1 “But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine:” But speak
thou, etc. The apostle now brings out, in full contrast with the vain talk of the
heretical teachers, the solid, sober teaching of a true man of God, in harmony
with the sound doctrine of the gospel of Christ. The sound doctrine (τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ
διδασκαλία - tae hugiainousae didaskalia) ; as in I Timothy 1:10 (where see note).
In Ibid. ch.6:1 ἡ διδασκαλία – hae didaskalia by itself means “the Christian faith,”
“the doctrine of the gospel.” The varying phrases, ἡ καλὴ διδασκαλία – hae
kalae didaskalia; ἡ κατ εὐσεβείαν διδασκαλία - hae kat eusebeian didaskalia;
and ἡ ὑγιαινοῦσα διδασκαλία - hae hugiainousa didaskalia -, all mean the same
thing, with varying descriptive qualifications (see v. 10). The article “the”
is not required.
Special Instructions as to Titus’s Own Preaching (v. 1)
“But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine” — respecting
the special deportment of Christians of every age, sex, and rank.
It is a doctrine that it may be a life.
Ø The doctrine is contrasted with the fables of the false teachers, who did
nothing by their speculations but lower the tone of Christian life. A true
moral life was only possible on the basis of the facts of the gospel plan of
salvation (v. 11).
Ø Its soundness contrasts with the unhealthy teaching of the false
teachers. It is called “the good doctrine” (I Timothy 4:6), and the
“doctrine according to godliness” (Ibid. ch. 6:3). Every other system
corrupts; the sound doctrine renovates, elevates, purifies; for our Lord
said, “Sanctify them through thy truth.” (John 17:17). It is milk for
babes and meat for strong men.
DOCTRINE. It ought to be preached:
Ø Publicly and plainly, since there are so many” vain teachers.”
Ø With certainty, as being the undoubted truth.
Ø With all boldness, as without fear of man or seeking to please man.
Ø At all times, in season and out of season.
Ø In its due relation to the duties of religion, as the spring of obedience.
2 “That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in
charity, in patience.” Temperate. (νηφάλιος - naephalios); as I Timothy 3:2,
(where see note). Grave. (σεμνούς – semnous ); as I Timothy 3:8, 11 (see too Ibid.
ch. 2:2; 3:4). Sober-minded. (σώφρονας – sophronas); as ch.1:8, note. Sound.
(ὑγιαίνοντας - hugiainontas); see v. 1, note, and ch. 1:13, where, as here, the
word is applied to persons, as it is in its literal sense in III John 1:2. Faith… love…
patience. We have the same triad in I Timothy 6:11. In I Corinthians 13:13 we find
“faith, hope, love.” In I Thessalonians 1:3 the apostle joins “work of faith, labor of
love,” and “patience of hope,” which last phrase seems almost to identify
patience and hope (compare too Romans 8:25; 15:4). We must not miss
the important warning, not only to have some kind of faith, love, and
patience, but to be healthy and vigorous in our faith, love, and patience.
There is a puny faith, a sickly love. and a misdirected patience.
The Duties of Aged Men (v. 2)
The apostle begins with the most important class in the Church — those
who are the leaders of the young. Their characteristic deportment is to be
Ø This habit of mind is contrasted with the thoughtlessness and
levity of youth.
Ø It is combined with:
o watchfulness (I Thessalonians 5:6) and
o prayer (I Peter 4:7).
Ø There are lofty motives to sobriety. (I Peter 4:7; 5:8.)
Ø Old men ought not to lend themselves to the levity and flippancy
of the young.
Ø If they are grave in speech and gait, they will have more weight
in the community. There must be no undue excitability.
Ø The aged ought to show an example of self-control in regard
to the passions, the appetites, and the will. The pleasures of
sense ought not to allure them, or the love of the world to carry
trilogy of graces once more, only that patience takes the place of hope, to
which it is nearly allied.
Ø There is to be a healthy action of these graces in old age. As if in
contrast with the diseases, weakness, and age of the body. The
aged have seen their best days, and they ought to reconcile the
decay of nature with the increase of grace, so as to make human
life to its extreme limit resplendent with beauty and truth.
Ø Each of the graces has its appropriate place in the character of the
o Faith. It is the subjective condition of it. The old have their
hopes sustained by faith; their hearts are cheered by faith;
they remain steadfast through faith. It must be at once the
principle of their worship, their piety, and their endurance.
o Love. The old are apt to become contracted and cold in their
sympathies. But Christian love keeps the heart young and
tender and sincere, and the old illustrate its power in growing
tolerance, wisdom, and kindliness.
o Patience. They have to bear with many infirmities of body,
with declining faculties, with growing decrepitude. But
Christian patience must be more than a dull acquiescence
with the inevitable; it must be a cheerful acceptance of
suffering, that patience may have her perfect work in the
closing days of life.
Aged Christian Men (v. 2)
“That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in charity, in
patience.” There are appropriate fruits for every time of life, and the
Christian man bringeth forth fruit in his season. (Psalm 1) A frivolous, fantastical
age is a distasteful spectacle. Old age should be cheerful; but fun should be
without frivolity, and laughter without levity.
· THE REVERENCE DUE TO AGE. We look for sobriety of character
as the result of the experience of a man who has found that there are limits
to all expectations; gravity in one who is nearing his great account; and
temperance in one who is supposed to have trampled down the fierce
passions of youth. We reverence age for the consistency of the long years
of life, and for fidelity to conscience and to Christ.
· THE FRUITS THAT MAY RIPEN IN AGE. They are:
Ø Faith, which is a grace that grows. As men know more of Christ by
heart-experiences and life-experiences, so ought their faith to increase in
Him whose promises have all been “Yea and Amen.” (II Corinthians
Ø Charity, alike in kindly estimate of others, in less bigotry, and in more
comprehensiveness of embrace to all who may belong to other folds under
the great Shepherd.
Ø Patience. For while manhood has to work, age at eventide has to wait,
sometimes in pain or in weakness. Still “they serve” while they wait, by
prayer and quiet submission to the great will, the Lord’s will. They are
“examples to the flock.”
3 “The aged women likewise, that they be in behavior as becometh
holiness, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of
good things;” Becometh holiness. (ἱεροπρεπεῖς - hieroprepeis – reverent;
as becomes the sacred); only here in the New Testament, twice in IV Maccabees
(in 9:25, where the eldest of the seven brothers who suffered martyrdom , under
Antiochus Epiphanes is called ὁἱεροπρεπὴς νεανίας – ho ieroprepaes neanias –
devout or saintly youth - ; and in 11:20, where it is coupled with αἰών – aion –
age or generation); it is not uncommon in classical Greek. The word means
“becoming a holy person, place, or matter;” otherwise expressed in I Timothy 2:10,
“which becometh women professing godliness;” and Ephesians 5:3, “as becometh
saints.” In behavior. (ἐν καταστήματι – en katastaemati - in demeanor; Of
much wider meaning than καταστολή – katastolae – clothing; raiment; apparel –
in 1 Timothy 2:9); here only in the New Testament, once in III Maccabees 5:45,
“a state” or “condition,” spoken of elephants; and so in classical Greek, applied to
a man, to health, to the air, or the body politic. Here mien, demeanor, or deportment,
countenance, what is said, and what is left unsaid. The whole habit and
composition or structure of mind and body is to be ἱερόπρεπες (reverent) what
becomes a holy woman. False accusers. (διαβόλους – diabolous – adversaries;
slanderers); as I Timothy 3:11. Not given [enslaved] to much wine (compare
I Timothy 3:8). Observe the fitness of the phrase “enslaved to much wine.”
The drunkard is thoroughly the slave of his vicious appetite (compare ch.3:3;
Romans 6:16; II Peter 2:19). Teachers of good things. (καλοδιδασκάλους –
kalodidaskalous - teachers of that which is good); only here in the New Testament,
not found in the Septuagint, or in classical Greek; teachers, by their holy demeanor
as well as by their words. For as Ignatius (quoted by Ellicott) says of the Bishop of the
Trallians, “His very demeanor (αὐτὸ τὸ κατάστημα – auto to katastaema) was a
great lesson (μοθητεία - mothaeteia).”
Aged Christian Women (v. 3)
“The aged women likewise.” Our “behavior” is a sign of our character. We
cannot hide the “roots” of our life. Weeds or flowers soon appear upon the
· HOLY WOMEN. Not sanctimonious, or stiff, or prudish; but holy.
Never suffering irreverence to characterize their speech, levity to mark
their looks, or folly to appear in their dress or demeanor. Holy, so that
their quiet fellowship with God may affect their influence, and the
enjoyment of the “earnest of the heaven” (II Corinthians 1:22) they are
approaching in their old age may be known by their conversation.
· TRUE WOMEN. “Not false accusers.” This does not apply to courts
of law, but to common life. The word is expressive; it is “make-bates,”
from which our word “abate.” They do not lessen the honor, the
reputation, the good report of others by accusations which are unworthy
· TEMPERATE WOMEN. “Not given to much wine.” Never flushed
with the semi-intoxication of indulgence. Never made frivolous and foolish
in speech through strong drink. Avoiding this as the tyranny of a habit
which may become with them a second nature. “Not given to much wine.”
· USEFUL WOMEN. “Teachers of good things.” Of the highest truths
that make for salvation, and of all the truths which they have learned, that
Ø to industry,
Ø to household economy,
Ø to thrift and
Ø to piety and prosperity.
Every aged woman has a large ministry to fulfill when she
remembers how large is the category of “good things.”
4 “That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their
husbands, to love their children,” – That they may teach. (σωφρονίζωσι –
sophronizosi – they may teach; train); only here in the New Testament, not found
in the Septuagint, but common in classical Greek in the sense of to “correct,” “control,”
or “moderate,” which is its meaning here. (Compare I Timothy 5:14). The Authorized
Version “teach to be sober” is manifestly wrong. To love their husbands.
(φιλάνδρους εῖναι – philandrous einai – to be fond of their husbands); here
only in the New Testament, not found in the Septuagint, but occasionally, in this sense,
in classical Greek. To love their children (φιλοτέκνους – philoteknous); here only
in the New Testament, not found in the Septuagitn except in IV Macc. 15:4, but not
uncommon in classical Greek.
5 “To be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their
own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed.” To be discreet.
(σώφρονας - sophronas – sane; sober-minded ); as in v. 2 and ch.1:8; I Timothy 3:2.
“Discreet” is nearer the sense than “sober-minded.” Perhaps the French sage is nearer
still. Keepers at home. (οἰκουργούς – oikourgous – domestic; home seers - for the
Textus Receptus - οἰκουρούς – oikourous – housekeeper; keeper at home).
Neither word occurs elsewhere in the New Testament or in the Septuagint, nor does
οἰκουργός in classical Greek. But οἰκουρός, which is probably the true
reading, is common in good classical Greek for “stayers at home.” It is derived
from οῖκος – oikos – house; home - and οῦρος,– ouros - keeper. Good.
(ἀγαθάς – agathas – kind; good ). The idea of kindness or good nature seems
to be the side of goodness here intended; as we say, “He was very good to me”
(so Matthew 20:15 and I Peter 2:18). Kindness is the leading idea in ἀγαθός.
Obedient. (ὑποτασσόμενας – hupotassomenas – obedient; being subject).
These identical words occur in I Peter 3:1 (see too Ephesians 5:22; Colossians 3:18).
That the Word of God be not blasphemed. (See I Timothy 6:1). Paul complains
that the Name of God was blasphemed among the Gentiles on account of the evil
deeds of the Jews (Romans 2:24; see Ezekiel 36:20-23). Our Lord, on the other
hand, exhorts that Christians, by their good works, should lead men to
glorify their Father which is in heaven. The passage before us shows how
much the honor of Christianity is bound up with THE FAITHFUL
DISCHARGE BY CHRISTIANS OF THE SIMPLE DOMESTIC
DUTIES OF LIFE. In truth, THE FAMILY IS THE CHIEF SEAT
and OFTEN THE MAIN TEST OF CHRISTIAN VIRTUE as it is the
distinctive feature of humanity as ordained by God.
The Duties of Aged Women and Young Women (vs. 3-5)
As woman had attained through Christianity a position of equality beside
man, it was necessary to remind her that her new position involved serious
responsibilities. Here there are what may be termed “instructions” to the
aged women as to the counsels to be given by them to the young women. Such
authority does the gospel give to age; such reverence and respect for age does
it expect from young women. Nations deteriorate in character whenever youth
becomes insolent in its own independence, and resentful of authority.
*******(See Isaiah 3:12-26)*******
Ø In demeanor as becometh holiness.
o There is an appeal to their own judgment as to what is
decorous and beautiful in the Christian character. They
had an experimental knowledge of the gospel, and they
understood the nature and extent of its obligations
as affecting their sex.
o There was to be a harmony between their position and
their character as godly women “women professing godliness”
(I Timothy 2:10). Their holy calling should manifest itself in:
§ their deportment,
§ silence, and, above all,
§ “in a meek and quiet spirit.”
Ø Not slanderers.
o Old age has no active employment, but it has an active
memory and a busy tongue. Thus there is a temptation for
the old, unless the grace of God has given the tongue of
kindness, to become censorious, malignant, and bitter,
avenging themselves the more with their tongues for their
very incapacity to avenge themselves in other ways.
o There is nothing more beautiful or saintly in this world than
A TRUE MOTHER IN
girls and women have forfeited that position for all eternity
because of a few theoretical prime years of their lives which
they have devoted to wrong doing, sin and Satan – I once
saw in a Progressive Farmer magazine “For Sale: Bargain
Basement Women – slightly soiled and greatly reduced in
price - CY – 2013) – the presiding genius of her family
circle, speaking the words of charity, softness, and kindness
to all within her reach.
o It would be an utter travesty of the gospel for aged Christian
women to be slanderers, because they would thus
§ separate friends (Proverbs 16:28);
§ inflict deadly wounds in character (Proverbs 18:18);
§ bring dishonor on the gospel; and
§ cause discords in the Church.
Ø Not enslaved to much wine.
o The warning was needed on account of the national habits
of the Cretans.
o It was a moderate demand that they should give up the
slavish addictedness to
wine so common in
who follows the habit is a slave, and would soon lose the
sense of her degradation. The early converts would, perhaps,
plead the privileges of their age and country, and
use wine as a solace in old age; but Titus is to teach them
that hoary hairs give no liberty to such a habit.
o We see how the gospel purifies the habits and usages of
Ø Teachers of good things.
o The apostle thus prescribes the right use of the tongue to those
who were to be “no slanderers.”
o Their teaching was not to be in public addresses, which were
forbidden (I Timothy 2:12), but in private life.
o The substance of their teaching was not to be “old wives’ fables,”
not superstitious ceremonies, or things of evil report, but things
sound, pure, and honest.
instruction and guidance of the aged women. In Ephesus, Timothy was
exhorted to teach the younger women, but it is probable that the state of
the Cretan community required that the instructions of Titus should be
supplemented by the more practical and continuous guidance of the elderly
women. The young women were to be schooled to their duties in a wise
Ø They were to be lovers of their husbands.
o The wife would find in this love the source of her strength,
the husband the solace for his cares, and the children the
guarantee for their happiness and welfare.
o A loving wife is:
§ a blessing to her husband (Proverbs 12:4);
§ brings him honor (Ibid. ch. 31:23);
§ secures his confidence (Ibid. v.11);
§ earns his praises (Ibid. v. 28).
Ø Lovers of their children.
o The love of a mother may be instinctive, but religious
fanaticism and brutal separation can make her more
unfeeling than the brutes. Rousseau would not keep his
children in his house, but sent them to a public hospital;
a sign, said Burke, that “bears love their young and lick
them into shape, but bears are not philosophers.” In India
infants are often destroyed by a mother’s hands, under the
influence of religious delusion. (55,000,000 abortions
o The first duty of a Christian woman is to make her home
happy, which is impossible except on a basis of love to
husband and children.
o Religion revives natural affection as it revives all the
weakened faculties of our nature, and gives it new
power for good. The religious training of the young is
impossible without the experience of a mother’s love.
Ø Discreet. Young women, in a new position of Christian privilege,
might be tempted to rashness, enthusiasm, and impulsive conduct.
They were to be wise and careful in their conduct both at home
Ø Chaste. In act, speech, thought, and dress, finding their true
happiness in their husband’s society. There are many high motives
for a pure womanhood (I Corinthians 6:19; I Thessalonians 4:7).
Ø Workers at home.
o The wife’s business is in her household, not in the great
world of society. (How this flies into the face of modern
thought. – CY – 2013) Religion gains no honor when
home duties are neglected.
o Her husband’s interests are preserved by her industry at home.
o Gadding abroad and busying one’s self in other people’s affairs
tends to the spreading of evil.
Ø Good. Such women are to be kindly and thoughtful in their family
relationships, especially to servants, and not niggardly or exacting.
“Their thriftiness must not degenerate into avarice.”
Ø Obedient to their own husbands.
o This is their great duty, and thus they become types of THE
CHURCH’S SUBMISSION TO CHRIST!
o Obedience would recommend the gospel to unbelieving
husbands, for attention to this precept would prevent
“the Word of God from being blasphemed.” Grace does
not deliver us from the obligations of nature (I Corinthians
Counsels to Young Women (vs. 4-5)
Here there are what may be termed “instructions” to the aged women as to
the counsels to be given by them to the young women. Such authority does
the gospel give to age; such reverence and respect for age does it expect
from young women. Nations deteriorate in character whenever youth
becomes INSOLENT IN ITS
· SOBRIETY, or wisdom; that calm quietude of heart and mind which is
not intoxicated by vanity, or carried away with the sensationalism of
· CHASTITY. Alike in thought, in speech, and in manner and conduct.
Purity makes QUEENLY WOMEN! One stain spoils the most exquisite
sculpture. The beauty of marble is its purity, and the beauty of womanhood
· HOME-KEEPERS. Making home first of all a center of attraction by
its order and cleanliness and comfort; then by its harmonies of peace and
love, so that no discordant notes may mar the music of its joy; and then by
avoiding gossiping visits, and the excitements of habitual restlessness, and
a too great love of shopping, securing the safety of economy and the honor
of a wife who “weaves” all into beauty and order at home.
· OBEDIENCE. Not slavish submission to man; for woman is his equal,
and “was not,” as an old divine says, “taken from his feet, to be beneath
him, or his head, to be above him; but from his side, to be equal with him.”
Still, there is the obedience which consists in consulting him, judging and
conforming — where conscience is not offended — to his judgment and his
All this that “the Word of God be not blasphemed,” or its fame injured,
which is the true meaning of blaspheme, viz. to blast the fame of it.
6 “Young men likewise exhort to be sober minded.” Younger men.
The younger (see 1 Peter 5:5, where, however, the νεώτεροι – neoteroi –
younger are contrasted with the πρεσβύτεροι – presbuteroi – elders; seniors, as
in I Timothy 5:1; here with πρεσβύτας – presbutas – aged men; seniors in . 2).
The Duty of Young Men (v. 6)
The apostle next thinks of those who are to be the strong stays of the
Church in the coming generation. “Young men exhort to be soberminded.”
Ø Young men ought to be thoughtful, not rash and impulsive.
The Lord says to them, “Consider your ways.” (Haggai 1:5)
Ø They should be circumspect, not heady and reckless, using that
Word which “giveth to the young man knowledge and discretion.”
Ø They should not be self-indulgent, but self-denying. Not “lovers of
pleasure, but lovers of God.” “Turn away mine eyes from viewing
Ø They should be settled in feeling and conduct, not vacillating or giddy.
“Let your hearts be fixed” (Psalm 108:1). “He that wavers is as a wave
of the sea “(James 1:6).
Ø It is according to the dictates of right reason. It is a great thing to
receive the spirit of a “sound mind.” (II Timothy 1:7). Young
men are never in a right mind till they sit clothed at the feet of
Jesus. (Luke 8:35)
Ø Consider the snares and sorrows and drawbacks of life.
Ø Consider that death may early reach the young.
Ø Consider the number of young men who are ruined by the
want of sober-mindedness.
Ø The young must answer in the judgment for their follies in this life.
7 “In all things shewing thyself a pattern of good works: in doctrine
shewing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity,” An ensample for a pattern,
Authorized Version; thy doctrine for doctrine, Authorized Version; the
Received Text omits sincerity (ἀφθαρσίαν - aphtharsian), which is in the
Textis Receptus. In all things (περὶ πάντα – peri panta); as I Timothy 1:19
(περὶ τὴν πίστιν – peri taen pistin
“concerning, in the matter of”).
and others connect these words with the preceding clause, “to be soberminded in
all things.” But it is usually taken as in the text, “in all things showing thyself,” etc.
Showing thyself, etc. With regard to the somewhat unusual addition of the reflexive
pronoun to the verb in the middle voice, emphasis and perspicuity are gained by it.
A pattern. (τύπον – tupon – an ensample; a type). This is the only passage in the
New Testament where τύπος is followed by a genitive of the thing. In I Timothy
4:12 the genitive is of the person to whom the example is given, in word, in
conversation, etc., and in I Peter 5:3, tu τύπος τοῦ πομνίου – tupos tou pomniou –
ensamples to the flock; models; types. Of good works (compare ch.3:8). Note the
stress laid by Paul upon Christian practice as the result of SOUND DOCTRINE.
Mere talk is absolutely worthless. Uncorruptness (ἀφθορίαν – aphthorian or, as
Textus Receptus, ἀδιαφθορίαν – adiaphthorian); only here in the New Testament,
and not in the Septuagint or in classical Greek. Ἀφθορία has the best manuscript
authority; but the sense of ἀδιαφθορία as deduced from the good classical word
ἀδιάφθορος, which means among other things “incorruptible” — not to
be influenced by entreaties or bribes — seems to make it preferable. The
word describes the quality of the teacher rather than of his doctrine. He is
to preach the truth without fear or favor. Gravity (σεμνότητα – semnotaeta); as
I Timothy 2:2; 3:4. This, again, is a quality of the teacher. These accusatives
depend upon παρεχόμενος – parechomenos – shewing; showing. But the
construction of the sentence is somewhat irregular for brevity’s sake.
I found written in my commentary the following statement: Even
though I have not lived up to it, I consider this verse to be one of the main
Foundations or influence of my life! March 26, 1996 – CY – 2013)
8 “Sound speech, that cannot be condemned; that he that is of the
contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say of you.”
Sound speech (λόγον ὑγιῆ - logon hugiae); still depending upon παρεχύμενος
(shewing of the previous verse). Besides his personal qualities as a teacher,
his speech, or doctrine, MUST BE SOUND. The word, common of bodily
health, is only here applied to speech or doctrine; the common phrase in
the pastoral Epistles is ὑγιασινούση διδασκαλία - hugiasinousae didaskalia –
sound teaching; ὑγιαίνουσι λόγοις - hugiainousi logois – sound doctrine
and the like. That cannot be condemned (ἀκατάγνωστον – akatagnoston –
uncensurable); only here in the New Testament. This marks
the care that THE CHRISTIAN TEACHER MUST TAKE not to say
anything in his teaching rash, or reprehensible, or that can give offence
or cause the ministry to be blamed (compare I Timothy 5:14). May be ashamed
(ἐντραπῇ – entrapae). In the active voice ἐντρέπειν – entrepein is “to put to shame”
(I Corinthians 4:14), and in classical Greek. In the middle voice ἐντρέπομαι –
entpepomai, followed by a genitive of the person, or an accusative in later Greek,
means to “respect, reverence” (Matthew 21:37; Luke 18:2, etc.). In the passive,
as here and II Thessalonians 3:14, it means “to be put to shame,” “to be
ashamed” (compare Psalm 35:40) . (Compare, for the sentiment, I Peter 2:15;
3:16; and note the frequent resemblances between the pastoral Epistles and
those of Peter.) The shame of the detractors consists in their BEING PUT
TO SILENCE - having nothing to say, being proved to be slanderers.
(Like their father, Satan. This will occur to the slanders and false teachers,
whether in the media, on college faculties, or their cronies who swallow
hook, line and sinker, every slander and lie they say. See II Timothy 3:8-9,13;
CY – 2013). No evil thing (μηδὲν φαῦλον – maeden phaulon); as
James 3:16; John 3:20; 5:29. The word means “mean, worthless, paltry,”
and is hence synonymous with κακός – kakos – evil.
The Minister is to be a Pattern of Good Works (vs. 7-8)
As a faithful minister of God, he is to mirror forth in his life and teaching
the doctrines of the gospel.
· THE MINISTER OUGHT TO BE A PATTERN OF GOOD WORKS.
Ø His teaching is useless unless it is enforced by the power of a holy
example. There must be a harmony between his doctrine and his life.
Ø Good works are the natural proofs of good principles, and can only
issue from the fountain of a purified heart. The very principles are
tested by the preacher’s life.
Ø His whole life is to be an ensample. “In all things.” This implies
consistency in toil, endurance, and teaching.
· THE MINISTER MUST BE A PATTERN BOTH IN THE SUBSTANCE
AND IN THE SPIRIT OF HIS TEACHING. Teaching is his special sphere.
Ø It must be imparted in a right spirit. “In doctrine showing uncorruptness
o He must exhibit an example of personal sincerity, not like one
either seeking for applause or influenced by interested motives —
like the false teachers who were in quest of filthy lucre. Sincerity
has a very penetrative force among a people.
o He must have a dignified gravity of manner, to indicate his
profound seriousness of purpose and spirit. Foolish jesting
and vain talking are very inconvenient in a minister of the gospel.
Ø The doctrine imparted must be sound and convincing. “Sound speech,
that cannot be condemned.”
o It must be wholesome doctrine, as contrasted with a sickly
pietism; free from error, because drawn from “the sincere milk
of the Word” (I Peter 2:2), conveyed not in the “enticing
words of man’s wisdom” (I Corinthians 2:4), but as the
Holy Ghost teacheth (Ibid. v. 13).
o It must have convincing power. “That cannot be condemned”
§ Ministers must expect their words to be sharply
riticized as well as their lives.
§ The truth ought to be conveyed in such a spirit and
with such a regard to the analogy of faith that it
cannot be justly found fault with.
§ It must effectually silence gainsayers. “That he that is
of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no bad
thing to say of us.” (Ibid.)
Whether the adversary be a false teacher or a pagan, the sound speech
ought to reduce him to shame and silence.
A Teacher’s Influence (vs. 7-8)
Titus is to remember that personal character is the most eloquent counsel
and the most convincing argument of the gospel.
· PATTERN. Not a slavish example of mere deeds. For this is not the
gospel ideal. We are not to copy mere actions, but to catch the spirit of the
teacher. This makes true art, and it makes also true religion. We admire
the pattern, but we do not copy it by “the rule of thumb,” but by the
adoption of the same spirit. Christ in us. The mind of Christ.
· DOCTRINE. Not mere dogma, which is an artificial thing, and may or
may not be true, according as the authority which gives it may be wise and
enlightened, or ignorant and superstitious. Doctrine is different. It is a
revealed truth which has its response in the heart and conscience, and its
attestation in life. This the gospel has. And he is to show “uncorruptness;”
that is, he is not to defile it with worldly compromises. And “gravity;” for it
is not meant to be the light theme of intellectual discussion, but the gravest
matter of obedience. And “sincerity.” It is not to be preached for expedient
reasons, as, for instance, the security of life, or the safety of the state, or
the ways in which even Socrates would have men honor the gods, although
inwardly he disbelieved in them; but with sincerity of conviction as to their
reality and truth.
· SOUND SPEECH. No hollow rhetoric. No statements in excess of
fact for the sake of impression; but sound all through in argument,
illustration, and attestation. Such conduct and speech will shame those
who “see the fruits,” and can say no “evil” of us.
9 “Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters, and to please them
well in all things; not answering again;” Servants; i.e. slaves (δούλους –
doulous), the correlative to which is δεσπόταις – despotais - masters, who had
absolute power over their slaves, and property in them (compare I Peter. 2:18, where
they are called by the name of οἰκέται – oiketai - house-slaves). The construction
is carried on from the “exhort” of v. 6. Please them well. (εὐαρέστους)–
euarestous - well-pleasing); elsewhere spoken with reference to God
(Romans 12:1-2; II Corinthians 5:9; Ephesians 5:10, etc.). In all things
(ἐν πᾶσιν – en pasin); nearly the same as περὶ πάντα – peri panta - in v. 7;
to be taken with εὐαρέστους above. Some, however, connect the words with
ὑποτάσσεσθαι – hupotassesthai - ,to be obedient in all things. Not
answering again. (ἐντιλέγοντας – entilegontas - gainsaying); as in ch.1:9
(see note). Here, however, the “answering again” of the Authorized Version
is a better rendering. It implies, of course, a resistance to the will of their master,
and impatience of any rebuke (compare I Peter. 2:18-20).
10 “Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn
the doctrine of God our Savior in all things.” Purloining (νοσφιζομένους –
nosphizomenous - literally, separating for their own use what does not belong to
them. So Acts 5:2-3, “to keep back part” like in the act of Ananias and Sapphira.
It is used in the same sense by the Septuagint of Joshua 7:1 of Achan, and
II Maccabees 4:32 of Menelaus, and occasionally in classical Greek (Xenophon,
Polybius, etc.). Shewing (ἐνδεικνυμένους – endeiknumenous – showing;
displaying). It occurs eleven times in the New Testament, viz. twice in Hebrews,
and nine times in Paul’s acknowledged Epistles. All good fidelity. All fidelity
means fidelity in everything where fidelity is required in a faithful servant — care of
his master’s property, conscientious labor, keeping of time, acting behind his
master’s back the same as before his face. The singular addition ἀγαθήν –
agathaen – good - coming after ἐνδεικνυμένους [showing; displaying] means
in all good things.” The duty of fidelity does not extend to crime or wrong-doing.
The word “good” is like the addition in the oath of canonical obedience, “in all
honest things,” and is a necessary limitation to the preceding “all” (see
ch.3:1, and note). The doctrine (τὴν διδασκαλίον - taen didaskalion) as
in v. 1 (where see note). In ch.1:9 (where see note) ἡ διδαχή – hae didachae –
teaching - is used in the same way. This use of διδασκαλία – didaskalia –
doctrine - is confirmed by the reading of the Received Text which inserts a
second τήν – taen before τοῦ σωτῆρος – tou sotaeros – the Saviour –
the teaching of the Savior. Adorn the doctrine. The sentiment is the same
as that in I Peter 2:12; 4:11. Christians are exhorted to GIVE GLORY
TO GOD and support and honor to the gospel of God’s grace, BY THEIR
GOOD WORKS AND HOLY LIVES! God our Savior (see I Timothy 1:1;
2:3; 4:10; and above, ch.1:3, note). In all things (ἐν πᾶσιν – en pasin); as
I Peter. 4:11.
The Duties of Servants (vs. 9-10)
The class of servants, or rather slaves, had. received a wonderful elevation
through the gospel. They were an oppressed class, and may have been
tempted to imagine that their religious emancipation would necessarily
change their relations to their old masters. Thus we account for the large
body of practical counsel that is addressed by the apostle to this class of
· THE DUTIES OF SERVANTS.
Ø Obedience. “Exhort servants to be obedient to their own masters.”
This was a manifest obligation which the gospel did not annul.
It may have been a hard duty, but the gospel supplied grace for
the faithful discharge of it. It mattered not whether the master
was a Christian or a pagan; the gospel did not destroy his claims
to obedient service. But the obedience was necessarily limited
by the Divine Law, for a servant could not sin at a master’s
command. He must in that case willingly suffer the
consequences of disobedience.
Ø A cheerful compliance with the, master’s will. “And to please
them well in all things; not answering again.” It denotes that
temper which anticipates a master’s pleasure, rather than the
disposition to thwart it by sullen and capricious ways. Thus
they would be doing the will of God and. serving the common
Master of all, Jesus Christ, who gave them AN EXAMPLE
OF MEEKNESS and SUBMISSION!
Ø Honesty and fidelity. “Not purloining, but showing all good fidelity.”
Many slaves in ancient times were entrusted with the property of
their masters, as merchants, physicians, and artists. Thus they
had many ways of showing their honesty. It was in their power to
defraud them by embezzlement, or to waste the property, or to
allow it to be wasted without check or rebuke. Servants were to
have family interests at heart, and they were thus to commend
themselves to the love and confidence of their masters.
· THE DESIGN OR MOTIVE OF THIS FAITHFUL AND READY
OBEDIENCE. “That they may adorn the doctrine of God our Savior in
all things.” (v. 10)
Ø The Savior is as fully glorified in the servant as in the master, in the
poor as in the rich, in the peasant as in the king. Indeed, the
adornment of the gospel seems more manifest in the obedience of
the lowest class; for of the other classes specified it was only said
“that God’s Name might not be blasphemed.” Calvin says God
deigns to receive adornment even from slaves.
Ø The Lord lifts the slave out of his mean conditions when He seats
him on equal conditions of blessing and honor at the same holy table.
Ø The spectacle of cheerful and self-denying obedience on the part
of this class would have an arresting influence upon an age of
self-love and cynicism, such as that which influenced the world
at that time.
Genuine Morality (vs. 1-10)
“But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine,” etc. Paul,
having given Titus directions as to the organization of a Christian Church
Christianity, propagated doctrines at variance both with the truths and the
spirit of the gospel, here urges that genuine morality which should be the
grand aim and tendency of all gospel preaching. The grand subject
presented in this passage is genuine morality. There have been, and still
are, those who regard morality and religion as two distinct subjects or lines
of conduct. But they are essentially one; one cannot exist without the
other. The essence of both consists in supreme regard to THE DIVINE WILL
as the only standard of character and rule of life. From these verses we may
draw three general truths in relation to this subject.
· GENUINE MORALITY LEGISLATES ALIKE FOR ALL
MANKIND. It speaks to man authoritatively, whatever his personal
pecularities, adventitious distinctions, social relations, secular
circumstances, official position, the number of his years, or the
characteristics of his country. Moral law meets him everywhere; he can no
more escape it than he can the atmosphere he breathes. In these words
persons are mentioned distinguished by three fundamental facts.
Ø The fact of age. Amongst the millions of the race, not many in any
generation can be found that came into existence exactly at the same
minute. Hence there are those differing in age from one year to a hundred
or more. Hence Paul speaks here of “aged men” and “aged women,”
“young men” and “young women.” At the first dawn of moral
consciousness, up to the last breath of earthly existence, the voice of duty
speaks — “Thus saith the Lord.” No one has strength enough to extricate
himself from the ties of moral obligation. Not even that mighty spirit who
leads the “world captive at his will” (II Timothy 2:26) can break the
shackles of moral responsibility.
Ø The fact of sex. Here are “men” and “women,” both the aged and the
young. However closely identified in affection and interest, moral duty
treats each as a distinct personality. In human legislation the obligation of
the woman, in some cases, is absorbed in that of the man. Not so with the
moral legislation of Heaven. Each must bear its own burden. Inasmuch as
the woman is as bound to follow the will of God as the man, no man has a
right to interfere with the freedom of her thought, the dictates of her
conscience, or the independency of her devotions. For long ages men have
not recognized this fact, and they have treated women as their toys of
pleasure and instruments of gratification. Women are beginning to wake up
to their rights, and the day of man’s tyranny is drawing to a close. (This
written a couple hundred years back. CY – 2019)
Ø The fact of relationship. Paul says, “Exhort servants to be obedient unto
their own masters.” Why the duty of servants should be here referred to
and not that of masters, is not because masters have not their duty, but
at this time in
rebellious. Whilst the duty of servants is here referred to, the fact must not
be overlooked that MORALITY is binding on men in every social relationship:
o on the rulers as well as the ruled,
o the judges as well as the criminals,
o the parents as well as the children,
o the employers as well as the employees.
What is wrong for one is wrong for all, and the reverse!
· GENUINE MORALITY REACHES TO THE SPRINGS OF THE
HEART. It does not concern itself with the external conduct. “Bodily
exercise profiteth but little” (I Timothy 4:8). But as it regards external
conduct as the evolutions of the states of the heart, it legislates for those
states. It says, “Keep the heart with all diligence, for out of it are the
issues of life.” (Proverbs 4:23) Glance at the virtues here inculcated:
Ø “That the aged men be sober [sober-minded], grave, temperate.”
Ø The exhortation to sobriety is also addressed to aged women:
“That they be not given to much wine.”
Ø Also to the young women: “Teach the young women to be sober.”
Ø And to the young men: “Exhort to be sober-minded.”
Although physical sobriety is undoubtedly referred to, moral sobriety, serious
thoughtfulness, and self-restraint are evidently included and regarded as
fundamental. Moral sober-mindedness is the effective preventative and cure of
all physical intemperance. No argument, either for total abstinence or against it,
can be sustained by the phrase,
Ø “Not given to much wine.” All the words convey is — Do not get
Ø “Sound in faith, in charity [love], in patience.” This means — Have
a healthy faith, a faith well founded; a healthy love, a love fastened
on the supremely lovable; a healthy patience, a patience that shall
bear up with fortitude and magnanimity under all the trials of life.
Ø “As becometh holiness” — reverent in demeanor. Let the whole
life be full of that “holiness without which no man can see the Lord.”
Ø “Not false accusers” — not slanderers. It has been observed that
old women are specially tempted to garrulity (excessive talkativeness,
especially on trivial matters) and querulousness complaining in a
childish or whinny manner); hence the exhortation here.
Ø “Teachers of good things” — of that which is good. Things good in
themselves as well as in their tendencies and issues; teachers,
not merely by words, but by example.
Ø “That they may teach [train] the young women to be sober.” The
expression, “to be sober,” should be omitted.
Ø “To love their husbands.” The duty implies that the husband is love-
worthy; there are some men who are called husbands so morally
abhorrent and disgusting, that to love them would be impossible.
The ideal husband must be loved.
Ø “To love their children.” A mother’s love, of a certain kind, is proverbial.
Maternal love, wrongly directed, has been one of the chief curses of the
race. (There can be no motherly love in abortion – just self-love. CY –
Ø “To be discreet” — sober-minded. A proper cheerfulness in mothers
is a precious virtue, but volatile frivolousness is a serious evil.
Ø “Chaste” — purity of the body, freedom from obscenity in language
and life. Nothing in society is more beautiful than a thoroughly
o chaste in language,
o chaste in dress,
o chaste in movement;
and nothing is more disgusting than the reverse — a woman unclean in:
o language, and in
Ø “Keepers [workers] at home.” Wives must work as well as
husbands. Work is a condition of health and of true enjoyment. An idle
wife is a bane both to herself and her family. “At home.” This may not
mean entirely in her own house, but in her own sphere, it may be in the
garden, the field, the schoolroom, the Church, etc.
Ø “Good” — kind, amiable, sympathetic, generous, free from all that
is malign, envious, and jealous.
Ø “Obedient [being in subjection] to their own husbands.” This
implies, of course, that the husband’s commands are wise, right, and
“That the Word of God be not blasphemed.” This refers, perhaps, to all the
previous exhortations, and expresses a grand reason for the cultivation of all
virtues. Our conduct in all things should be such as to bring honor rather
than dishonor on our Lord and Master. “Let your light also so shine before
men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which
is in heaven.” (Matthew 5:16)
“Young men likewise exhort to be sober-minded.” Youth, in the swelling streams
of its passions, the wild play of its fancy, and its craving for the romantic, is fearfully
exposed to mental insobriety. Hence; no duty for the young is more urgent than that
of obtaining a self-masterhood. Titus, whom Paul commands to exhort young
men to this duty, was himself a comparatively young man. He could
scarcely have been more than forty years of age. “Brought up in a pagan
home, not improbably in the luxurious and wicked Syrian Antioch, drawn
to the Master’s side in the fresh dawn of manhood, tried in many a difficult
task and found faithful, the words of Titus exhorting the youth of
be sober-minded or self-restrained would be likely to have great weight.”
“In all things showing thyself a pattern [ensample] of good works, in
doctrine showing incorruptness, gravity, sincerity, sound speech that
cannot be condemned; that he that is of the contrary part may be ashamed,
having no evil thing to say of you [us].” In order that the exhortations of
Titus might have full force, Paul here addresses an admonition to him. He
is to show himself a “pattern of good works” in all things; he is to be a
model of excellence
in all his relations to the men and women of
both the aged and the young. He must be:
Ø grave, and
His preaching, too, should be such that could not be “condemned” — sound,
healthy, practical, not fanciful, sentimental, and morbid. Ah! how many
sermons preached every Sunday men of reason, thoughtfulness,
conscience, recoil from and condemn! “Exhort servants to be obedient [in
subjection] to their own masters, and to please them well [to be well
pleasing to them] in all things; not answering again [not gainsaying]; not
purloining, but showing all good fidelity.”
Herein is enjoined on servants:
All this implies, of course:
Ø that the master is what he ought to be,
Ø that his commands are righteous,
Ø that his words are truthful, and
Ø that the work he enjoins is lawful and right.
“That they may adorn the doctrine of God our Savior in all things.” From
this it would seem that even slaves, in righteously serving their masters,
may even honor God in their humble service. Thus from this passage we
]earn that genuine morality reaches the very springs of the heart, the
fountain of all actions. He is not a moral man who only acts in strictest
conformity to the conventional rules of society, nor is he even a moral man
who merely fulfills the letter of the Divine commands. “All these
commandments have I kept from my youth up... Yet one thing thou
lackest,” etc. (Luke 18:18-23) He only is the true man whose governing
sympathies flow in the channels of ETERNAL RIGHT, and whose activities
are ever engaged IN ENDEAVORS TO PLEASE THE MIGHTY MAKER
of his being! THE WILL OF GOD, and that only, is the datum base of
· GENUINE MORALITY IS THE GRAND PURPOSE OF GOSPEL
TEACHING. “But speak thou the things which become [befit] sound
doctrine, that the aged men,” etc. His teaching is to be in contrast with that
of the false teachers mentioned in the previous verses, and which led to
immorality of conduct. This verse and the seventh, urging Titus, as a
preacher, to be a pattern in all things, both in his teaching and his conduct,
justifies the inference that the grand end of gospel teaching is the
promotion of genuine morality. In the eighth verse of the next chapter,
Paul distinctly states that Titus was so to teach that his hearers might be
“careful to maintain good works.” This is a point which what is called the
“Church” has, in its teachings, practically ignored. The gospel has been
preached to sustain theologies, to establish sects, and to maintain certain
institutions, ecclesiastical and political, instead of making men morally
good, honest, faithful, and heroically loyal to the “truth as it is in Jesus.”
Here, then, we have the only infallible test of pulpit usefulness. In what
does the real utility of the pulpit consist? In gathering large audiences? Any
charlatan can do this; and, frequently, the greater the charlatan the most
successful. In generating in the congregation the largest amount of
superficial religious sentiment? This often emasculates the reason, diseases
the conscience, enervates the will, and renders the whole atmosphere of the
soul unhealthy and depressing. No; but in making men moral, the living
agents evermore of good works. I estimate a true Church, not by the
number of its members, the apparent earnestness of its devotions, or the
amount of its contributions, but by the number of its professors who are
too truthful to lie, too honest to defraud, too morally noble to do or to
countenance a mean or a dishonorable act — to whom, in short, all worldly
wealth and power, and life itself, are held cheap as dirt compared with the
right. When Churches are made up of such members, then, and not until
then, they will command the confidence, the sympathy, the trade, and the
influence of the world. Well does Emerson say, “There is no morality
without religion, and there is no religion without morality. ‘This is the love
of God, that we keep His commandments.’ He who loves God keeps the
commandment, loves God in action. Love is obedience in the heart,
obedience is love in the life. Morality is religion in practice, religion is
morality in principle.”
Counsels to Slaves (vs. 9-10)
This Epistle was circulated in
thousand slaves. “Exhort slaves, or bond-servants,” etc. The gospel cured
slavery, as it cured polygamy, by a slow and steady development of the
doctrine and spirit of the cross — that we are all one in Christ Jesus, that
we are not our own, and that we ought to love others even as ourselves.
And no man would like to be a slave himself.
· OBEDIENCE. They were slaves, and they had masters. While that
relationship remained, let them show the conquests of the gospel in their
endeavors to please, and in their not “gainsaying,” or answering again.
Masters would see in such conduct the divinity of the gospel; and slaves
would not suffer in vain — it would give the dignity of “ministry” even to
· BEAUTY. Not “purloining,” which slaves are tempted to do. Having
been purloined or “stolen” themselves, it would not seem very harmful to
them to steal things from their masters. But they were to “adorn the
gospel” — to show how “beautiful” it could make their rude life, and the
rough, hard lot of a slave.
So we all have here the gospel in its beauty. “Adorn,” and in its breadth, “all things.”
11 “For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all
men,” Bringeth salvation to all men (σωτήριος – sotaerios - saving).
The Received Text. omits the article ἡ – hae – the - before σωτήριος, which
necessitates construing πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις – pasin anthropois - with
σωτήριος, “saving to all men” “bringing salvation to all men.” With the
article hJ as in the T.R., it may be taken either way, but it is rather more
natural to construe πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις with ἐπεφάνη – epephanae – hath
appeared; made its advent - Hath appeared to all men. The meaning of the
phrase, “hath appeared to all men,” is the same as the saying in the song
of Simeon, “Mine eyes have seen thy salvation, which thou hast prepared
before the face of all people” (Luke 2:30-31; compare Colossians 1:6). The
gospel is NOT a hidden mystery, but is PROCLAIMED TO THE WHOLE
WORLD. Σωτήριος as an adjective is found only here in the New Testament,
in Wisdom of Solomon 1:14 and III Maccabees 7:18, and frequently in classical
Christ for Every Man (v. 11)
The gospel is universal. It knows nothing of race, or country, or clime. It is
the grace of the Father to every child, it reveals the nature of God Himself,
which is love.
apostle that it “has appeared unto all men.” Is this so? Are there not
multitudes ignorant of the gospel — multitudes who have never heard the
joyful sound? Unquestionably. But for all that, it has appeared for all men,
and this is the true meaning of the expression. Its invitation is to all! Its
provisions are for all, and it rests with us to go into all the world and
preach a gospel which has room yet for the world at its banquet-table of
grace. (Matthew 28;18-20)
everything. It brings salvation. Some will not accept it. Some will only use
it as a miraculous charm, without applying it to the conscience and the
character. What is it, then, to be saved? To be delivered from the
condemnation of the Law is not all.
Ø We are to be saved from ourselves,
Ø from every tyrannous yoke of habit,
Ø every corrupting cancer of evil,
Ø every relic of selfishness and sin;
and this is illustrated and explained in the succeeding verses. So that
SALVATION IS A BROAD IN ITS APPLICATION AS IT IS
BEAUTIFUL IN ITS RESULTS!
I recommend How to Be Saved - # 5 – this web site.
I also recommend a close scrutiny of the following invitation!
CY - 2013
12 “Teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should
live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world; 13 “Looking for
that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our
Savior Jesus Christ;” Looking for (προσδεχόμενοι – prosdechomenoi –
looking for; anticipating); the word commonly applied to waiting for the
blessed hope. The hope here means the thing hoped for, as in Acts 24:14 (where
both the subjective hope and the thing hoped for are included); Galatians 5:5;
Colossians 1:5 (compare too Romans 8:24-25). Here the hope is called emphatically
“the blessed hope,” the hope of Christ’s second coming in glory, that hope which
is the joy and life, the strength and comfort, of every Christian soul. This is the
only place in the New Testament where μακάριος – makarios – blessed -
is applied to an object which does not itself enjoy the blessing, but is a source
of blessing to others. Of the fifty passages where it occurs it is applied in forty-three
to persons, twice to God, three times to parts of the body (the Virgin’s womb, and
the eyes and ears of those who saw and heard Christ), once impersonally
(“It is more blessed to give than to receive,” Acts 20:35), and once, in this
passage, to the hope. And the glorious appearing [And appearing of the glory].
In construing this clause, as well as the following, the same difficulty occurs. There is
only one article to the two subjects. The question arises — Can two
different subjects stand under one article? It is impossible to treat
“the hope” and the “appearing” as one subject. Accepting this, the clause
before us should be rendered, Looking for the blessed hope, and the
appearing of the glory of the great God. This is a description of THE
SECOND COMING OF THE LORD of whom it is expressly said that He will
“come in the glory of his Father” (Matthew 16:27; Mark 8:38). The appearing
of Christ will be the appearing of the glory of the great God, not the appearing of
God the Father, to whom the term ἐπιφανεία – epipaneia – appearing - is never
applied, but of the Son, who is the BRIGHTNESS OF HIS FATHER’S
GLORY! The great God and our Savior Jesus Christ. “The great God” and
“our Savior Jesus Christ” may be two separate subjects, as “the blessed
hope” and “appearing of the glory” are. And we have to inquire, from the
usual language of Scripture, which of the two is most probable. Alford, in a
long note, shows that σωτὴρ – sotaer – savior is often used without the article
(1 Timothy 1:1; 4:10; Philippians 3:20); that in analogous sentences: where
Κύριος – Kurios – Lord is used as our Lord’s title, an exactly similar
construction to that in the text is employed, as II Thessalonians 1:12; II Peter 1:1;
II Corinthians 1:2; Galatians 1:3; Ephesians 1:2; 6:23. He also observes that
the insertion of ἡμῶν – haemon – our; of us - after Σωτῆρος – Sotaeros – Savior
is an additional reason for the omission of the article before Σωτῆρος, as in Luke
1:78; Romans 1:7; I Corinthians 1:3, and elsewhere; and that the epithet
μεγάλου – megalou - great - prefixed to Qeou~ – Theou – God makes it still
more difficult to connect Θεοῦ with Σωτῆρος, [God with Savior], ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ
Ξριστοῦ - haemon Iaesou Christou – our Jesus Christ; and lastly, he compares
this passage with I Timothy 2:3,5-6, and thinks the conclusion inevitable that
the apostle, writing two sentences so closely corresponding — written, it
may be added, so near to one another in time — would have had in view,
in both passages, the same distinction of persons which is so strongly
marked in Ibid. vs. 2,3 and 5. The grammatical possibility of two subjects (here
Θεοῦ and Ἰησοῦ Ξριστοῦ) having only one article, which leaves the
question of whether there are here one or two subjects to be decided on
other grounds than simple grammar; and partly and chiefly from the double
(Jesus Christ) as Κύριος (Lord) and Σωτήρ (Saviour) so often are; and
constant occurrence, as e.g. I Timothy 1:1-2; 5:21; 6:13; II Timothy 1:2;
4:1; here ch.1:4; to which may probably be added II Peter 1:1; Jude 1:4;
II Thessalonians 1:12; he decides, surely rightly, that the clause should
be rendered, the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ. Another
question arises whether the glory belongs to both subjects. Probably,
though not necessarily, it does, since we are told in Matthew 16:27 that
“the Son of man shall come in the glory of the Father;” and in
Ibid. ch.25:31, “the Son of man shall come in His glory” (compare
Matthew 19:28). The whole sentence will then stand thus: Looking for
the blessed hope, and for the appearing of the glory of the great
God and of our Savior Jesus Christ, etc. The great God. (τοῦ μεγάλου
- tou megalou – of the great); not elsewhere in the New
Testament (except in the Textus Receptus of Revelation 19:17), but
familiar to us from Psalm 95:3, “The Lord is a great God,” and
elsewhere, as Deuteronomy 7:21;10:17; Psalm 77:14, etc. In
Matthew 5:35 we read “the great King” of God. This grand
description of τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰῶνος – tou mellontos aionos -
the world to come, is in contrast with τῷ νῦν οἰῶνι – to nun oioni –
this present world, in which our present life is passed, but which is
so deeply influenced by “THAT BLESSED HOPE” of that
FUTURE AND GLORIOUS WORLD!
True Self-Denial (v. 12)
Here we see that the cross of Christ has its influence within ourselves as
well as on the moral government of God. We are not left passive in a mere
receptivity of blessing; we are actively to cooperate with the Spirit of God
in working out our salvation. (Philippians 2:12).
No; we are to please our conscience, to satisfy our sense of moral order
and beauty, to gratify the spiritual being. All depends, in our consideration
of self-denial, upon which self we are to deny, the lower self or the higher
self. Ungodliness is to be denied; for nothing can minister to the true ends
of our being that is not of God. Without “godliness” we are graceless, and
all seeming beauty is meretricious and unreal. Worldly lusts are numerous.
Lust is love in wrong directions. It is not merely excess or a question of
degree; it is a question of kind. Love may be pure, or it may be the lust of
the eye, which is sensuality. The pride of life is the lust of pride in mere
carnal enjoyment and ambitious aim. We must deny the thorns and the
tares of the one to leave room for the harvest of holiness. But:
give up simply, but by what we take up. The cross has its creative as well
as its destructive influence. “I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live”
(Galatians 2:20); and how? “Soberly;” giving room for reason to take the
place of passion, and for conscience to conquer the excitements of intoxicated
desire. “Righteously;” so that it may be seen that wickedness is wrong — our
life “wrung,” that is, twisted from the “straight.” “Godly;” that is, not
governed by laws of custom, or expediency, or self-pleasing, but by God’s
will, and the Spirit of God in the heart. For as nature is beautiful because
therein we see the ideal of God — no art being really beautiful that is not
true to nature — so no life is pure and holy that has not God’s thought
and purpose in it! And we are to do all this amid temptation and hesitation,
in “THIS PRESENT WORLD!”
The Coming Day (v. 13)
We are to live with a great sky of immortality above us; for FOR NO MERE
SECULARISM HAS MOTIVE POWER ENOUGH TO SUSTAIN A
NOBLE LIFE! It breaks down always through the CONSCIOUSNESS
THAT NOTHING MATTERS MUCH, FOR DEATH ENDS ALL as the
skeptic in Ecclesiastes 9:2 is supposed to feel when he says, “All things come alike
to all: there is one event to the righteous, and to the wicked.”
hope? This — that one day all inequalities will be adjusted, all wrong
redressed, all faithful service rewarded, and all true character revealed.
(I highly recommend three Charles Spurgeon sermons: All from Isaiah 45 –
entitled Life for a Look; Sovereignty and Salvation; and The Life Look –
this web site – CY – 2013)
and our Savior Jesus Christ.” How His appearing will take place we know
not. Nor when. Nor where. But all Scripture teaches that there is a day for
“the manifestation of the sons of God,” and for the judgment on worldly
and wicked men. Our apostle prays that “we may find mercy of the Lord in
that day” (I Timothy 1:18). The exile has the hope of seeing his native land. The
child at school looks for and longs for home. And this with us is a blessed hope,
because it makes us happy and restful here and now, and makes us joyful
even m tribulation; for we look for “a city which hath foundations, whose
Builder and Maker is God.” (Hebrews 11:10).
The Grace of God the True Ground of All Sanctification (vs. 11-13)
The apostle now sets forth the real foundation on which this exhortation to
practical duty on the part of servants, and, indeed, of people of every age
and sex, is based.
to all men hath appeared.” (v. 11)
Ø This grace is from God, as its eternal Fountain, from which
it flows to men.
o He was not made gracious by the work of the Son,
for He was the God of grace from the beginning.
The work of the Son only manifested it (John 3:16).
o The grace is from the Son as well as the Father. Grace is
in every conceivable way connected with the Person of
the Mediator in Scripture (I Corinthians 16:23; Galatians 1:6;
I Thessalonians 5:28). The Father and the Son are one in
the FREENESS OF THEIR LOVE TO MANKIND.
o Grace is also connected with the Holy Ghost, who is called
“the Spirit of grace” (Hebrews 10:29), because He applies
it and seals us to the day of redemption. Thus grace has
its origin in the Father, its manifestation in the Son, its end
in the Holy Ghost.
Ø The nature of this grace.
o It is the free gift of God to mankind in the gospel of Christ.
It is thus opposed to the idea of merit in man. Works,
therefore, do not procure our salvation.
o The grace must necessarily be worthy of the character of God.
§ The gift is worthy, for it is HIS OWN SON!
§ The end is worthy, for it is His own glory and man’s
§ The instrumental condition is worthy, for it is faith.
Ø The scope of this grace. “That bringeth salvation to all men.”
o It is the only thing that can bring salvation to man. Man
cannot be saved by works, nor by philosophy, nor by man.
o It has a wide scope. It “bringeth salvation to all men.”
§ This does not imply that all men will eventually
be saved, for Scripture expressly THE VERY
§ The connection of the passage explains the
universality of the reference: “Servants, be obedient
to your masters, that you may adorn the doctrine
of God your Savior; for His grace is for slave and
master alike.” There is no respect of persons with
§ It signifies that grace is THE ONLY MEANS by
which salvation is possible for the race of man.
Ø The manifestation of grace.
o In the Incarnation.
o In the work of Christ.
o In the energy of the Holy Spirit. “The darkness is past;
the true light now shineth” (I John 2:8).
denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously,
and godly in this present world.” (v. 12)
Ø This grace first manifests itself by teaching, just as the first thing in
creation was light. It must begin with teaching, and the Spirit of
God is given “to teach us all things” (John 14:26). The original
word implies the idea of a disciplining process, effected by the
grace of God to correct the inherent naughtiness of the heart.
Ø The grace of God works toward the rejection of evil, for it teaches us
“to deny ungodliness and worldly lusts.”
o The denial is in heart and deed. It involves the denial of self
o It is the repudiation of ungodliness in heart and life.
§ Ungodliness includes impiety, blasphemy, and infidelity.
§ It includes all living without relation to God, whether
we are blasphemers or not. Thus a man may be ungodly
who seeks his own pleasure, or distinction, or happiness
in the world.
§ It implies the deeper enmity of the heart to God
o It is the denial of worldly lusts; including the lust of the flesh,
the lust of the eye, and vain glory of life — “all that is in the
world” — which embody the enmity to God. (I John 2:15-17).
Thus it denies:
§ sensual lusts (II Timothy 2:22);
§ the inordinate desire of worldly things, which may
be lawful in themselves.
Ø The grace of God produces certain positive effects. “We should live
soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world.”
o It secures the due regulation of individual life. “Soberly.”
This refers to the duties we owe to ourselves.
§ In keeping a fair balance of judgment intellectually;
§ in keeping a due mastery over our passions — “a sobriety
in speech, in behavior, in apparel, in eating and drinking,
in recreations, and in the enjoyment of lawful satisfactions.”
o It secures the faithful discharge of all duties to our fellow-men.
“Righteously.” Justice is an EXACT VIRTUE, which can be
easily measured, and is therefore the basis of commercial and
civil life. A single failure in justice makes a man unjust.
Therefore it is most necessary we should give our
neighbor his due, and not compromise ourselves by conduct
redounding to the injury of the gospel.
It secures godliness. “Godly;” that is, WITH GOD, IN
GOD AND FOR GOD! This godly life is a life dedicated
to God and spent in His fear.
ITS EXTENSIVE AND INTENSIVE EFFECTS. “In this present
Ø True piety does not disregard or despise the duties of common life.
Ø It is in a hostile world this grace is to operate with such purifying
results. It is called “this wicked world” (Galatians 1:4); for the
devil is its god (II Corinthians 4:4, and sin is its prevailing character.
Ø It is a world that cannot be overcome but by faith. (I John 4:4-5.)
Ø It is a transitory world, in contrast with the world to come, of
which the apostle immediately speaks.
FUTURE GLORY. “Looking for the blessed hope and manifestation of
our great God and Savior Jesus Christ” (v. 13). This attitude of blessed
expectation tells powerfully upon the life of grace. The believer’s position
is that of waiting for and looking unto the coming of the Lord. The
patriarchs waited for his first coming; we wait for his second coming.
Ø The believer’s waiting attitude is lit up by a blessed hope.
o This is “the hope of glory” laid up for us in heaven,
which is associated with the Son of God, when we
shall see Him as He is. (I John 3:2)
o It is a blessed hope, because of all the blessings it
brings to the believer.
Ø The believer’s waiting attitude has respect to the manifestation
of the Lord’s glory. This is connected with His second coming.
It is the glory of “our great God and Savior Jesus Christ,”
and not of the Father, because:
o In all the five places in which the manifestation is spoken
of, it is Christ, not the Father, who is referred to. The
term “Epiphany” is never, indeed, applied to the Father.
o This is the grammatical interpretation of the sentence,
and is accepted by the Greek fathers generally.
o The immediate context applies only to the Son.
o The term “great God” would seem to be called for
as applied to the Father, but stands in Scripture the
perpetual and emphatic witness OF THE DEITY
OF JESUS CHRIST!
14 “Who gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from all iniquity,
and purify unto Himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.”
Who gave himself for us. The resemblance in thought and diction to
I Timothy 2:3-6 has been already pointed out. “Who gave Himself” (ὃς ἔδωκεν
ἑαυτόν - hos edoken heauton ) is there expressed by ὁ δοὺς ἑαυτόν – ho dous
heauton – who gave Himself, and “that He might redeem us” (ἵνα λυτρώσηται ἡμᾶς
– hina lutrosaetai haemas ) by ἀντίλυτρον ὑπὲρ πάντων. – antilutron huper panton –
a ransom for all. (For the great truths contained in the words “who gave Himself,”
compare John 10:11,17-18; Galatians 1:4; Ephesians 5:2, 25; I Peter 2:24;
Hebrews 9:14.) The voluntary offering of Himself is also implied in the office
of our Lord as High Priest (Ibid. vs.11-14). For us (ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν – huper haemon –
on our behalf); not exactly synonymous with ἀντὶ ἡμῶν – anti haemon –
in our stead. Both phrases, however, are used of our redemption by Jesus Christ.
We find ὑπὲρ - huper in Luke 22:19-20; John 6:51; 10:11,15; 11:50-52; 15:13;
18:14; Romans 5:6, 8; 8:32; I Corinthians 5:7; II Corinthians 5:14-15, 21;
Hebrews 2:9; I Peter 2:21; 3:18; 4:1; I John 3:16: and we find ἀντί - anti in
Matthew 20:28 and Mark 10:45, and in αντίλυτρον – antilutron - ransom –
I Timothy 2:6. The literal meaning of ὑπὲρ is “in defense of,” and hence
generally “on behalf of,” “for the good of.” The primary idea of ἄντι is
“standing opposite,” and hence it denotes “exchange,” “price,” “worth,”
“instead,” etc. Redeem (λυτρώσηται – lutrosaetai); as Luke 24:21; I Peter 1:18;
common in classical Greek. In the middle voice, as here, it means “to release by
payment of a ransom;” in the active voice, “to release on receipt of a ransom.”
In I Peter 1:19 the ransom price is stated, viz. “THE PRECIOUS BLOOD
OF CHRIST” as in Matthew 20:28 it is “the life of the Son of man.” THE
EFFECT of this redemption is not merely deliverance from the penalty of sin,
BUT FROM ITS POWER ALSO, as appears by the following words: “a peculiar
people, zealous of good works,” and by the passage in Peter above referred to.
The following comments on the word “ransom” are taken from Vine”s Expository
Dictionary of New Testament Words:
1. λυτρον – lutron ., “a means of loosing” (from λύω – luo - “to loose”),
occurs frequently in the Septagint, where it is always used to signify “equivalence.”
Thus it is used of the “ransom” for a life, e.g., Exodus 21:30, of the redemption
price of a slave, e.g., Leviticus19:20, of land, 25:24, of the price of a captive,
Isaiah 45:13. In the New Testament it occurs in Matthew 20:28 and Mark 10:45,
where it is used of Christ’s gift of Himself as “a ransom for many.” Some
interpreters have regarded the “ransom” price as being paid to Satan; others, to
an impersonal power such as death, or evil, or “that ultimate necessity which has
made the whole course of things what it has been.” Such ideas are largely
conjectural, the result of an attempt to press the details of certain
Old Testament illustrations beyond the actual statements of
New Testament doctrines. (Hebrews 9:14 says that Christ offered Himself
without spot to God – CY – 2013) That Christ gave up His life in expiatory
sacrifice under God’s judgment upon sin and thus provided a “ransom” whereby
those who receive Him on this ground obtain deliverance from the penalty due to
sin, is what Scripture teaches. What the Lord states in the two passages mentioned
involves this essential character of His death. In these passages the preposition
is ἀντί, which has a vicarious significance, indicating that the “ransom” holds
good for those who, accepting it as such, no longer remain in death SINCE
CHRIST SUFFERED DEATH IN THEIR STEAD.. The change of
preposition in I Timothy 2:6, where the word αντίλυτρον. A SUBSTITUTIONARY
“ransom,” is used, is significant. There the preposition is ὑπὲρ, “on behalf of,”
and the statement is made that He “gave Himself a ransom for all,” indicating
that the “ransom” was provisionally universal, while being of a vicarious
character. Thus the three passages consistently show that while the provision
was universal, FOR CHRIST DIED FOR ALL MEN, yet it is ACTUAL
FOR THOSE ONLY WHO ACCEPT GOD’S CONDITIONS and who
are described in the Gospel statements as “the many.” The giving of His life
was the giving of His entire person, and while His death under divine
judgment was ALONE EXPIATORY, it cannot be dissociated from the
character of His life which, being sinless, gave virtue to His death and
was a testimony to the fact that His death must be of A VICARIOUS
2. αντίλυτρον - antilutron - I Timothy 2:6. See above.
Purify (καθαρίσῃ – katharisae – purify; should be cleansing); as very
frequently in the New Testament of cleansing lepers, the outside of the
platter, etc., cleansing the Gentiles (Acts 10:15), putting away all sin
(II Corinthians 7:1), cleansing the Church (Ephesians 5:26), purging
the conscience (Hebrews 9:14), etc. The iniquity just spoken of was a
defilement; the redemption from iniquity REMOVED THAT
DEFILEMENT. THE BLOOD OF JESUS CHRIST, the price
paid for THE REDEMPTION, was THE INSTRUMENT OF
CLEANSING! (I John 1:7, 9). A peculiar people. (λαὸν περιούσιον –
laon periousion – a people for his own possession); only here in the New
Testament, but frequent in the Septuagint, coupled, as here, with λαὸν –
People - (Exodus 19:5; Deuteronomy 7:6; 14:2; 26:18), to express the Hebrew
סְגֻלָּה or עַם סְגֻלָּה, a people the peculiar property, or treasure, of God;
“peculiar” being derived from the Latin peculium, one’s own private property,
reserved for one’s own private use. (I recommend Deuteronomy ch. 32 v. 9 –
God’s Inheritance by Arthur Pink – this web site – CY – 2013). The Authorized
Version “peculiar” expresses the sense exactly, and the περιούσιος – periousios –
of one’s own possession; peculiar; used as an adjective - of our text and of the
Septuagint, from whom it is borrowed, is meant to define either that special reserved
portion of a man’s property over and above what he spends for ordinary expenses,
which nobody can interfere with, or those jewels on which he sets a special value,
and places safely in his treasury. In I Peter 2:10 λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν –
thing, that being the Septuagint translation of the same Hebrew word, hL;gus], in
Malachi 3:17 (“jewels,” Authorized Version), “They shall be my reserved
portion or possession.” The application of the phrase, λαὸν περιούσιον
[a peculiar people]
descriptive in the Old Testament of
Israel, to the
Christ, is very instructive. The passage in I Peter 2:10 is exactly analogous, as is
the phrase, “the
zealous ); as Acts 21:20; 22:3; I Corinthians 14:12; Galatians 1:14. From its special
application to those who were zealous for the Law of Moses it became the
name of the sect or party of the Zealots who played such a terrible part in
the Jewish war. Canaanite (Matthew 10:4; Mark 3:18) is the Hebrew for
ζηλωτής [zealous]. Zeal for good works is the indispensable mark of
God’s peculiar people, the inseparable fruit of the redemption and
purification which is BY THE BLOOD OF JESUS CHRIST!
(compare I Peter 1:2).
The Giving of the Self (v. 14)
This is the most beautiful of the sentences in this Epistle. Christ came not
merely to teach, or to reveal the fatherhood of God, but TO GIVE HIMSELF!
in a world of selfishness and sin. The sorrows and griefs of men hurt Him.
He did not merely give His thoughts, or give His time, or give His infinite
help. HE “GAVE HIMSELF!”
He might redeem us from all iniquity;” not from guilt alone, BUT
FROM EVERY FORM OF EVIL! The perfectly voluntary character of
our Savior’s redemptive mission is seen in such expressions as “I come to do
thy will, O God,” Hebrews 10:7,9) and when concerning His life he says,
“No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself” (John 10:18).
This voluntarism on His part itself destroys all those critical objections to the
atonement which were once raised against the suffering of the innocent one
for the guilty; for, in the first place, Christ “gives Himself,” and, in the
second place, He does it for a worthy end; not that He may appease the
wrath of His Father, but that He may honor His moral government by His
perfect obedience unto death, and that He may redeem men from more
than the curse of the Law, viz. FROM ALL INIQUITY. Thus, again, the
end of the gospel is character — that this earth may be as the garden of
the Lord, in which all iniquity may be downtrodden and destroyed.
The Purpose and Extent of Christ’s Saviorship (v. 14)
Savior Jesus Christ.” Here the atonement is connected with THE DEITY
OF THE SAVIOR as if to show that the true Godhead of the Son gave
INFINITE VALUE TO HIS SUFFERINGS.
Ø Priestly action. For He “gave Himself” freely, the language being
borrowed from Levitical worship. That typical economy could not unite
priest and victim as they were united in Christ. The Father is often said to
have given His Son; but the Son here gives Himself (“I lay down my
life, that I might take it again. No man taketh it from me, but I
lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have
power to take it again” – John 10:17-18), the priestly action
exhibiting at once immeasurable love and voluntary obedience. He is
Himself “THE UNSPEAKABLE GIFT” (II Corinthians 9:15) —
the best of all gifts to man.
Ø It was a vicarious action. For He “gave Himself for us,” the words
in the original signifying rather for our benefit than in our stead; but, from
the nature of the case, the gift was SUBSTITUTIONARY that it might
be for our benefit. When we were “in all iniquity,” and so exposed to
Divine wrath, our Surety permitted that iniquity to be charged to Himself.
redeem us from all iniquity, and purify us to Himself a peculiar people,
zealous of good works!” It was a twofold design.
Ø A redemption from all iniquity.
o The redemption signifies deliverance byTHE PAYMENT OF
A PRICE. (I Corinthians 6:20). Here there is a clear causal
connection between Christ’s blood as the ransom price and the
redemption. This is Scripture usage (I Peter 1:18; Revelation 5:9;
Ø The scope of this redemption. It is “FROM ALL INIQUITY.”
This is to be understood under a double aspect.
o The iniquity includes all sin, considered as guilt and as entailing the
curse of the Divine Law. His redeeming sacrifice DISSOLVED
THE CONNECTION between our sin and our liability to
punishment on account of it.
o The iniquity includes all sin as morally evil, and in this sense the
redemption delivers His people from all impurity.
Ø The purification of a peculiar people for Himself.
o The primary signification is sacrificial; for the term “purify,” like the
cognate terms sanctify, sprinkle, wash, cleanse, points to the effect
produced by sacrifice upon those defiled by sin. These are now, BY
THE BLOOD OF CHRIST, readmitted to fellowship with God.
Thus believers, like
o The design of redemption is to consecrate a people for holy
service, for priestly worship, in separation from the world. Thus they
are “A PECULIAR PEOPLE, not singular or eccentric, but His
peculiar treasure, held to be most precious, and KEPT WITH
ALL DIVINE CARE!
o This people is separated to good works — “zealous of good works,”
because partakers of the Spirit of holiness (Romans 1:4), and of the
sanctification of the Spirit (I Peter 1:2). (“For by grace are ye saved
through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God;
Not of works, lest any man should boast. For we are His
workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which
God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.”
(Ephesians 2;8-10). This blessed fruit is worthy of a dedicated people.
They must be zealots for practical holiness, for they find their best
motives in two advents.
15 “These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let
no man despise thee.” Authority (ἐπιταγῆς – epitagaes – authority;
commandment; injunction); see I Timothy 1:1 and here, ch.1:3, “authoritative
commandment.” Let no man despise thee (περιφρονείσω – periphroneiso –
let no one be slighting you); here only in the New Testament. In I Timothy 4:12
and 6:2 Paul uses the more common word, καταφρονέω – kataphroneo –
despise; to think down upon or against anyone. The apostle thus winds up
the preceding portion of his Epistle.
Practical Godliness the End of Spiritual Doctrine (vs. 1-15)
The teaching of Paul soars very high in respect of the hidden things of God. To
none of the apostles were given more abundant revelations of heavenly mysteries.
Caught up into the third heaven, hearing unspeakable words, saturated with gifts
of the Holy Ghost (II Corinthians 12:1-4), he was able to lead men’s
souls into depths and heights of unseen things as no other teacher was. His
eloquent tongue, pouring forth the riches of knowledge of an enlightened
· could speak of God’s love to man,
· of His eternal purposes,
· of His predestinating grace,
· of the coming and kingdom of the Lord Jesus,
· of the resurrection of the dead,
· of the inheritance of the saints in light,
in words of wisdom and power certainly not inferior to those of the very
chiefest apostles of Christ. And yet, in dealing with the practical duties of
Christian men and women, and in teaching morality as an essential part of
Christianity, there is a particularity of detail, a searching application of
truth, an earnest tone of warning and of exhortation, which could not be
exceeded by any teacher of ethics who knew of nothing else but human
conduct and the present interests of society. With Paul, familiarity with
the highest doctrines of revelation does not depreciate the importance of
the humblest duties of daily life; it rather magnifies it, and raises those
duties from an earthly to a heavenly platform. If Paul’s sole end and aim
in his apostolic labors had been to bring the daily life of every class of the
community to whom he wrote into accordance with the law of
righteousness, and to make human life on earth pure and happy, he could
not have dwelt upon those details of practice, on which the economy of
society depends for its comfort and- happiness, with more earnestness and
particularity than he has done.
all comes under the constraining influence of the gospel as preached by Paul.
In like manner that degraded portion of mankind whose condition was so
pitiable in the
every considerable household, is brought under the elevating influence of
Christian motive. Relations and duties full of naught but pain and humiliation
in themselves, and leading naturally to the vices which are born of degradation,
are elevated at once into platforms of eminent virtue. Under the holy influences
of Christian faith new principles are called into life, new motives of thought and
action are awakened, and the low life of the dishonest, insolent, and deceitful
slave becomes the arena for the exercise of some of the highest virtues of
the saint. What a lesson we have here for the Christian teacher! If the
parish priest, whose relations with his flock brings him into contact with
the infirmities and sins of the various classes of his parishioners, would
bend his strength in this direction, and upon the basis of the doctrine of
grace would build the superstructure of a severe and minute instruction in
the details of a really holy life, the value of a parochial ministry would be
seen to the full:
would be a preaching of Christ to the world which would put the caviler to
shame, and which no adversaries would be able to gainsay or to resist.
The Soul-Culture of the World (vs. 11-15)
“For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,”
etc. “Taking occasion from what he had just said of the connection
between the conduct of Christians and the doctrine they professed to have
received, and the connection of both with the glory of God, the apostle
proceeds in these verses to ground the whole of his exhortations respecting
the behavior of Christians in the essentially moral nature and design of the
grace of God, as now manifested in the gospel’ (Dr. Fairbairn). As if the
apostle had said, “You must exhort all orders, those of every age and
condition, of each sex, bond as well as free, to struggle after spiritual
goodness because the ‘grace of God,’ or the gospel, has come to you.”
Our subject is the soul-culture of the world. Man requires training. He
needs physical training, intellectual training, and, above all, spiritual
training, the training of the soul into a higher life. We have here:
Ø the instrument,
Ø the process, and
Ø the end of true soul-culture.
· THE INSTRUMENT OF TRUE SOUL-CULTURE. What is it? Not
science, legislation, philosophy, poetry, or any of the arts. What, then?
“The grace of God.” What is that? Undoubtedly God’s merciful plan and
ministries to restore the fallen world. The Epiphany, or manifestation cf
this redemptive love of God for the world, we have in the advent and
ministry of Christ to this earth. “The grace of God” stands for the gospel.
Concerning this instrument, observe:
Ø It is the love of God. Divine love is the cause, the essence, and the
effective energy of all God’s redemptive ministries.
Ø It is the love of God to save. “That bringeth [bringing] salvation.”
Salvation: that is, the restoration of man to:
o the knowledge,
o the image, and
o the friendship of God.
This is the aim and the work of the “grace of God.”
Without this grace there would be no salvation.
Ø It is the love of God revealed to all. “Hath appeared to all men.” The
gospel is not for a tribe or a class, but for man as man. Like the concave
heavens, it embraces the wide world; it is for “all men.”
· THE PROCESS OF TRUE SOUL-CULTURE. This process involves
Ø The renunciation of a wrong course. “Denying ungodliness and worldly
lusts.” These expressions are an epitome of all that is sinful and wrong in
human life. Are they not all-prevalent and all-potent? “Ungodliness,” or
practical atheism, where is it not? “Worldly lusts,” the impulses of
sensuality, selfishness, pride, and ambition, they are the springs of worldly
action the world over. Now, these are not only to be renounced,
repudiated, but they are to be defied, resisted, and renounced; they must be
o “Ungodliness” must give way to true piety,
o “worldly lusts” must be renounced for impulses spiritual and Divine.
Ø The adoption of a right course. “We should live soberly, righteously,
and godly in this present world.” It is not enough to renounce the evil; the
good must be adopted. Negative excellence is not holiness. Strip the soul
of all evil, and if it has not goodness in it, it “lacks the one thing” (Luke
18:22) without which, Paul says, “I am nothing.” (I Corinthians 13:2)
We must live “soberly,” holding a mastery over our own passions and
impulses; “righteously,” rendering to all men their due; “godly,” practically
realizing the presence, the claims, and the love of God in our every-day life.
All this “in this present world,” or in the present course of things. This
“present world” urgently requires such a course of life, for it is dangerous
and transitory withal.
Ø The fixing of the heart upon a glorious future. “Looking for that blessed
hope and the glorious appearance of the [appearing of the glory of our]
great God and our Savior Jesus Christ.” Are there two personalities here,
or one? One, I think. “The great God our Savior,” or our great God and
Savior. The object of hope is, then, the future epiphany of the Divine, all
glorious to behold. To see the redemptive God as we have never yet seen
him in this morally hazy scene, this is the “blessed hope.” Such a hope
o A vital interest in the epiphany. We never hope for that for which we
have not a strong desire.
o An assurance that such an epiphany will take place. Desire, of itself,
is not hope. We desire many things we cannot hope for. It becomes
hope when it is combined with expectation, and expectation implies
the existence of grounds or reasons. That there will be such a
manifestation, there are abundant reasons found in the apparent
irregularities of Divine Providence in its operations here, in the
instinctive longings of the human soul throughout all lands and
ages, as well as in the clear and frequent declarations of
the written Word.
· THE END OF TRUE SOUL-CULTURE. “Who gave Himself for us,
that He might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto Himself a
peculiar people, zealous of good works.” Observe:
Ø The end is moral redemption. “Redeem us from all iniquity.”
Redemption is not something that takes place outside of a man; its
achievement is within. It is a raising of the soul:
o from ignorance to knowledge,
o from vice to virtue,
o from selfishness to disinterestedness,
o from materialism to spirituality,
o from the mastery of the devil to the reign of God.
Ø The end is spiritual restoration to Christ. “Purify unto Himself a
peculiar people [a people for His own possession].” Restoration to:
o His likeness,
o His friendship, and
o His service.
Ø The end is complete devotedness to holy labor. “Zealous of good
works.” What are good works? Not any particular class of works. All
works are good that spring from a good motive; and the good motive is
supreme love for the Supremely Good. Works springing from this
motive, whether manual or mental, social or personal, civil or
ecclesiastic, public or private, all are good.
Ø The end involves the self-sacrifice of Christ. “Who gave Himself.”
Here is the grandest sacrifice ever made in the universe. Nothing
grander could be.
o The greatest possession a man has is himself. What are millions of
acres, or the rule of kingdoms, in the estimation of the owner as
compared to himself? “Skin for skin,” etc. (Job 2:4) “For what
shall if profit a man if he gain the whole world and lose his own
soul” (Mark 8:36)
o The greatest self in the whole creation is CHRIST! He was,
in some special sense impenetrable to us, the only begotten
Son of God, and He gave Himself. If he had given a universe,
His gift would not have been equal to this, His gift teaches
THE ENORMITY OF EVIL!
Pastoral Work and Authority (v. 15)
“These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority.” The
business of the minister is concerning all the things commanded in this
chapter both as to doctrine and duty.
· THESE DOCTRINES AND DUTIES WERE TO BE “SPOKEN OF,”
SO AS TO BE BROUGHT TO BEAR WITH POWER ON THE
HEARTS AND MINDS OF THE PEOPLE.
· THEY WERE TO BE MADE MATTERS OF OBLIGATION IN THE
CONSCIENCE; for Titus was to practice exhortation.
· REBUKE WAS TO BE APPLIED WITH ALL AUTHORITY
WHERE EXHORTATION FAILED OF ITS EFFECT.
· TITUS WAS TO LIVE SO CIRCUMSPECTLY THAT THE
CRETANS COULD NOT DESPISE HIM. “Let no man despise thee.”
Contempt would be the natural effect of observed inconsistency in the life
of the young evangelist.
Cultivation of Respect (v. 15)
“Let no man despise thee.” For through the personal influence even the first apostles
and teachers had to win their way.
· RELIGIOUS TEACHERS NEED ESPECIALLY TO REMEMBER
THAT EVEN WORLDLY MEN DESPISE HYPOCRITES. If men
recommend a medicine they do not take, or exhort to obedience of a law
which they do not themselves obey, or seek to inspire admiration for a
virtue which they only wear as a cloak, or affect a love to the Savior which
ends in no self-denial or sacrifice, they are hypocrites, and men despise
· RELIGIOUS TEACHERS NEED ESPECIALLY TO REMEMBER
THAT MEN WHO ARE DESPISED HAVE NO REAL POWER. That is,
of course, rightly despised; for they may be wrongly despised, it is written
of our Lord, “He was despised and rejected of men.” (Isaiah 53:3) So that
we must keep in remembrance the fact that what Paul means is “deservedly
despised.” No rhetoric, no argument, no brilliancy of thought, no ability
of application or illustration can make any minister of Christ really useful
and effective if his character and reputation are justly despised.
“Character is higher than intellect and
a great soul will be strong to live as well as think!”
"Excerpted text Copyright AGES Library, LLC. All rights reserved.
Materials are reproduced by permission."
This material can be found at:
If this exposition is helpful, please share with others.