Titus 2



1 “But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine:” But speak

thou, etc. The apostle now brings out, in full contrast with the vain talk of the

heretical teachers, the solid, sober teaching of a true man of God, in harmony

with the sound doctrine of the gospel of Christ. The sound doctrine (τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ

διδασκαλία - tae hugiainousae didaskalia) ; as in I Timothy 1:10 (where see note).

In  Ibid. ch.6:1 διδασκαλία hae didaskalia  by itself means “the Christian faith,”

the doctrine of the gospel.” The varying phrases, καλὴ διδασκαλίαhae

kalae didaskalia;  κατ εὐσεβείαν διδασκαλία - hae kat eusebeian didaskalia;

 and ὑγιαινοῦσα διδασκαλία - hae hugiainousa didaskalia -, all mean the same

thing, with varying descriptive qualifications (see v. 10). The article “the”

is not required.



Special Instructions as to Titus’s Own Preaching (v. 1)


“But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine” — respecting

the special deportment of Christians of every age, sex, and rank.



It is a doctrine that it may be a life.


Ø      The doctrine is contrasted with the fables of the false teachers, who did

nothing by their speculations but lower the tone of Christian life. A true

moral life was only possible on the basis of the facts of the gospel plan of

salvation (v. 11).


Ø      Its soundness contrasts with the unhealthy teaching of the false

teachers. It is called the good doctrine” (I Timothy 4:6), and the

doctrine according to godliness” (Ibid. ch. 6:3). Every other system

corrupts; the sound doctrine renovates, elevates, purifies; for our Lord

said, “Sanctify them through thy truth.” (John 17:17).  It is milk for

babes and meat for strong men.



DOCTRINE. It ought to be preached:


Ø      Publicly and plainly, since there are so many” vain teachers.”

Ø      With certainty, as being the undoubted truth.

Ø      With all boldness, as without fear of man or seeking to please man.

Ø      At all times, in season and out of season.

Ø      In its due relation to the duties of religion, as the spring of obedience.



2 “That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in

charity, in patience.” Temperate.  (νηφάλιος - naephalios); as I Timothy 3:2,

(where see note). Grave.  (σεμνούςsemnous ); as I Timothy 3:8, 11 (see too Ibid.

ch. 2:2; 3:4). Sober-minded. (σώφρονας sophronas); as ch.1:8, note. Sound.

(ὑγιαίνοντας - hugiainontas); see v. 1, note, and ch. 1:13, where, as here, the

word is applied to persons, as it is in its literal sense in III John 1:2. Faithlove

patience. We have the same triad in I Timothy 6:11. In I Corinthians 13:13 we find

faith, hope, love.” In I Thessalonians 1:3 the apostle joins “work of faith, labor of

love,” and “patience of hope,” which last phrase seems almost to identify

patience and hope (compare too Romans 8:25; 15:4). We must not miss

the important warning, not only to have some kind of faith, love, and

patience, but to be healthy and vigorous in our faith, love, and patience.

There is a puny faith, a sickly love. and a misdirected patience.



The Duties of Aged Men (v. 2)


The apostle begins with the most important class in the Church — those

who are the leaders of the young. Their characteristic deportment is to be





Ø      This habit of mind is contrasted with the thoughtlessness and

levity of youth.

Ø      It is combined with:

o       watchfulness (I Thessalonians 5:6) and

o       prayer (I Peter 4:7).

Ø      There are lofty motives to sobriety. (I Peter 4:7; 5:8.)


  • GRAVITY, in the sense of a dignified deportment.


Ø      Old men ought not to lend themselves to the levity and flippancy

of the young.

Ø      If they are grave in speech and gait, they will have more weight

in the community. There must be no undue excitability.




Ø      The aged ought to show an example of self-control in regard

 to the passions, the appetites, and the will. The pleasures of

sense ought not to allure them, or the love of the world to carry

them away.



trilogy of graces once more, only that patience takes the place of hope, to

which it is nearly allied.


Ø      There is to be a healthy action of these graces in old age. As if in

contrast with the diseases, weakness, and age of the body. The

aged have seen their best days, and they ought to reconcile the

decay of nature with the increase of grace, so as to make human

 life to its extreme limit resplendent with beauty and truth.


Ø      Each of the graces has its appropriate place in the character of the



o       Faith. It is the subjective condition of it. The old have their

hopes sustained by faith; their hearts are cheered by faith;

they remain steadfast through faith. It must be at once the

principle of their worship, their piety, and their endurance.


o       Love. The old are apt to become contracted and cold in their

sympathies. But Christian love keeps the heart young and

tender and sincere, and the old illustrate its power in growing

tolerance, wisdom, and kindliness.


o       Patience. They have to bear with many infirmities of body,

with declining faculties, with growing decrepitude. But

Christian patience must be more than a dull acquiescence

with the inevitable; it must be a cheerful acceptance of

suffering, that patience may have her perfect work in the

closing days of life.





                                    Aged Christian Men (v. 2)


“That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in charity, in

patience.” There are appropriate fruits for every time of life, and the

Christian man bringeth forth fruit in his season. (Psalm 1)  A frivolous, fantastical

age is a distasteful spectacle. Old age should be cheerful; but fun should be

without frivolity, and laughter without levity.


·         THE REVERENCE DUE TO AGE. We look for sobriety of character

as the result of the experience of a man who has found that there are limits

to all expectations; gravity in one who is nearing his great account; and

temperance in one who is supposed to have trampled down the fierce

passions of youth. We reverence age for the consistency of the long years

of life, and for fidelity to conscience and to Christ.




Ø      Faith, which is a grace that grows. As men know more of Christ by

heart-experiences and life-experiences, so ought their faith to increase in

Him whose promises have all been “Yea and Amen.”  (II Corinthians



Ø      Charity, alike in kindly estimate of others, in less bigotry, and in more

comprehensiveness of embrace to all who may belong to other folds under

the great Shepherd.


Ø      Patience. For while manhood has to work, age at eventide has to wait,

sometimes in pain or in weakness. Still “they serve” while they wait, by

prayer and quiet submission to the great will, the Lord’s will. They are

examples to the flock.”


3 “The aged women likewise, that they be in behavior as becometh

holiness, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of

good things;”  Becometh holiness.  (ἱεροπρεπεῖς - hieroprepeisreverent;

as becomes the sacred); only here in the New Testament, twice in IV Maccabees

(in 9:25, where the eldest of the seven brothers who suffered martyrdom , under

Antiochus Epiphanes is called ὁἱεροπρεπὴς νεανίας – ho ieroprepaes neanias

devout or saintly youth - ; and in 11:20, where it is coupled with αἰώνaion

age or generation); it is not uncommon in classical Greek. The word means

becoming a holy person, place, or matter;” otherwise expressed in I  Timothy 2:10,

which becometh women professing godliness;” and Ephesians 5:3, “as becometh

saints.”  In behavior.  (ἐν καταστήματι – en katastaemati -  in demeanor; Of

much wider meaning than καταστολή katastolaeclothing; raiment; apparel –

 in 1 Timothy 2:9); here only in the New Testament, once in III Maccabees 5:45,

a state” or “condition,” spoken of elephants; and so in classical Greek, applied to

a man, to health, to the air, or the body politic. Here mien, demeanor, or deportment,

 including, as St. Jerome expounds it, the movements of the body, the expression of the

countenance, what is said, and what is left unsaid. The whole habit and

composition or structure of mind and body is to be ἱερόπρεπες (reverent) what

becomes a holy woman.  False accusers. (διαβόλουςdiabolousadversaries;

slanderers);  as I Timothy 3:11. Not given [enslaved] to much wine (compare

I Timothy 3:8).  Observe the fitness of the phrase “enslaved to much wine.”

The drunkard is thoroughly the slave of his vicious appetite (compare ch.3:3;

Romans 6:16; II Peter 2:19). Teachers of good things.  (καλοδιδασκάλους

kalodidaskalous -  teachers of that which is good); only here in the New Testament,

not found in the Septuagint, or in classical Greek; teachers, by their holy demeanor

as well as by their words. For as Ignatius (quoted by Ellicott) says of the Bishop of the

Trallians, “His very demeanor (αὐτὸ τὸ κατάστημα – auto to katastaema) was a

great lesson (μοθητεία - mothaeteia).”



                                    Aged Christian Women  (v. 3)


“The aged women likewise.” Our “behavior” is a sign of our character. We

cannot hide the “roots” of our life. Weeds or flowers soon appear upon the



·         HOLY WOMEN. Not sanctimonious, or stiff, or prudish; but holy.

Never suffering irreverence to characterize their speech, levity to mark

their looks, or folly to appear in their dress or demeanor. Holy, so that

their quiet fellowship with God may affect their influence, and the

enjoyment of the “earnest of the heaven” (II Corinthians 1:22)  they are

approaching in their old age may be known by their conversation.


·         TRUE WOMEN. “Not false accusers.” This does not apply to courts

of law, but to common life. The word is expressive; it is “make-bates,”

from which our word “abate.” They do not lessen the honor, the

reputation, the good report of others by accusations which are unworthy

and untrue.


·         TEMPERATE WOMEN. “Not given to much wine.” Never flushed

with the semi-intoxication of indulgence. Never made frivolous and foolish

in speech through strong drink. Avoiding this as the tyranny of a habit

which may become with them a second nature. “Not given to much wine.”


·         USEFUL WOMEN. “Teachers of good things.” Of the highest truths

that make for salvation, and of all the truths which they have learned, that



Ø      to industry,

Ø      to household economy,

Ø      to thrift and

Ø      to piety and prosperity.


            Every aged woman has a large ministry to fulfill when she

remembers how large is the category of good things.”


4 “That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their

husbands, to love their children,” – That they may teach.  (σωφρονίζωσι

sophronizosithey may teach; train); only here in the New Testament, not found

in the Septuagint, but common in classical Greek in the sense of to “correct,“control,”

or “moderate,” which is its meaning here. (Compare I  Timothy 5:14). The Authorized

Version “teach to be sober” is manifestly wrong. To love their husbands.

 (φιλάνδρους εῖναιphilandrous einai – to be fond of their husbands); here

only in the New Testament, not found in the Septuagint, but occasionally, in this sense,

in classical Greek. To love their children (φιλοτέκνουςphiloteknous); here only

in the New Testament, not found in the Septuagitn except in IV Macc. 15:4, but not

uncommon in classical Greek.


5 “To be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their

own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed.”  To be discreet.

 (σώφρονας - sophronassane;  sober-minded ); as in v. 2 and ch.1:8; I Timothy 3:2.

“Discreet” is nearer the sense than “sober-minded.” Perhaps the French sage is nearer

still. Keepers at home.  (οἰκουργούςoikourgous – domestic; home seers -  for the

Textus Receptus -  οἰκουρούςoikourous – housekeeper; keeper at home).

Neither word occurs elsewhere in the New Testament or in the Septuagint, nor does

οἰκουργός in classical Greek. But οἰκουρός, which is probably the true

reading, is common in good classical Greek for stayers at home.” It is derived

from οῖκος oikos – house; home - and οῦρος,ouros  - keeper.   Good.

(ἀγαθάςagathaskind; good ).  The idea of kindness or good nature seems

to be the side of goodness here intended; as we say, “He was very good to me”

(so Matthew 20:15 and I Peter 2:18). Kindness is the leading idea in ἀγαθός.

Obedient. (ὑποτασσόμεναςhupotassomenas – obedient; being subject).

These identical words occur in I Peter 3:1 (see too Ephesians 5:22; Colossians 3:18).  

That the Word of God be not blasphemed. (See I Timothy 6:1). Paul complains

that the Name of God was blasphemed among the Gentiles on account of the evil

deeds of the Jews (Romans 2:24; see Ezekiel 36:20-23). Our Lord, on the other

hand, exhorts that Christians, by their good works, should lead men to

glorify their Father which is in heaven. The passage before us shows how

much the honor of Christianity is bound up with THE FAITHFUL




distinctive feature of humanity as ordained by God.



The Duties of Aged Women and Young Women (vs. 3-5)


As woman had attained through Christianity a position of equality beside

man, it was necessary to remind her that her new position involved serious

responsibilities.  Here there are what may be termed “instructions” to the

aged women as to the counsels to be given by them to the young women. Such

authority does the gospel give to age; such reverence and respect for age does

it expect from young women. Nations deteriorate in character whenever youth

becomes insolent in its own independence, and resentful of authority.

*******(See Isaiah 3:12-26)*******




Ø      In demeanor as becometh holiness.


o       There is an appeal to their own judgment as to what is

decorous and beautiful in the Christian character. They

had an experimental knowledge of the gospel, and they

understood the nature and extent of its obligations

as affecting their sex.

o       There was to be a harmony between their position and

their character as godly women “women professing godliness”

(I Timothy 2:10).  Their holy calling should manifest itself in:

§         their deportment,

§         dress,

§         speech,

§         silence, and, above all,

§         “in a meek and quiet spirit.”


Ø      Not slanderers.


o       Old age has no active employment, but it has an active

memory and a busy tongue. Thus there is a temptation for

the old, unless the grace of God has given the tongue of

kindness, to become censorious, malignant, and bitter,

avenging themselves the more with their tongues for their

very incapacity to avenge themselves in other ways.

o       There is nothing more beautiful or saintly in this world than

A TRUE MOTHER IN ISRAEL  (How sad that so many

girls and women have forfeited that position for all eternity

because of a few theoretical prime years of their lives which

they have devoted to wrong doing, sin and Satan – I once

saw in a Progressive Farmer magazine “For Sale:  Bargain

Basement Women – slightly soiled and greatly reduced in

price - CY – 2013) – the  presiding genius of her family

circle, speaking the words of charity, softness, and kindness

to all within her reach.

o       It would be an utter travesty of the gospel for aged Christian

women to be slanderers, because they would thus

§         separate friends (Proverbs 16:28);

§         inflict deadly wounds in character (Proverbs 18:18);

§         bring dishonor on the gospel; and

§         cause discords in the Church.


Ø      Not enslaved to much wine.


o       The warning was needed on account of the national habits

of the Cretans.

o       It was a moderate demand that they should give up the

slavish addictedness to wine so common in Crete. She

who follows the habit is a slave, and would soon lose the

sense of her degradation. The early converts would, perhaps,

plead the privileges of their age and country, and

use wine as a solace in old age; but Titus is to teach them

that hoary hairs give no liberty to such a habit.

o       We see how the gospel purifies the habits and usages of



Ø      Teachers of good things.


o       The apostle thus prescribes the right use of the tongue to those

who were to be “no slanderers.”

o       Their teaching was not to be in public addresses, which were

forbidden (I Timothy 2:12), but in private life.

o       The substance of their teaching was not to be “old wives’ fables,”

not superstitious ceremonies, or things of evil report, but things

sound, pure, and honest.


  • THE DUTIES OF YOUNG WOMEN. They are regarded as under the

instruction and guidance of the aged women. In Ephesus, Timothy was

exhorted to teach the younger women, but it is probable that the state of

the Cretan community required that the instructions of Titus should be

supplemented by the more practical and continuous guidance of the elderly

women. The young women were to be schooled to their duties in a wise



Ø      They were to be lovers of their husbands.


o       The wife would find in this love the source of her strength,

the husband the solace for his cares, and the children the

guarantee for their happiness and welfare.

o       A loving wife is:

§         a blessing to her husband (Proverbs 12:4);

§         brings him honor (Ibid. ch. 31:23);

§         secures his confidence (Ibid. v.11);

§         earns his praises (Ibid. v. 28).


Ø      Lovers of their children.


o       The love of a mother may be instinctive, but religious

fanaticism and brutal separation can make her more

unfeeling than the brutes. Rousseau would not keep his

children in his house, but sent them to a public hospital;

a sign, said Burke, that “bears love their young and lick

them into shape, but bears are not philosophers.” In India

infants are often destroyed by a mother’s hands, under the

influence of religious delusion.  (55,000,000 abortions

in the United States since 1973 – CY – 2013)

o       The first duty of a Christian woman is to make her home

happy, which is impossible except on a basis of love to

husband and children.

o       Religion revives natural affection as it revives all the

weakened faculties of our nature, and gives it new

power for good. The religious training of the young is

impossible without the experience of a mother’s love.


Ø      Discreet. Young women, in a new position of Christian privilege,

might be tempted to rashness, enthusiasm, and impulsive conduct.

They were to be wise and careful in their conduct both at home

and abroad.


Ø      Chaste. In act, speech, thought, and dress, finding their true

happiness in their husband’s society. There are many high motives

for a pure womanhood (I Corinthians 6:19; I Thessalonians 4:7).


Ø      Workers at home.


o       The wife’s business is in her household, not in the great

world of society.  (How this flies into the face of modern

thought.  – CY – 2013)  Religion gains no honor when

home duties are neglected.

o       Her husband’s interests are preserved by her industry at home.

o       Gadding abroad and busying one’s self in other people’s affairs

tends to the spreading of evil.


Ø      Good. Such women are to be kindly and thoughtful in their family

relationships, especially to servants, and not niggardly or exacting.

Their thriftiness must not degenerate into avarice.”


Ø      Obedient to their own husbands.


o       This is their great duty, and thus they become types of THE


o       Obedience would recommend the gospel to unbelieving

husbands, for attention to this precept would prevent

“the Word of God from being blasphemed.” Grace does

not deliver us from the obligations of nature (I Corinthians





                                    Counsels to Young Women (vs. 4-5)


Here there are what may be termed “instructions” to the aged women as to

the counsels to be given by them to the young women. Such authority does

the gospel give to age; such reverence and respect for age does it expect

from young women. Nations deteriorate in character whenever youth




·         SOBRIETY, or wisdom; that calm quietude of heart and mind which is

not intoxicated by vanity, or carried away with the sensationalism of



·         CHASTITY. Alike in thought, in speech, and in manner and conduct.

Purity makes QUEENLY WOMEN!  One stain spoils the most exquisite

sculpture. The beauty of marble is its purity, and the beauty of womanhood

is chastity.


·         HOME-KEEPERS. Making home first of all a center of attraction by

its order and cleanliness and comfort; then by its harmonies of peace and

love, so that no discordant notes may mar the music of its joy; and then by

avoiding gossiping visits, and the excitements of habitual restlessness, and

a too great love of shopping, securing the safety of economy and the honor

of a wife who “weaves” all into beauty and order at home.


·         OBEDIENCE. Not slavish submission to man; for woman is his equal,

and “was not,” as an old divine says, “taken from his feet, to be beneath

him, or his head, to be above him; but from his side, to be equal with him.”

Still, there is the obedience which consists in consulting him, judging and

conforming — where conscience is not offended — to his judgment and his



All this that “the Word of God be not blasphemed,” or its fame injured,

which is the true meaning of blaspheme, viz. to blast the fame of it.


6 “Young men likewise exhort to be sober minded.”  Younger men. 

The younger (see 1 Peter 5:5, where, however, the νεώτεροιneoteroi

younger are contrasted with the πρεσβύτεροιpresbuteroi – elders; seniors, as

in I Timothy 5:1; here with πρεσβύταςpresbutas – aged men; seniors in . 2).




The Duty of Young Men (v. 6)


The apostle next thinks of those who are to be the strong stays of the

Church in the coming generation. “Young men exhort to be soberminded.”




Ø      Young men ought to be thoughtful, not rash and impulsive.

The Lord says to them, “Consider your ways.” (Haggai 1:5)


Ø      They should be circumspect, not heady and reckless, using that

Word which giveth to the young man knowledge and discretion.”

                        (Proverbs 1:4).


Ø      They should not be self-indulgent, but self-denying. Not “lovers of

pleasure, but lovers of God.” “Turn away mine eyes from viewing



Ø      They should be settled in feeling and conduct, not vacillating or giddy.

Let your hearts be fixed” (Psalm 108:1). “He that wavers is as a wave

of the sea “(James 1:6).




Ø      It is according to the dictates of right reason. It is a great thing to

receive the spirit of a “sound mind.”  (II Timothy 1:7).  Young

men are never in a right mind till they sit clothed at the feet of

Jesus.  (Luke 8:35)

Ø      Consider the snares and sorrows and drawbacks of life.

Ø      Consider that death may early reach the young.

Ø      Consider the number of young men who are ruined by the

want of sober-mindedness.

Ø      The young must answer in the judgment for their follies in this life.

(Ecclesiastes 11:9)


7 “In all things shewing thyself a pattern of good works: in doctrine

shewing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity,” An ensample for a pattern,

Authorized Version; thy doctrine for doctrine, Authorized Version;  the

Received Text omits sincerity (ἀφθαρσίαν - aphtharsian), which is in the

Textis Receptus. In all things (περὶ πάνταperi panta); as I Timothy 1:19

(περὶ τὴν πίστινperi taen pistin “concerning, in the matter of”).  St. Jerome

and others connect these words with the preceding clause, “to be soberminded in

all things.” But it is usually taken as in the text, “in all things showing thyself,” etc.

Showing thyself, etc. With regard to the somewhat unusual addition of the reflexive

pronoun to the verb in the middle voice, emphasis and perspicuity are gained by it. 

A pattern.  (τύπονtupon – an ensample; a type). This is the only passage in the

New Testament where τύπος is followed by a genitive of the thing. In I Timothy

4:12 the genitive is of the person to whom the example is given, in word, in

conversation, etc., and in I Peter 5:3, tu τύπος τοῦ πομνίουtupos tou pomniou

ensamples to the flock; models; types.  Of good works (compare ch.3:8). Note the

stress laid by Paul upon Christian practice as the result of SOUND DOCTRINE. 

 Mere talk is absolutely worthless.  Uncorruptness (ἀφθορίανaphthorian or, as

Textus Receptus, ἀδιαφθορίαν  adiaphthorian); only here in the New Testament,

and not in the Septuagint or in classical Greek.  Ἀφθορία has the best manuscript

authority; but the sense of ἀδιαφθορία as deduced from the good classical word

ἀδιάφθορος, which means among other things “incorruptible” — not to

be influenced by entreaties or bribes — seems to make it preferable. The

word describes the quality of the teacher rather than of his doctrine. He is

to preach the truth without fear or favor. Gravity (σεμνότηταsemnotaeta); as

I Timothy 2:2; 3:4. This, again, is a quality of the teacher. These accusatives

depend upon παρεχόμενοςparechomenos shewing; showing.  But the

construction of the sentence is somewhat irregular for brevity’s sake.

I found written in my commentary the following statement:  Even

though I have not lived up to it, I consider this verse to be one of the main

Foundations or influence of my life!  March 26, 1996 – CY – 2013)


8 “Sound speech, that cannot be condemned; that he that is of the

contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say of you.”

Sound speech (λόγον ὑγιῆ - logon hugiae); still depending upon παρεχύμενος

(shewing of the previous verse).   Besides his personal qualities as a teacher,

his speech, or doctrine, MUST BE SOUND.   The word, common of bodily

health, is only here applied to speech or doctrine; the common phrase in

the pastoral Epistles is  ὑγιασινούση διδασκαλία - hugiasinousae didaskalia

sound teaching;  ὑγιαίνουσι λόγοις - hugiainousi logois sound doctrine

 and the like. That cannot be condemned (ἀκατάγνωστονakatagnoston

uncensurable); only here in the New Testament. This marks

the care that THE CHRISTIAN TEACHER MUST TAKE  not to say

 anything in his teaching rash,  or reprehensible, or that can give offence

 or cause the ministry to be blamed (compare I  Timothy 5:14). May be ashamed

(ἐντραπῇ entrapae). In the active voice ἐντρέπεινentrepein is “to put to shame

(I Corinthians 4:14), and in classical Greek. In the middle voice ἐντρέπομαι

entpepomai,  followed by a genitive of the person, or an accusative in later Greek,

means to “respect, reverence” (Matthew 21:37; Luke 18:2, etc.). In the passive,

as here and II Thessalonians 3:14, it means “to be put to shame,” “to be

ashamed” (compare  Psalm 35:40)  . (Compare, for the sentiment, I Peter 2:15;

3:16; and note the frequent resemblances between the pastoral Epistles and

those of Peter.) The shame of the detractors consists in their BEING PUT

TO SILENCE -  having nothing to say, being proved to be slanderers.

(Like their father, Satan.  This will occur to the slanders and false teachers,

whether in the media, on college faculties, or their cronies who swallow

hook, line and sinker, every slander and lie they say.  See II Timothy 3:8-9,13;

CY – 2013).   No evil thing (μηδὲν φαῦλονmaeden phaulon); as

James 3:16; John 3:20; 5:29. The word means “mean, worthless, paltry,”

and is hence synonymous with κακός kakosevil. 




The Minister is to be a Pattern of Good Works (vs. 7-8)


As a faithful minister of God, he is to mirror forth in his life and teaching

the doctrines of the gospel.




Ø      His teaching is useless unless it is enforced by the power of a holy

example. There must be a harmony between his doctrine and his life.


Ø      Good works are the natural proofs of good principles, and can only

issue from the fountain of a purified heart. The very principles are

tested by the preacher’s life.


Ø      His whole life is to be an ensample. “In all things.” This implies

consistency in toil, endurance, and teaching.



AND IN THE SPIRIT OF HIS TEACHING. Teaching is his special sphere.


Ø      It must be imparted in a right spirit. “In doctrine showing uncorruptness

and gravity.”


o       He must exhibit an example of personal sincerity, not like one

either seeking for applause or influenced by interested motives —

like the false teachers who were in quest of filthy lucre. Sincerity

has a very penetrative force among a people.

o       He must have a dignified gravity of manner, to indicate his

profound seriousness of purpose and spirit. Foolish jesting

and vain talking are very inconvenient in a minister of the gospel.


Ø      The doctrine imparted must be sound and convincing. “Sound speech,

that cannot be condemned.”


o       It must be wholesome doctrine, as contrasted with a sickly

pietism; free from error, because drawn from “the sincere milk

of the Word”  (I Peter 2:2), conveyed not in the “enticing

 words of man’s  wisdom” (I Corinthians 2:4), but as the

Holy Ghost teacheth  (Ibid. v. 13).

o       It must have convincing power. “That cannot be condemned”

(v. 8).


§         Ministers must expect their words to be sharply

riticized as well as their lives.

§         The truth ought to be conveyed in such a spirit and

with such a regard to the analogy of faith that it

cannot be justly found fault with.

§         It must effectually silence gainsayers. “That he that is

of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no bad

thing to say of us.”  (Ibid.)


Whether the adversary be a false teacher or a pagan, the sound speech

ought to reduce him to shame and silence.




                                    A Teacher’s Influence (vs. 7-8)


Titus is to remember that personal character is the most eloquent counsel

and the most convincing argument of the gospel.


·         PATTERN.  Not a slavish example of mere deeds. For this is not the

gospel ideal. We are not to copy mere actions, but to catch the spirit of the

teacher. This makes true art, and it makes also true religion. We admire

the pattern, but we do not copy it by “the rule of thumb,” but by the

adoption of the same spirit. Christ in us. The mind of Christ.


·         DOCTRINE. Not mere dogma, which is an artificial thing, and may or

may not be true, according as the authority which gives it may be wise and

enlightened, or ignorant and superstitious. Doctrine is different. It is a

revealed truth which has its response in the heart and conscience, and its

attestation in life. This the gospel has. And he is to show uncorruptness;”

that is, he is not to defile it with worldly compromises. And “gravity;” for it

is not meant to be the light theme of intellectual discussion, but the gravest

matter of obedience. And “sincerity.” It is not to be preached for expedient

reasons, as, for instance, the security of life, or the safety of the state, or

the ways in which even Socrates would have men honor the gods, although

inwardly he disbelieved in them; but with sincerity of conviction as to their

reality and truth.


·         SOUND SPEECH. No hollow rhetoric. No statements in excess of

fact for the sake of impression; but sound all through in argument,

illustration, and attestation. Such conduct and speech will shame those

who “see the fruits,” and can say no “evil” of us.


9 “Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters, and to please them

well in all things; not answering again;”  Servants; i.e. slaves (δούλους

 doulous), the correlative to which is δεσπόταιςdespotais -  masters, who had

absolute power over their slaves, and property in them (compare I Peter. 2:18, where

they are called by the name of οἰκέταιoiketai - house-slaves). The construction

is carried on from the “exhort” of v. 6.  Please them well.  (εὐαρέστους)

 euarestous - well-pleasing); elsewhere spoken with reference to God

(Romans 12:1-2; II Corinthians 5:9; Ephesians 5:10, etc.). In all things

(ἐν πᾶσιν – en pasin); nearly the same as περὶ πάντα peri panta - in v. 7;

to be taken with εὐαρέστους above.  Some, however, connect the words with

ὑποτάσσεσθαιhupotassesthai - ,to be obedient in all things.  Not

answering again.   (ἐντιλέγονταςentilegontas - gainsaying); as in ch.1:9

(see note). Here, however, the “answering again” of the Authorized Version

is a better rendering. It implies, of course, a resistance to the will of their master,

and impatience of any rebuke (compare I Peter. 2:18-20).


10 “Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn

the doctrine of God our Savior in all things.”  Purloining (νοσφιζομένους

nosphizomenous - literally, separating for their own use what does not belong to

them. So Acts 5:2-3, to keep back part” like in the act of Ananias and Sapphira.

It is used in the same sense by the Septuagint of  Joshua 7:1 of Achan, and

II Maccabees  4:32 of Menelaus, and occasionally in classical Greek (Xenophon,

Polybius, etc.). Shewing (ἐνδεικνυμένουςendeiknumenous – showing;

displaying). It occurs eleven times in the New Testament, viz. twice in Hebrews,

and nine times in Paul’s acknowledged Epistles. All good fidelity. All fidelity

means fidelity in everything where fidelity is required in a faithful servant — care of

his master’s property, conscientious labor, keeping of time, acting behind his

master’s back the same as before his face. The singular addition ἀγαθήν

agathaen – good - coming after ἐνδεικνυμένους [showing; displaying] means

in all good things.” The duty of fidelity does not extend to crime or wrong-doing.

The word “good” is like the addition in the oath of canonical obedience, “in all

honest things,” and is a necessary limitation to the preceding “all” (see

ch.3:1, and note). The doctrine (τὴν διδασκαλίον - taen didaskalion) as

in v. 1 (where see note). In ch.1:9 (where see note) διδαχή hae didachae

teaching -  is used in the same way. This use of διδασκαλίαdidaskalia

doctrine -  is confirmed by the reading of the Received Text  which inserts a

second τήν taen before τοῦ σωτῆροςtou sotaeros – the Saviour

the teaching of the Savior. Adorn the doctrine. The sentiment is the same

as that in I  Peter 2:12; 4:11. Christians are exhorted to GIVE GLORY

TO GOD and  support and honor to the gospel of God’s grace, BY THEIR

GOOD WORKS AND HOLY LIVES!   God our Savior (see I Timothy 1:1;

2:3; 4:10; and above, ch.1:3, note). In all things (ἐν πᾶσιν – en pasin); as

I Peter. 4:11.



            The Duties of Servants (vs. 9-10)


The class of servants, or rather slaves, had. received a wonderful elevation

through the gospel. They were an oppressed class, and may have been

tempted to imagine that their religious emancipation would necessarily

change their relations to their old masters. Thus we account for the large

body of practical counsel that is addressed by the apostle to this class of





Ø      Obedience. “Exhort servants to be obedient to their own masters.”

This was a manifest obligation which the gospel did not annul.

It may have been a hard duty, but the gospel supplied grace for

the faithful discharge of it. It mattered not whether the master

was a Christian or a pagan; the gospel did not destroy his claims

to obedient service. But the obedience was necessarily limited

by the Divine Law, for a servant could not sin at a master’s

command. He must in that case willingly suffer the

consequences of disobedience.


Ø      A cheerful compliance with the, masters will. “And to please

them well in all things; not answering again.” It denotes that

temper which anticipates a master’s pleasure, rather than the

disposition to thwart it by sullen and capricious ways. Thus

they would be doing the will of God and. serving the common

Master of all, Jesus Christ, who gave them AN EXAMPLE



Ø      Honesty and fidelity. Not purloining, but showing all good fidelity.”

Many slaves in ancient times were entrusted with the property of

their masters, as merchants, physicians, and artists. Thus they

had many ways of showing their honesty. It was in their power to

defraud them by embezzlement, or to waste the property, or to

allow it to be wasted without check or rebuke. Servants were to

have family interests at heart, and they were thus to commend

themselves to the love and confidence of their masters.



OBEDIENCE. “That they may adorn the doctrine of God our Savior in

all things.” (v. 10)


Ø      The Savior is as fully glorified in the servant as in the master, in the

poor as in the rich, in the peasant as in the king. Indeed, the

adornment of the gospel seems more manifest in the obedience of

the lowest class; for of the other classes specified it was only said

“that God’s Name might not be blasphemed.” Calvin says God

deigns to receive adornment even from slaves.


Ø      The Lord lifts the slave out of his mean conditions when He seats

him on equal conditions of blessing and honor at the same holy table.


Ø      The spectacle of cheerful and self-denying obedience on the part

 of this class would have an arresting influence upon an age of

 self-love and cynicism, such as that which influenced the world

at that time.




                                    Genuine Morality (vs. 1-10)


“But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine,” etc. Paul,

having given Titus directions as to the organization of a Christian Church

in Crete, and charged him to contend against those who, in the name of

Christianity, propagated doctrines at variance both with the truths and the

spirit of the gospel, here urges that genuine morality which should be the

grand aim and tendency of all gospel preaching. The grand subject

presented in this passage is genuine morality. There have been, and still

are, those who regard morality and religion as two distinct subjects or lines

of conduct. But they are essentially one; one cannot exist without the

other. The essence of both consists in supreme regard to THE DIVINE WILL

as the only standard of character and rule of life. From these verses we may

draw three general truths in relation to this subject.



MANKIND. It speaks to man authoritatively, whatever his personal

pecularities, adventitious distinctions, social relations, secular

circumstances, official position, the number of his years, or the

characteristics of his country. Moral law meets him everywhere; he can no

more escape it than he can the atmosphere he breathes. In these words

persons are mentioned distinguished by three fundamental facts.


Ø      The fact of age. Amongst the millions of the race, not many in any

generation can be found that came into existence exactly at the same

minute. Hence there are those differing in age from one year to a hundred

or more. Hence Paul speaks here of “aged men” and “aged women,”

young men” and “young women.” At the first dawn of moral

consciousness, up to the last breath of earthly existence, the voice of duty

speaks — “Thus saith the Lord.” No one has strength enough to extricate

himself from the ties of moral obligation. Not even that mighty spirit who

leads the “world captive at his will” (II Timothy 2:26) can break the

shackles of moral responsibility.


Ø      The fact of sex. Here are “men” and “women,” both the aged and the

young. However closely identified in affection and interest, moral duty

treats each as a distinct personality. In human legislation the obligation of

the woman, in some cases, is absorbed in that of the man. Not so with the

moral legislation of Heaven. Each must bear its own burden. Inasmuch as

the woman is as bound to follow the will of God as the man, no man has a

right to interfere with the freedom of her thought, the dictates of her

conscience, or the independency of her devotions. For long ages men have

not recognized this fact, and they have treated women as their toys of

pleasure and instruments of gratification. Women are beginning to wake up

to their rights, and the day of man’s tyranny is drawing to a close.  (This

written a couple hundred years back.  CY – 2019)


Ø      The fact of relationship. Paul says, “Exhort servants to be obedient unto

their own masters.” Why the duty of servants should be here referred to

and not that of masters, is not because masters have not their duty, but

perhaps at this time in Crete there were slaves who were disloyal and

rebellious. Whilst the duty of servants is here referred to, the fact must not

be overlooked that MORALITY is binding on men in every social relationship:


o        on the rulers as well as the ruled,

o        the judges as well as the criminals,

o        the parents as well as the children,

o        the employers as well as the employees.


What is wrong for one is wrong for all, and the reverse!



HEART. It does not concern itself with the external conduct. Bodily

exercise profiteth but little” (I Timothy 4:8).  But as it regards external

conduct as the evolutions of the states of the heart, it legislates for those

states. It says, “Keep the heart with all diligence, for out of it are the

issues of life.”  (Proverbs 4:23)  Glance at the virtues here inculcated:


Ø      “That the aged men be sober [sober-minded], grave, temperate.”

Ø      The exhortation to sobriety is also addressed to aged women:

      “That they be not given to much wine.”

Ø      Also to the young women: “Teach the young women to be sober.”

Ø      And to the young men: “Exhort to be sober-minded.”


Although physical sobriety is undoubtedly referred to, moral sobriety, serious

thoughtfulness, and self-restraint are evidently included and regarded as

fundamental. Moral sober-mindedness is the effective preventative and cure of

all physical intemperance. No argument, either for total abstinence or against it,

can be sustained by the phrase,


Ø      “Not given to much wine.” All the words  convey is — Do not get



Ø      Sound in faith, in charity [love], in patience.” This means — Have

a healthy faith, a faith well founded; a healthy love, a love fastened

on the supremely lovable; a healthy patience, a patience that shall

bear up with fortitude and magnanimity under all the trials of life.


Ø      “As becometh holiness  reverent in demeanor. Let the whole

      life be full of that “holiness without which no man can see the Lord.”

(Hebrews 12:14)


Ø      “Not false accusers” — not slanderers. It has been observed that

old women are specially tempted to garrulity (excessive talkativeness,

especially on trivial matters) and querulousness complaining in a

childish or whinny manner); hence the exhortation here.


Ø      “Teachers of good things” — of that which is good. Things good in

      themselves as well as in their tendencies and issues; teachers,

not merely by words, but by example.


Ø      “That they may teach [train] the young women to be sober.” The

expression, “to be sober,” should be omitted.


Ø      “To love their husbands.” The duty implies that the husband is love-

      worthy; there are some men who are called husbands so morally

abhorrent and disgusting, that to love them would be impossible.

The ideal husband must be loved.


Ø      “To love their children.” A mother’s love, of a certain kind, is proverbial.

      Maternal love, wrongly directed, has been one of the chief curses of the

      race.  (There can be no motherly love in abortion – just self-love.  CY –



Ø      “To be discreet” — sober-minded. A proper cheerfulness in mothers

      is a precious virtue, but volatile frivolousness is a serious evil.


Ø      Chaste purity of the body, freedom from obscenity in language

      and life. Nothing in society is more beautiful than a thoroughly

      chaste woman:


o       chaste in language,

o       chaste in dress,

o       chaste in movement;


and nothing is more disgusting than the reverse a woman unclean in:


o       appearance,

o       costume,

o       language, and in

o       manners.


Ø      “Keepers [workers] at home.” Wives must work as well as

husbands. Work is a condition of health and of true enjoyment. An idle

wife is a bane both to herself and her family. “At home.” This may not

mean entirely in her own house, but in her own sphere, it may be in the

garden, the field, the schoolroom, the Church, etc.


Ø      “Good” — kind, amiable, sympathetic, generous, free from all that

      is malign, envious, and jealous.


Ø      “Obedient [being in subjection] to their own husbands.” This

implies, of course, that the husband’s commands are wise, right, and



“That the Word of God be not blasphemed.” This refers, perhaps, to all the

previous exhortations, and expresses a grand reason for the cultivation of all

virtues. Our conduct in all things should be such as to bring honor rather

than dishonor on our Lord and Master. “Let your light also so shine before

men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which

is in heaven.”  (Matthew 5:16)


“Young men likewise exhort to be sober-minded. Youth, in the swelling streams

of its passions, the wild play of its fancy, and its craving for the romantic, is fearfully

exposed to mental insobriety. Hence; no duty for the young is more urgent than that

of obtaining a self-masterhood. Titus, whom Paul commands to exhort young

men to this duty, was himself a comparatively young man. He could

scarcely have been more than forty years of age. “Brought up in a pagan

home, not improbably in the luxurious and wicked Syrian Antioch, drawn

to the Master’s side in the fresh dawn of manhood, tried in many a difficult

task and found faithful, the words of Titus exhorting the youth of Crete to

be sober-minded or self-restrained would be likely to have great weight.”

In all things showing thyself a pattern [ensample] of good works, in

doctrine showing incorruptness, gravity, sincerity, sound speech that

cannot be condemned; that he that is of the contrary part may be ashamed,

having no evil thing to say of you [us].” In order that the exhortations of

Titus might have full force, Paul here addresses an admonition to him. He

is to show himself a “pattern of good works” in all things; he is to be a

model of excellence in all his relations to the men and women of Crete,

both the aged and the young. He must be:


Ø      pure,

Ø      grave, and

Ø      sincere.


His preaching, too, should be such that could not be “condemned” — sound,

healthy, practical, not fanciful, sentimental, and morbid. Ah! how many

sermons preached every Sunday men of reason, thoughtfulness,

conscience, recoil from and condemn! “Exhort servants to be obedient [in

subjection] to their own masters, and to please them well [to be well

pleasing to them] in all things; not answering again [not gainsaying]; not

purloining, but showing all good fidelity.”


Herein is enjoined on servants:


Ø      obedience,

Ø      acquiescence,

Ø      honesty,

Ø      faithfulness.


All this implies, of course:


Ø      that the master is what he ought to be,

Ø      that his commands are righteous,

Ø      that his words are truthful, and

Ø      that the work he enjoins is lawful and right.


“That they may adorn the doctrine of God our Savior in all things.” From

this it would seem that even slaves, in righteously serving their masters,

may even honor God in their humble service. Thus from this passage we

]earn that genuine morality reaches the very springs of the heart, the

fountain of all actions. He is not a moral man who only acts in strictest

conformity to the conventional rules of society, nor is he even a moral man

who merely fulfills the letter of the Divine commands. “All these

commandments have I kept from my youth up... Yet one thing thou

lackest,” etc. (Luke 18:18-23)  He only is the true man whose governing

sympathies flow in the channels of ETERNAL RIGHT,  and whose activities


of his being! THE WILL OF GOD, and that only, is the datum base of

true ethics.



TEACHING. “But speak thou the things which become [befit] sound

doctrine, that the aged men,” etc. His teaching is to be in contrast with that

of the false teachers mentioned in the previous verses, and which led to

immorality of conduct. This verse and the seventh, urging Titus, as a

preacher, to be a pattern in all things, both in his teaching and his conduct,

justifies the inference that the grand end of gospel teaching is the

promotion of genuine morality. In the eighth verse of the next chapter,

Paul distinctly states that Titus was so to teach that his hearers might be

careful to maintain good works.” This is a point which what is called the

Church” has, in its teachings, practically ignored. The gospel has been

preached to sustain theologies, to establish sects, and to maintain certain

institutions, ecclesiastical and political, instead of making men morally

good, honest, faithful, and heroically loyal to the “truth as it is in Jesus.”

Here, then, we have the only infallible test of pulpit usefulness. In what

does the real utility of the pulpit consist? In gathering large audiences? Any

charlatan can do this; and, frequently, the greater the charlatan the most

successful. In generating in the congregation the largest amount of

superficial religious sentiment? This often emasculates the reason, diseases

the conscience, enervates the will, and renders the whole atmosphere of the

soul unhealthy and depressing. No; but in making men moral, the living

agents evermore of good works. I estimate a true Church, not by the

number of its members, the apparent earnestness of its devotions, or the

amount of its contributions, but by the number of its professors who are

too truthful to lie, too honest to defraud, too morally noble to do or to

countenance a mean or a dishonorable act — to whom, in short, all worldly

wealth and power, and life itself, are held cheap as dirt compared with the

right. When Churches are made up of such members, then, and not until

then, they will command the confidence, the sympathy, the trade, and the

influence of the world. Well does Emerson say, “There is no morality

without religion, and there is no religion without morality. ‘This is the love

of God, that we keep His commandments.’ He who loves God keeps the

commandment, loves God in action. Love is obedience in the heart,

obedience is love in the life. Morality is religion in practice, religion is

morality in principle.”



                                    Counsels to Slaves (vs. 9-10)


This Epistle was circulated in Asia Minor, where there were some eighty

thousand slaves. “Exhort slaves, or bond-servants,” etc. The gospel cured

slavery, as it cured polygamy, by a slow and steady development of the

doctrine and spirit of the cross — that we are all one in Christ Jesus, that

we are not our own, and that we ought to love others even as ourselves.

And no man would like to be a slave himself.


·         OBEDIENCE. They were slaves, and they had masters. While that

relationship remained, let them show the conquests of the gospel in their

endeavors to please, and in their not “gainsaying,” or answering again.

Masters would see in such conduct the divinity of the gospel; and slaves

would not suffer in vainit would give the dignity of “ministry” even to

their lives.


·         BEAUTY. Not “purloining,” which slaves are tempted to do. Having

been purloined or “stolen” themselves, it would not seem very harmful to

them to steal things from their masters. But they were to “adorn the

gospel — to show how “beautiful” it could make their rude life, and the

rough, hard lot of a slave.


So we all have here the gospel in its beauty. “Adorn,” and in its breadth, “all things.”


11 “For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all

men,”  Bringeth  salvation to all men (σωτήριοςsotaerios - saving).

The Received Text. omits the article hae the -  before σωτήριος, which

necessitates construing πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις pasin anthropois -  with

σωτήριος, saving to all men” “bringing salvation to all men.” With the

article hJ as in the T.R., it may be taken either way, but it is rather more

natural to construe πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις with ἐπεφάνηepephanaehath

appeared; made its advent -  Hath appeared to all men. The meaning of the

phrase, “hath appeared to all men, is the same as the saying in the song

of Simeon, Mine eyes have seen thy salvation, which thou hast prepared

before the face of all people” (Luke 2:30-31; compare Colossians 1:6). The

gospel is NOT a hidden mystery, but is PROCLAIMED TO THE WHOLE

WORLD.   Σωτήριος as an adjective is found only here in the New Testament,

in Wisdom of Solomon 1:14 and III Maccabees 7:18, and frequently in classical





Christ for Every Man (v. 11)


The gospel is universal. It knows nothing of race, or country, or clime. It is

the grace of the Father to every child, it reveals the nature of God Himself,

which is love.



apostle that it “has appeared unto all men.” Is this so? Are there not

multitudes ignorant of the gospel — multitudes who have never heard the

joyful sound? Unquestionably. But for all that, it has appeared for all men,

and this is the true meaning of the expression. Its invitation is to all!  Its

provisions are for all, and it rests with us to go into all the world and

preach a gospel which has room yet for the world at its banquet-table of

grace.  (Matthew 28;18-20)



everything. It brings salvation. Some will not accept it. Some will only use

it as a miraculous charm, without applying it to the conscience and the

character. What is it, then, to be saved? To be delivered from the

condemnation of the Law is not all.


Ø      We are to be saved from ourselves,

Ø      from every tyrannous yoke of habit,

Ø      every corrupting cancer of evil,

Ø      every relic of selfishness and sin;


and this is illustrated and explained in the succeeding verses. So that





I recommend How to Be Saved - # 5 – this web site.


I also recommend a close scrutiny of the following invitation!

CY - 2013





12 “Teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should

live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world; 13 “Looking for

that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our

Savior Jesus Christ;  Looking for (προσδεχόμενοιprosdechomenoi

looking for; anticipating); the word commonly applied to waiting for the

kingdom of God (Mark 15:43; Luke 2:25, 38; 12:36; 23:51; Jude 1:21). The

blessed hope. The hope here means the thing hoped for, as in Acts 24:14 (where

both the subjective hope and the thing hoped for are included); Galatians 5:5;

Colossians 1:5 (compare too Romans 8:24-25). Here the hope is called emphatically

“the blessed hope,” the hope of Christ’s second coming in glory, that hope which

is the joy and life, the strength and comfort, of every Christian soul. This is the

only place in the New Testament where μακάριοςmakarios – blessed -

is applied to an object which does not itself enjoy the blessing, but is a source

of blessing to others. Of the fifty passages where it occurs it is applied in forty-three

to persons, twice to God, three times to parts of the body (the Virgin’s womb, and

the eyes and ears of those who saw and heard Christ), once impersonally

(“It is more blessed to give than to receive,” Acts 20:35), and once, in this

passage, to the hope. And the glorious appearing [And appearing of the glory].

In construing this clause, as well as the following, the same difficulty occurs. There is

only one article to the two subjects. The question arises — Can two

different subjects stand under one article?  It is impossible to treat

“the hope” and the “appearing” as one subject. Accepting this, the clause

before us should be rendered, Looking for the blessed hope, and the

appearing of the glory of the great God. This is a description of THE

SECOND COMING OF THE LORD of whom it is expressly said that He will

“come in the glory of his Father” (Matthew 16:27; Mark 8:38). The appearing

of Christ will be the appearing of the glory of the great God, not the appearing of

God the Father, to whom the term ἐπιφανείαepipaneiaappearing - is never

applied, but of the Son, who is the BRIGHTNESS OF HIS FATHER’S

GLORY!   The great God and our Savior Jesus Christ.  “The great God” and

“our Savior Jesus Christ” may be two separate subjects, as “the blessed

hope” and “appearing of the glory” are. And we have to inquire, from the

usual language of Scripture, which of the two is most probable. Alford, in a

long note, shows that σωτὴρsotaersavior is often used without the article

(1 Timothy 1:1; 4:10; Philippians 3:20); that in analogous sentences: where

ΚύριοςKurios – Lord is used as our Lord’s title, an exactly similar

construction to that in the text is employed, as II Thessalonians 1:12; II Peter 1:1;

II Corinthians 1:2; Galatians 1:3; Ephesians 1:2; 6:23. He also observes that

the insertion of ἡμῶνhaemonour; of us - after ΣωτῆροςSotaerosSavior  

is an additional reason for the omission of the article before Σωτῆρος, as in Luke

1:78; Romans 1:7; I Corinthians 1:3, and elsewhere; and that the epithet

μεγάλουmegalou  - great - prefixed to Qeou~ Theou – God makes it still

more difficult to connect Θεοῦ with Σωτῆρος, [God with Savior], ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ

Ξριστοῦ - haemon Iaesou Christou – our Jesus Christ; and lastly, he compares

this passage with I Timothy 2:3,5-6, and thinks the conclusion inevitable that

the apostle, writing two sentences so closely corresponding — written, it

may be added, so near to one another in time — would have had in view,

in both passages, the same distinction of persons which is so strongly

marked in Ibid. vs. 2,3 and 5.  The grammatical possibility of two subjects (here

Θεοῦ and Ἰησοῦ Ξριστοῦ) having only one article, which leaves the

question of whether there are here one or two subjects to be decided on

other grounds than simple grammar; and partly and chiefly from the double

consideration that:


  • nowhere in Scripture is Θεός (God) connected directly with Ἰησοῦς Ξριστός,

(Jesus Christ) as Κύριος (Lord) and Σωτήρ (Saviour) so often are; and


  • that the collocation of God (Θεός) and Christ as two subjects is of

constant occurrence, as e.g. I Timothy 1:1-2; 5:21; 6:13; II Timothy 1:2;

4:1; here ch.1:4; to which may probably be added II Peter 1:1; Jude 1:4;

II Thessalonians 1:12; he decides, surely rightly, that the clause should

be rendered, the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ. Another

question arises whether the glory belongs to both subjects. Probably,

though not necessarily, it does, since we are told in Matthew 16:27 that

“the Son of man shall come in the glory of the Father;” and in

Ibid. ch.25:31, “the Son of man shall come in His glory” (compare

Matthew 19:28). The whole sentence will then stand thus: Looking for

the blessed hope, and for the appearing of the glory of the great

 God and of our Savior Jesus Christ, etc. The great God.  (τοῦ μεγάλου

- tou megalouof the great); not elsewhere in the New

Testament (except in the Textus Receptus of Revelation 19:17), but

familiar to us from Psalm 95:3, “The Lord is a great God,” and

elsewhere, as Deuteronomy 7:21;10:17; Psalm 77:14, etc. In

Matthew 5:35 we read “the great King” of God. This grand

description of τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰῶνοςtou mellontos aionos -  

the world to come, is in contrast with τῷ νῦν οἰῶνι – to nun oioni

this present world,  in which our present life is passed,  but which is

so deeply influenced by “THAT BLESSED HOPE”  of that




True Self-Denial (v. 12)


Here we see that the cross of Christ has its influence within ourselves as

well as on the moral government of God. We are not left passive in a mere

receptivity of blessing; we are actively to cooperate with the Spirit of God

in working out our salvation.  (Philippians 2:12).


  • HERE IS SELF-DENIAL. But what are we to deny? Our better selves?

No; we are to please our conscience, to satisfy our sense of moral order

and beauty, to gratify the spiritual being. All depends, in our consideration

of self-denial, upon which self we are to deny, the lower self or the higher

self. Ungodliness is to be denied; for nothing can minister to the true ends

of our being that is not of God. Without “godliness” we are graceless, and

all seeming beauty is meretricious and unreal. Worldly lusts are numerous.

Lust is love in wrong directions. It is not merely excess or a question of

degree; it is a question of kind. Love may be pure, or it may be the lust of

the eye, which is sensuality. The pride of life is the lust of pride in mere

carnal enjoyment and ambitious aim. We must deny the thorns and the

tares of the one to leave room for the harvest of holiness. But:


  • NEGATIONS ARE NOT ENOUGH. We are not good by what we

give up simply, but by what we take up. The cross has its creative as well

as its destructive influence. “I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live”

(Galatians 2:20); and how? “Soberly;” giving room for reason to take the

place of passion, and for conscience to conquer the excitements of intoxicated

desire. “Righteously;” so that it may be seen that wickedness is wrong — our

life “wrung,” that is, twisted from the “straight.” “Godly;” that is, not

governed by laws of custom, or expediency, or self-pleasing, but by God’s

will, and the Spirit of God in the heart. For as nature is beautiful because

therein we see the ideal of God — no art being really beautiful that is not

true to nature — so no life is pure and holy that has not God’s thought

 and purpose in it!   And we are to do all this amid temptation and hesitation,




The Coming Day (v. 13)


We are to live with a great sky of immortality above us; for FOR NO MERE


NOBLE LIFE!   It breaks down always through the CONSCIOUSNESS


skeptic in Ecclesiastes 9:2 is supposed to feel when he says, All things come alike

to all: there is one event to the righteous, and to the wicked.”


  • THE UPWARD LOOK. “Looking for that blessed hope.” What is that

hope? This — that one day all inequalities will be adjusted, all wrong

redressed, all faithful service rewarded, and all true character revealed.

(I highly recommend three Charles Spurgeon sermons:  All from Isaiah 45 –

entitled  Life for a Look; Sovereignty and Salvation; and The Life Look

this web site – CY – 2013)


  • THE REVEALING DAY. “At the glorious appearing of the great God

and our Savior Jesus Christ.” How His appearing will take place we know

not. Nor when. Nor where. But all Scripture teaches that there is a day for

“the manifestation of the sons of God,” and for the judgment on worldly

and wicked men. Our apostle prays that “we may find mercy of the Lord in

that day” (I Timothy 1:18).  The exile has the hope of seeing his native land. The

child at school looks for and longs for home. And this with us is a blessed hope,

because it makes us happy and restful here and now, and makes us joyful

even m tribulation; for we look for “a city which hath foundations, whose

Builder and Maker is God.”  (Hebrews 11:10).



    The Grace of God the True Ground of All Sanctification (vs. 11-13)


The apostle now sets forth the real foundation on which this exhortation to

practical duty on the part of servants, and, indeed, of people of every age

and sex, is based.


  • THE GRACE OF GOD. “For the grace of God that bringeth salvation

to all men hath appeared.”  (v. 11)


Ø      This grace is from God, as its eternal Fountain, from which

 it flows to men.


o       He was not made gracious by the work of the Son,

for He was the God of grace from the beginning.

The work of the Son only manifested it (John 3:16).


o       The grace is from the Son as well as the Father. Grace is

in every conceivable way connected with the Person of

the Mediator in Scripture (I Corinthians 16:23; Galatians 1:6;

I Thessalonians 5:28). The Father and the Son are one in



o       Grace is also connected with the Holy Ghost, who is called

 “the Spirit of grace” (Hebrews 10:29), because He applies

it and seals us to the day of redemption. Thus grace has

its origin in the Father, its manifestation in the Son, its end

in the Holy Ghost.


Ø      The nature of this grace.


o       It is the free gift of God to mankind in the gospel of Christ.

It is thus opposed to the idea of merit in man. Works,

therefore, do not procure our salvation.


o       The grace must necessarily be worthy of the character of God.


§         The gift is worthy, for it is HIS OWN SON!

§         The end is worthy, for it is His own glory and man’s


§         The instrumental condition is worthy, for it is faith.


Ø      The scope of this grace. “That bringeth salvation to all men.”


o       It is the only thing that can bring salvation to man. Man

cannot be saved by works, nor by philosophy, nor by man.


o       It has a wide scope. It bringeth salvation to all men.”


§         This does not imply that all men will eventually

be saved, for Scripture expressly THE VERY


§         The connection of the passage explains the

universality of the reference: Servants, be obedient

to your masters, that you may adorn the doctrine

of God your Savior; for His grace is for slave and

master alike. There is no respect of persons with


§         It signifies that grace is THE ONLY MEANS by

which salvation is possible for the race of man.


Ø      The manifestation of grace.


o       In the Incarnation.

o       In the work of Christ.

o       In the energy of the Holy Spirit. “The darkness is past;

the true light now shineth (I John 2:8).


  • THE EFFECTS OF THE GRACE OF GOD. “Teaching us that,

denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously,

and godly in this present world.” (v. 12)


Ø      This grace first manifests itself by teaching, just as the first thing in

creation was light. It must begin with teaching, and the Spirit of

God is given “to teach us all things” (John 14:26). The original

word implies the idea of a disciplining process, effected by the

grace of God to correct the inherent naughtiness of the heart.


Ø      The grace of God works toward the rejection of evil, for it teaches us

to deny ungodliness and worldly lusts.”


o       The denial is in heart and deed. It involves the denial of self

(Luke 9:23).

o       It is the repudiation of ungodliness in heart and life.


§         Ungodliness includes impiety, blasphemy, and infidelity.

§         It includes all living without relation to God, whether

we are blasphemers or not. Thus a man may be ungodly

who seeks his own pleasure, or distinction, or happiness

in the world.

§         It implies the deeper enmity of the heart to God

(Romans 8:7).


o       It is the denial of worldly lusts; including the lust of the flesh,

the lust of the eye, and vain glory of life — “all that is in the

world” — which embody the enmity to God. (I John 2:15-17).

Thus it denies:


§         sensual lusts (II Timothy 2:22);

§         the inordinate desire of worldly things, which may

be lawful in themselves.


Ø      The grace of God produces certain positive effects. “We should live

soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world.”


o       It secures the due regulation of individual life. “Soberly.”

This refers to the duties we owe to ourselves.


§         In keeping a fair balance of judgment intellectually;

§         in keeping a due mastery over our passions — “a sobriety

in speech, in behavior, in apparel, in eating and drinking,

in recreations, and in the enjoyment of lawful satisfactions.”


o       It secures the faithful discharge of all duties to our fellow-men.

“Righteously.” Justice is an EXACT VIRTUE,  which can be

easily measured, and is therefore the basis of commercial and

civil life. A single failure in justice makes a man unjust.

Therefore it is most necessary we should give our

neighbor his due, and not compromise ourselves by conduct

redounding to the injury of the gospel.


It secures godliness. “Godly;” that is, WITH GOD, IN

GOD AND FOR GOD!  This godly life is a life dedicated

to God and spent in His fear.






Ø      True piety does not disregard or despise the duties of common life.

Ø      It is in a hostile world this grace is to operate with such purifying

results. It is called “this wicked world” (Galatians 1:4); for the

devil is its god (II Corinthians 4:4, and sin is its prevailing character.

Ø      It is a world that cannot be overcome but by faith. (I John 4:4-5.)

Ø      It is a transitory world, in contrast with the world to come, of

which the apostle immediately speaks.



FUTURE GLORY. “Looking for the blessed hope and manifestation of

our great God and Savior Jesus Christ”  (v. 13).  This attitude of blessed

expectation tells powerfully upon the life of grace. The believer’s position

is that of waiting for and looking unto the coming of the Lord. The

patriarchs waited for his first coming; we wait for his second coming.


Ø      The believer’s waiting attitude is lit up by a blessed hope.


o       This is “the hope of glory” laid up for us in heaven,

which is associated with the Son of God, when we

shall see Him as He is.  (I John 3:2)

o       It is a blessed hope, because of all the blessings it

brings to the believer.


Ø      The believers waiting attitude has respect to the manifestation

of the Lords glory. This is connected with His second coming.

It is the glory of “our great God and Savior Jesus Christ,”

and not of the Father, because:


o       In all the five places in which the manifestation is spoken

of, it is Christ, not the Father, who is referred to. The

term “Epiphany” is never, indeed, applied to the Father.

o       This is the grammatical interpretation of the sentence,

and is accepted by the Greek fathers generally.

o       The immediate context applies only to the Son.

o       The term “great God” would seem to be called for

as applied to the Father, but stands in Scripture the

perpetual and emphatic witness OF THE DEITY



14 “Who gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from all iniquity,

and purify unto Himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.”

Who gave himself for us. The resemblance in thought and diction to

I Timothy 2:3-6 has been already pointed out. “Who gave Himself” (ὃς ἔδωκεν

ἑαυτόν - hos edoken heauton ) is there expressed by δοὺς ἑαυτόν – ho dous

heauton – who gave Himself, and “that He might redeem us” (ἵνα λυτρώσηται ἡμᾶς

hina lutrosaetai haemas ) by ἀντίλυτρον ὑπὲρ πάντων. antilutron huper panton

a ransom for all. (For the great truths contained in the words “who gave Himself,”

compare John 10:11,17-18; Galatians 1:4; Ephesians 5:2, 25; I  Peter 2:24;

Hebrews 9:14.) The voluntary offering of Himself is also implied in the office

of our Lord as High Priest (Ibid. vs.11-14). For us (ὑπὲρ ἡμῶνhuper haemon

on our behalf); not exactly synonymous with ἀντὶ ἡμῶν – anti haemon

in our stead. Both phrases, however, are used of our redemption by Jesus Christ.

We find ὑπὲρ - huper  in Luke 22:19-20; John 6:51; 10:11,15; 11:50-52; 15:13;

18:14; Romans 5:6, 8; 8:32; I Corinthians 5:7; II Corinthians 5:14-15, 21;

Hebrews 2:9; I Peter 2:21; 3:18; 4:1; I John 3:16: and we find ἀντί - anti  in

Matthew 20:28 and Mark 10:45, and in αντίλυτρονantilutron  - ransom –

 I Timothy 2:6. The literal meaning of ὑπὲρ is “in defense of,  and hence

generally “on behalf of,” “for the good of.” The primary idea of ἄντι is

“standing opposite,” and hence it denotes “exchange,” “price,” “worth,”

“instead,” etc. Redeem  (λυτρώσηταιlutrosaetai); as Luke 24:21; I Peter 1:18;

common in classical Greek. In the middle voice, as here, it means “to release by

payment of a ransom;” in the active voice, “to release on receipt of a ransom.”

In I Peter 1:19 the ransom price is stated, viz. “THE PRECIOUS BLOOD

OF CHRIST” as in Matthew 20:28 it is “the life of the Son of man.” THE

EFFECT  of this redemption is not merely deliverance from the penalty of sin,

BUT FROM ITS POWER ALSO,  as appears by the following words: “a peculiar

 people, zealous of good works,” and by the passage in Peter above referred to.


The following comments on the word “ransom” are taken from Vine”s  Expository

Dictionary of New Testament Words:


1. λυτρον lutron ., “a means of loosing” (from λύωluo - “to loose”),

occurs frequently in the Septagint, where it is always used to signify “equivalence.”

Thus it is used of the “ransom” for a life, e.g., Exodus 21:30, of the redemption

price of a slave, e.g., Leviticus19:20, of land, 25:24, of the price of a captive,

Isaiah 45:13. In the New Testament it occurs in Matthew 20:28 and Mark 10:45,

where it is used of Christ’s gift of Himself as a ransom for many.” Some

interpreters have regarded the “ransom” price as being paid to Satan; others, to

an impersonal power such as death, or evil, or “that ultimate necessity which has

made the whole course of things what it has been.” Such ideas are largely

conjectural, the result of an attempt to press the details of certain

Old Testament illustrations beyond the actual statements of

 New Testament doctrines.  (Hebrews 9:14 says that Christ offered Himself

without spot to God – CY – 2013)  That Christ gave up His life in expiatory

sacrifice under God’s judgment upon sin and thus provided a “ransom” whereby

those who receive Him on this ground obtain deliverance from the penalty due to

sin, is what Scripture teaches. What the Lord states in the two passages mentioned

involves this essential character of His death.  In these passages the preposition

is ἀντί, which has a vicarious significance, indicating  that the “ransom” holds

good for those who, accepting it as such, no longer remain in death SINCE


preposition in I Timothy 2:6, where the word αντίλυτρον. A SUBSTITUTIONARY

“ransom,” is used, is significant. There the preposition is ὑπὲρ, “on behalf of,”

and the statement is made that He “gave Himself a ransom for all,” indicating

that the “ransom” was provisionally universal, while being of a vicarious

 character.  Thus the three passages consistently show that while the provision

was universal, FOR CHRIST DIED FOR ALL MEN, yet it is ACTUAL


are described in the Gospel statements as “the many.” The giving of His life

was the giving of His entire person, and while His death under divine

judgment was ALONE EXPIATORY,  it cannot be dissociated from the

 character of His life which, being sinless, gave virtue to His death and

was a testimony to the fact that His death must be of A VICARIOUS



2.  αντίλυτρον  - antilutron -  I Timothy 2:6. See above.


Purify (καθαρίσῃkatharisae – purify; should be cleansing); as very

frequently in the New Testament of cleansing lepers, the outside of the

platter, etc., cleansing the Gentiles (Acts 10:15), putting away all sin

(II Corinthians 7:1), cleansing the Church (Ephesians 5:26), purging

the conscience (Hebrews 9:14), etc. The iniquity just spoken of was a

defilement; the redemption from iniquity REMOVED THAT



CLEANSING!  (I John 1:7, 9).   A peculiar people.  (λαὸν περιούσιον

 laon periousiona people for his own possession); only here in the New

Testament, but frequent in the Septuagint, coupled, as here, with λαὸνlaos

People - (Exodus 19:5; Deuteronomy 7:6; 14:2; 26:18), to express the Hebrew

סְגֻלָּה or עַם סְגֻלָּה, a people the peculiar property, or treasure, of God;

“peculiar” being derived from the Latin peculium, one’s own private property,

reserved for one’s own private use.  (I recommend Deuteronomy ch. 32 v. 9 –

God’s Inheritance by Arthur Pink – this web site – CY – 2013). The Authorized

Version “peculiar” expresses the sense exactly, and the περιούσιοςperiousios

of one’s own possession; peculiar; used as an adjective - of our text and of the

Septuagint, from whom it is borrowed, is meant to define either that special reserved

portion of a man’s property over and above what he spends for ordinary expenses,

which nobody can interfere with, or those jewels on which he sets a special value,

and places safely in his treasury. In I Peter 2:10 λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν

laos eis peripoiaesin - a peculiar people - Authorized Version,  means the same

thing, that being the Septuagint translation of the same Hebrew word, hL;gus], in

Malachi 3:17 (“jewels,” Authorized Version), “They shall be my reserved

portion or possession.” The application of the phrase, λαὸν περιούσιον

[a peculiar people] descriptive in the Old Testament of Israel, to the Church of

Christ, is very instructive. The passage in I Peter 2:10 is exactly analogous, as is

the phrase, “the Israel of God” (Galatians 6:16). Zealous (ζηλωτήςzaelotaes

zealous ); as Acts 21:20; 22:3; I Corinthians 14:12; Galatians 1:14. From its special

application to those who were zealous for the Law of Moses it became the

name of the sect or party of the Zealots who played such a terrible part in

the Jewish war. Canaanite (Matthew 10:4; Mark 3:18) is the Hebrew for

ζηλωτής [zealous].  Zeal for good works is the indispensable mark of

God’s peculiar people, the inseparable fruit  of the redemption and

purification which is BY THE BLOOD OF JESUS CHRIST!   

(compare I Peter 1:2).



            The Giving of the Self  (v. 14)


This is the most beautiful of the sentences in this Epistle. Christ came not

merely to teach, or to reveal the fatherhood of God, but TO GIVE HIMSELF!


  • HE DID THIS IN HIS LIFE. All His exquisite sensibilities were bruised

in a world of selfishness and sin. The sorrows and griefs of men hurt Him.

He did not merely give His thoughts, or give His time, or give His infinite



  • HE DID THIS IS HIS DEATH. As our Sacrifice He gave Himself, “that

He might redeem us from all iniquity;” not from guilt alone, BUT

FROM EVERY FORM OF EVIL!   The perfectly voluntary character of

our Savior’s redemptive mission is seen in such expressions as “I come to do

thy will, O God,” Hebrews 10:7,9) and when concerning His life he says,

“No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself” (John 10:18).

This voluntarism on His part itself destroys all those critical objections to the

atonement which were once raised against the suffering of the innocent one

for the guilty; for, in the first place, Christ “gives Himself,” and, in the

 second place, He does it for a worthy end; not that He may appease the

wrath of His Father, but that He may honor His moral government by His

perfect obedience unto death, and that He may redeem men from more

than the curse of the Law, viz. FROM ALL INIQUITY.  Thus, again, the

end of the gospel is character — that this earth may be as the garden of

the Lord, in which all iniquity may be downtrodden and destroyed.




The Purpose and Extent of Christ’s Saviorship (v. 14)





Savior Jesus Christ.” Here the atonement is connected with THE DEITY

OF THE SAVIOR as if to show that the true Godhead of the Son gave



  • THE ATONING WORK. “Who gave himself for us.” Two things are

here implied.


Ø      Priestly action. For He “gave Himself” freely, the language being

borrowed from Levitical worship. That typical economy could not unite

priest and victim as they were united in Christ. The Father is often said to

have given His Son; but the Son here gives Himself (“I lay down my

life, that I might take it again.  No man taketh it from me, but I

lay it down of myself.  I have power to lay it down, and I have

power to take it again” – John 10:17-18),  the priestly action

exhibiting at once immeasurable love and voluntary obedience. He is

Himself “THE UNSPEAKABLE GIFT” (II Corinthians 9:15)

the best of all gifts to man.


Ø      It was a vicarious action. For He “gave Himself for us,” the words

in the original signifying rather for our benefit than in our stead; but, from

the nature of the case, the gift was SUBSTITUTIONARY  that it might

be for our benefit. When we were “in all iniquity,” and so exposed to

Divine wrath, our Surety permitted that iniquity to be charged to Himself.



redeem us from all iniquity, and purify us to Himself a peculiar people,

zealous of good works!” It was a twofold design.


Ø      A redemption from all iniquity.


o       The redemption signifies deliverance byTHE PAYMENT OF

A PRICE.   (I Corinthians 6:20).  Here there is a clear causal

connection between Christ’s blood as the ransom price and the

 redemption. This is Scripture usage (I Peter 1:18; Revelation 5:9;

Galatians 3:13).


Ø      The scope of this redemption. It is “FROM ALL INIQUITY.”

 This is to be understood under a double aspect.


o       The iniquity includes all sin, considered as guilt and as entailing the

curse of the Divine Law. His redeeming sacrifice DISSOLVED

THE CONNECTION between our sin and our liability to

punishment on account of it.

o       The iniquity includes all sin as morally evil, and in this sense the

redemption delivers His people from all impurity.


Ø      The purification of a peculiar people for Himself.


o       The primary signification is sacrificial; for the term “purify,” like the

cognate terms sanctify, sprinkle, wash, cleanse, points to the effect

produced by sacrifice upon those defiled by sin. These are now, BY

THE BLOOD OF CHRIST, readmitted to fellowship with God.

Thus believers, like Israel of old, obtain a new standing.

o       The design of redemption is to consecrate a people for holy

service, for priestly worship, in separation from the world. Thus they

are “A PECULIAR PEOPLE, not singular or eccentric, but His

 peculiar  treasure, held to be most precious, and KEPT WITH


o       This people is separated to good works“zealous of good works,”

because partakers of the Spirit of holiness (Romans 1:4), and of the

sanctification of the Spirit (I Peter 1:2). (“For by grace are ye saved

through faith; and that not of yourselves:  it is the gift of God;

Not of works, lest any man should boast.  For we are His

workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which

God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.”

(Ephesians 2;8-10).  This blessed fruit is worthy of a dedicated people.

They must be zealots for practical holiness, for they find  their best

motives in two advents.


15 “These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let

no man despise thee.”  Authority (ἐπιταγῆςepitagaes – authority;

commandment; injunction); see I Timothy 1:1 and here, ch.1:3, “authoritative

 commandment.” Let no man despise thee (περιφρονείσωperiphroneiso

let no one be slighting you); here only in the New Testament. In I Timothy 4:12

and 6:2 Paul uses the more common word, καταφρονέω kataphroneo

despise; to think down upon or against anyone. The apostle thus winds up

the preceding portion of his Epistle.




Practical Godliness the End of Spiritual Doctrine (vs. 1-15)


The teaching of Paul soars very high in respect of the hidden things of God. To

none of the apostles were given more abundant revelations of heavenly mysteries.

Caught up into the third heaven, hearing unspeakable words, saturated with gifts

of the Holy Ghost (II Corinthians 12:1-4), he was able to lead men’s

souls into depths and heights of unseen things as no other teacher was. His

eloquent tongue, pouring forth the riches of knowledge of an enlightened



·         could speak of God’s love to man,

·         of His eternal purposes,

·         of His predestinating grace,

·         of the coming and kingdom of the Lord Jesus,

·         of the resurrection of the dead,

·         of the inheritance of the saints in light,


in words of wisdom and power certainly not inferior to those of the very

chiefest apostles of Christ. And yet, in dealing with the practical duties of

Christian men and women, and in teaching morality as an essential part of

Christianity, there is a particularity of detail, a searching application of

truth, an earnest tone of warning and of exhortation, which could not be

exceeded by any teacher of ethics who knew of nothing else but human

conduct and the present interests of society. With Paul, familiarity with

the highest doctrines of revelation does not depreciate the importance of

the humblest duties of daily life; it rather magnifies it, and raises those

duties from an earthly to a heavenly platform. If Paul’s sole end and aim

in his apostolic labors had been to bring the daily life of every class of the

community to whom he wrote into accordance with the law of

righteousness, and to make human life on earth pure and happy, he could

not have dwelt upon those details of practice, on which the economy of

society depends for its comfort and- happiness, with more earnestness and

particularity than he has done.


  • The demeanor of old men,
  • the behavior of old women,
  • the influence of the aged upon the young,
  • the innermost domestic duties of the wife and the mother,
  • words,
  • deeds,
  • looks,
  • dress,
  • temper,
  • disposition,
  • affections,


all comes under the constraining influence of the gospel as preached by Paul.

In like manner that degraded portion of mankind whose condition was so

pitiable in the Roman empire, the slaves, of whom there were such numbers in

every considerable household, is brought under the elevating influence of

Christian motive. Relations and duties full of naught but pain and humiliation

in themselves, and leading naturally to the vices which are born of degradation,

are elevated at once into platforms of eminent virtue. Under the holy influences

of Christian faith new principles are called into life, new motives of thought and

action are awakened, and the low life of the dishonest, insolent, and deceitful

slave becomes the arena for the exercise of some of the highest virtues of

the saint. What a lesson we have here for the Christian teacher! If the

parish priest, whose relations with his flock brings him into contact with

the infirmities and sins of the various classes of his parishioners, would

bend his strength in this direction, and upon the basis of the doctrine of

grace would build the superstructure of a severe and minute instruction in

the details of a really holy life, the value of a parochial ministry would be

seen to the full:


  • Christianity in the family,
  • Christianity in the shop,
  • Christianity in the daily interaction of man with man,


would be a preaching of Christ to the world which would put the caviler to

shame, and which no adversaries would be able to gainsay or to resist.





                        The Soul-Culture of the World (vs. 11-15)


“For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,”

etc. “Taking occasion from what he had just said of the connection

between the conduct of Christians and the doctrine they professed to have

received, and the connection of both with the glory of God, the apostle

proceeds in these verses to ground the whole of his exhortations respecting

the behavior of Christians in the essentially moral nature and design of the

grace of God, as now manifested in the gospel’ (Dr. Fairbairn). As if the

apostle had said, “You must exhort all orders, those of every age and

condition, of each sex, bond as well as free, to struggle after spiritual

goodness because the ‘grace of God,’ or the gospel, has come to you.”

Our subject is the soul-culture of the world. Man requires training. He

needs physical training, intellectual training, and, above all, spiritual

training, the training of the soul into a higher life. We have here:


Ø      the instrument,

Ø       the process, and

Ø      the end of true soul-culture.



science, legislation, philosophy, poetry, or any of the arts. What, then?

“The grace of God.” What is that? Undoubtedly God’s merciful plan and

ministries to restore the fallen world. The Epiphany, or manifestation cf

this redemptive love of God for the world, we have in the advent and

ministry of Christ to this earth. “The grace of God” stands for the gospel.

Concerning this instrument, observe:


Ø      It is the love of God. Divine love is the cause, the essence, and the

effective energy of all God’s redemptive ministries.


Ø      It is the love of God to save. “That bringeth [bringing] salvation.”

Salvation:  that is, the restoration of man to:


o       the knowledge,

o       the image, and

o       the friendship of God.


This is the aim and the work of the “grace of God.”

Without this grace there would be no salvation.


Ø      It is the love of God revealed to all. “Hath appeared to all men.” The

gospel is not for a tribe or a class, but for man as man. Like the concave

heavens, it embraces the wide world; it is for all men.


·         THE PROCESS OF TRUE SOUL-CULTURE. This process involves

three things.


Ø      The renunciation of a wrong course. “Denying ungodliness and worldly

lusts.” These expressions are an epitome of all that is sinful and wrong in

human life. Are they not all-prevalent and all-potent? “Ungodliness,” or

practical atheism, where is it not? “Worldly lusts,” the impulses of

sensuality, selfishness, pride, and ambition, they are the springs of worldly

action the world over. Now, these are not only to be renounced,

repudiated, but they are to be defied, resisted, and renounced; they must be

given up.


o        Ungodliness” must give way to true piety,

o        worldly lusts” must be renounced for impulses spiritual and Divine.


Ø      The adoption of a right course. “We should live soberly, righteously,

and godly in this present world.” It is not enough to renounce the evil; the

good must be adopted. Negative excellence is not holiness. Strip the soul

of all evil, and if it has not goodness in it, it “lacks the one thing” (Luke

18:22) without which, Paul says, “I am nothing.” (I Corinthians 13:2)

We must live “soberly,” holding a mastery over our own passions and

impulses; “righteously,” rendering to all men their due; “godly,” practically

realizing the presence, the claims, and the love of God in our every-day life.

All this “in this present world,” or in the present course of things. This

present world” urgently requires such a course of life, for it is dangerous

and transitory withal.


Ø      The fixing of the heart upon a glorious future. “Looking for that blessed

hope and the glorious appearance of the [appearing of the glory of our]

great God and our Savior Jesus Christ.” Are there two personalities here,

or one? One, I think. “The great God our Savior,” or our great God and

Savior. The object of hope is, then, the future epiphany of the Divine, all

glorious to behold. To see the redemptive God as we have never yet seen

him in this morally hazy scene, this is the “blessed hope.” Such a hope



o        A vital interest in the epiphany. We never hope for that for which we

have not a strong desire.


o        An assurance that such an epiphany will take place. Desire, of itself,

is not hope. We desire many things we cannot hope for. It becomes

hope when it is combined with expectation, and expectation implies

the existence of grounds or reasons. That there will be such a

manifestation, there are abundant reasons found in the apparent

irregularities of Divine Providence in its operations here, in the

instinctive longings of the human soul throughout all lands and

ages, as well as in the clear and frequent declarations of

the written Word.


·         THE END OF TRUE SOUL-CULTURE. “Who gave Himself for us,

that He might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto Himself a

peculiar people, zealous of good works.” Observe:


Ø      The end is moral redemption. “Redeem us from all iniquity.”

Redemption is not something that takes place outside of a man; its

achievement is within. It is a raising of the soul:


o       from ignorance to knowledge,

o       from vice to virtue,

o       from selfishness to disinterestedness,

o       from materialism to spirituality,

o       from the mastery of the devil to the reign of God.


Ø      The end is spiritual restoration to Christ. “Purify unto Himself a

      peculiar people [a people for His own possession].” Restoration to:


o       His likeness,

o       His friendship, and

o       His service.


Ø      The end is complete devotedness to holy labor. “Zealous of good

works.” What are good works? Not any particular class of works. All

works are good that spring from a good motive; and the good motive is

supreme love for the Supremely Good. Works springing from this

motive, whether manual or mental, social or personal, civil or

ecclesiastic, public or private, all are good.


Ø      The end involves the self-sacrifice of Christ. “Who gave Himself.

      Here is the grandest sacrifice ever made in the universe. Nothing

      grander could be.


o       The greatest possession a man has is himself. What are millions of

acres, or the rule of kingdoms, in the estimation of the owner as

compared to himself? “Skin for skin,” etc.  (Job 2:4)  “For what

shall if profit a man if he gain the whole world and lose his own

soul  (Mark 8:36)


o       The greatest self in the whole creation is CHRIST!   He was,

      in some special sense impenetrable to us, the only begotten

Son of God, and He gave Himself. If he had given a universe,

His gift would not have been equal to this, His gift teaches






                                    Pastoral Work and Authority (v. 15)


“These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority.” The

business of the minister is concerning all the things commanded in this

chapter both as to doctrine and duty.







CONSCIENCE; for Titus was to practice exhortation.






CRETANS COULD NOT DESPISE HIM. “Let no man despise thee.”

Contempt would be the natural effect of observed inconsistency in the life

of the young evangelist.




                                          Cultivation of Respect (v. 15)


“Let no man despise thee.” For through the personal influence even the first apostles

and teachers had to win their way.




recommend a medicine they do not take, or exhort to obedience of a law

which they do not themselves obey, or seek to inspire admiration for a

virtue which they only wear as a cloak, or affect a love to the Savior which

ends in no self-denial or sacrifice, they are hypocrites, and men despise





of course, rightly despised; for they may be wrongly despised, it is written

of our Lord, “He was despised and rejected of men.” (Isaiah 53:3)  So that

we must keep in remembrance the fact that what Paul means is “deservedly

despised.”  No rhetoric, no argument, no brilliancy of thought, no ability

of application or illustration can make any minister of Christ really useful

and effective if his character and reputation are justly despised.


                        “Character is higher than intellect and

                        a great soul will be strong to live as well as think!”

                                                            (Ralph Waldo Emerson)



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