion: God would have no king priest save His son.

Melchizedek's office was exceptional none preceded or succeeded him; he

comes upon the page of history mysteriously; no pedigree is given, no date

of birth, or mention of death; he blesses Abraham, receives tithe and

vanishes from the scene amid honors which show that he was greater than

the founder of the chosen nation. He is seen but once, and that once

suffices. Aaron and his seed came and went; their imperfect sacrifice

continued for many generations, because it had no finality in it, and could

never make the comers thereunto perfect. Our Lord Jesus, like

Melchizedek, stands forth before us as a priest of divine ordaining; not

made a priest by fleshly birth, as the sons of Aaron: He mentions neither

father, mother, nor descent, as His right to the sacred office; He stands upon

His personal merits, by Himself alone; as no man came before Him in His

work, so none can follow after; His order begins and ends in His own

person, and in Himself it is eternal, "having neither beginning of days nor

end of years The King Priest has been here and left His blessing upon the

believing, and now He sits in glory in His complete character, atoning for

us by the merit of His blood, and exercising all power on our behalf."



                        "O may we ever hear thy voice

                              In mercy to us speak,

                        And in our Priest we will rejoice,

                              Thou great Melchizedek."


The last verses of this psalm we understand to refer to the future victories

of the Priest King. He shall not forever sit in waiting posture, but shall

come into the fight to end the weary war by His own victorious presence.

He will lead the final charge in person; His own right hand and His holy arm

shall get unto Him the victory.  (“And I saw heaven opened, and behold a  white

horse; and He that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in

righteousness He doth judge and make war.  His eyes were as a flame of fire,

 and on His head were many crowns; and He had a name written, that no man

knew, but He Himself.  And He was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and

His name is called The Word of God.  And the armies which were in heaven

followed Him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean.  And out

of His mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it He should smite the nations:

and He shall rule them with a rod of iron: and He treadeth the winepress of

 the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.  And He hath on His vesture and

on His thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.” -

Revelation 19:11-16)  (May our prayer be, “Even so, come, Lord Jesus”

[Ibid. 22:20] - CY – 2011)


5   “The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of

His wrath.”  Now that He has come into the field of action, the infinite

Jehovah comes with Him as the strength of His right hand. Eternal power

attends the coming of the Lord, and earthly power dies before it as though

smitten through with a sword. In the last days all the kingdoms of the earth

shall be overcome by the KINGDOM OF HEAVEN and those who dare

oppose shall meet with swift and overwhelming ruin. What are kings when they

dare oppose the Son of God? A single stroke shall suffice for their destruction.

When the angel of the Lord smote Herod there was no need of a second blow;

he was eaten of worms and gave up the ghost (Acts 12:23).  Concerning the last

days, we read above, what God through Christ will do!  (Revelation 19:11-16)

“The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this.” (Isaiah 9:7)


6   “He shall judge among the heathen,” -  or, among the nations. All

nations shall feel His power, and either yield to it joyfully or be crushed

before it -  “He shall fill the places with the dead bodies:” -  In the terrible

battles of His gospel all opponents shall fall till the field of fight is heaped high

with the slain. This need not be understood literally, but as a poetical description of

the overthrow of all rebellious powers and the defeat of all unholy principles.

(For a literal prophecy of the end times when the world attacks Israel, the

Bibles says it will take seven months to bury the dead - see Ezekiel 39:1-16 –

CY – 2011).  Yet should kings oppose the Lord with weapons of war, the

result would be their overwhelming defeat and the entire destruction of

their forces. Read in connection with this prophecy the passage which

begins at the seventeenth verse of Revelation 19:1 and runs on to the end

of the chapter. Terrible things in righteousness will be seen ere the history

of this world comes to an end.  “He shall wound the heads over many

countries.”  He will strike at the greatest powers which resist Him, and wound

not merely common men, but those who rule and reign. If the nations will not

have Christ for their Head, they shall find their political heads to be

 powerless to protect them. Or the passage may be read, "He has smitten the

head over the wide earth." The monarch of the greatest nation shall not be able

to escape the sword of the Lord; nor shall that dread spiritual prince who rules

over the children of disobedience be able to escape without a deadly wound. Pope

and priest must fall, with Mahomet and other deceivers who are now heads of the

people. Jesus must reign and they must perish!


7   “He shall drink of the brook in the way:” -  So swiftly shall He march to

conquest that He shall not stay for refreshment, but drink as He hastens on.

Like Gideon's men that lapped, He shall throw His heart into the fray and

cut it short in righteousness, because a short work will the Lord make in

the earth (Romans 9:28).  "Therefore shall he lift up the head." His own

head shall be lifted high in victory, and His people, in Him, shall be upraised also.

When He passed this way before, He was burdened and had stern work laid upon

Him; but in His second advent He will win an easy victory; aforetime He was

the man of sorrows, but when He comes a second time (Hebrews 9:28).  His head

will be lifted in triumph. Let His saints rejoice with Him. "Lift up your heads, for

your redemption draweth nigh" (Luke 21:28).  In the latter days we look for

terrible conflicts and for a final victory. Long has Jesus borne with our rebellious

race, but at length He will rise to end the warfare of longsuffering, by the

blows of justice. God has fought with men's sins for their good, but He will

not always by His Spirit strive with men (Genesis 6:3); He will cease from that

struggle of long suffering love, and begin another which shall soon end in the

final destruction of His adversaries. O King priest, we who are, in a minor

degree, king priests too (Revelation 1:6), are full of gladness because thou reignest

even now, and wilt come ere long to vindicate thy cause and establish thine

empire for ever. Even so, come quickly. Amen.



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