Hitherto the march of the Israelites had been to the south-east. Another

day’s journey in this direction would have taken them beyond the limits of

Egypt, into the desert region east of the Bitter Lakes, which was dry,

treeless, and waterless. In this tract there would have been but scant

nourishment for their flocks and herds, and absolutely no water for

themselves, unless it had been obtained by miracle. God therefore changed

the direction of their route from south-east to due south, and made them

take a course by which they placed the Bitter Lakes on their left hand, and

so remained within the limits of Egypt, in a district fairly well watered, but

shut off from the wilderness by the Bitter Lakes and the northern

prolongation of the Gulf of Suez, with which they were connected. This

route suited the immediate convenience of the host; and, having no

suspicion of any hostile movement on the part of the Egyptians, they —

not unnaturally — made no objection to it. It had, however, the

disadvantage, in case of a hostile movement, of shutting them in between

their assailants on the one hand, and the sea upon the other; and this

circumstance seems to have led Pharaoh to make his pursuit.


1 “And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 2  Speak unto the

children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pihahiroth, between

Migdol and the sea, over against Baalzephon:  before it shall ye encamp by

the sea.”  Speak unto the children of Israel that they turn. Kalisch translates

“return” — i.e., “retrace their steps,” and supposes that Etham lay far south

of Pihahiroth, on the west coast of the Gulf of Suez. But the Hebrew word means

either “turn back” or “turn aside,” and is translated here ἀποστρέψαντες –

apostrepsantes and not ἀναστρέψαντες – anastrepsantes -  by the Septuagint.

Dr. Brugsch supposes that the turn made was to the north, and the “sea” reached

the Mediterranean; but all other writers, regarding the sea spoken of as the

Red Sea (compare ch.13:18), believe the divergence from the

previous route to have been towards the south, and place Pihahiroth,

Migdol, and Baal-Zephon in this quarter. Pihahiroth. The exact position is

unknown. Neither the Egyptian remains nor the writings of the Greeks or

Romans present us with any similar geographic name. If Semitic, the word

should mean “the entrance to the caves,” but it is quite possible that it may

be Egyptian. Migdol. There was undoubtedly a famous Migdol, or Maktal,

on the eastern frontier of Egypt, which was a strong fortified post, and

which is often mentioned. Hecataeus called it Magdolos (Fr. 282). In the

Itinerary of Antonine it is said to be twelve Roman miles from Pelusium (p.

76). But this is too northern a position for the Migdol of the present

passage; which must represent a “tower” or “fortified post” not very

remote from the modern Suez. Over against Baal-Zephon. The

accumulation of names, otherwise unknown to the sacred writers, is a

strong indication of the familiarity possessed by the author of Exodus with

the geography of the country. No late writer could have ventured on such

local details. A name resembling “Baal-Zephon” is said to occur in the

Egyptian monuments. Dr. Brugsch reads it as “Baal-Zapuna.” He regards

it as the designation of a Phoenician god, and compares “Baal-Zebub.”

Others have compared the “Zephon” with the Graeco-Egyptian form

“Typhon,” and have supposed “Baal-Zephon” to be equivalent to “Baal-

Set” or “Baal. Sutech” — a personification of the principle of evil.


3 “For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are entangled

in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in.”  Or “they are confused,”

“perplexed” — i.e.. “they have lost their way.” Pharaoh could not conceive

that they would have taken the route to the west of the Bitter Lakes, which

conducted  to no tolerable territory, unless they were hopelessly at sea with

respect to the geography of the country. In this“perplexity” of theirs he thought

he saw his own opportunity. The wilderness hath shut them in. Pharaoh is thinking

of  his own “wilderness,” the desert country between the Nile valley and the Red Sea.

This desert, he says, “blocks their way, and shuts them in “ — they cannot escape if

he follows in their steps, for they will have the sea on one hand, the desert on the other,

and in their front, while he himself presses upon their rear. 


4 “And I will harden  Pharaoh’s heart, that he shall follow after them; and

I will be honored upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; that the Egyptians

may know that I am the LORD.  And they did so.” (compare chps. 9:16, 7:5)



God’s Trials of His Faithful Ones (vs. 1-4)


All hitherto had gone well with the departing Israelites. The Egyptians

indeed had “thrust them out” — had hurried their departure — had felt

insecure till they were beyond the borders. But they had freely given of

their treasures to speed the parting guests, and had in every way facilitated

their setting forth. The multitude, vast as it was, had in no respect suffered

as yet; it had proceeded in good military order (ch. 13:18), and had

found abundant pasture for its flocks and herds, and was now on the very

verge of the desert which alone separated it from Canaan. Egypt was

behind them; freedom and safety were in front; no foe forbade their

entrance into the vast expanse which met their gaze as they looked

eastward, stretching away to the distant horizon of hot haze, behind which

lay the Promised Land. The question, how they were to support themselves

in the desert had not perhaps occurred to them as yet. They had come out

provisioned with bread for certain number of days, and probably with many

sacks of grain laden upon their asses. If the spring rains had been heavy, as

is likely to have been the case, since in Egypt there had been both rain and

hail (ch. 9:23-33), the desert itself would have been covered at this season

with a thin coat of verdure and “thickly jewelled with bright and. fragrant

flowers” (Eothen, p. 180). The hearts of many were, no doubt, bounding

at the thought of quite quitting Egypt at last, and entering on the absolute

freedom of the illimitable desert. But at this point God interposed. “Speak

unto the children of Israel that they turn, and encamp before Pihahiroth”

Egypt is not yet to be quitted; they are still to skirt it — to remain among

Egyptian cities — to turn away from Palestine — to interpose a sea

between themselves and Asia — to pursue a route which leads into one of

the most unproductive portions of the whole African continent. Sore must

the trial have been to those who had knowledge of the localities — dark

and inscrutable must have seemed the ways of Providence. What was the

Almighty intending? How could Canaan ever be reached if they turned

their backs on it? Whither was God taking them? Even apart from any

pursuit by Pharaoh, the situation must have been perplexing in the extreme,

and must have severely exercised the more thoughtful. What then must not

the universal feeling have been, when it appeared that the monarch,

informed of their movements, had started in pursuit? What but that they

were God-forsaken or, worse, led by God Himself into a trap from which

there was no escape? Readily intelligible is the bitterness which showed

itself in their address to Moses — “Because there were no graves in Egypt

hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? Wherefore hast thou dealt

thus with us?” And so God’s people — His faithful and elect children — at

all times and under all circumstances, are subject to severe trials. These

come upon them either:


Ÿ         FOR THEIR MORAL IMPROVEMENT. “The trial of our faith

worketh patience,” and God wills that “patience should have her perfect

work,” that his saints may be “perfect and entire, wanting nothing”

(James 1:3-4). “Whom the Lord loveth He chasteneth, and scourgeth

every son whom He receiveth.” (Hebrews 12:6) - Difficulties, dangers,

temptations, perplexities, disappointments, constitute a moral discipline which

is to most men absolutely needful for the due training and elevation of their

moral characters. By such trials the dross is purged away from them — the

pure metal remains. Their love of God and trust in God are tested, and by being

tested strengthened. “Tribulation worketh patience; and patience

experience; and experience hope; and hope maketh not ashamed.” 

(Romans 5:3-5).  The man who is perfect in each good word and work has in

almost every case passed through a furnace of affliction to attain his perfection.


Ÿ         FOR THE GLORY OF GOD. God’s glory is often shown forth in the

sight of men most conspicuously by the trials of His faithful ones. In Israel’s

case this was brought about by miracle. But the rule holds good in the

ordinary course of human affairs equally. What has so shown forth the

glory of God in the past as the endurance of trials, insults, torments, death,

by His martyrs? What even now so impresses men with the reality of

religion, as suffering on account of the truth? Afflictions, crosses,

disappointments, patiently borne, not only strengthen our own spirits, but

are a witness for God in a world that for the most part disregards Him, and.

to a considerable extent “get Him honor.”



WAYS ARE NOT AS OUR WAYS. If the children of Israel could have

foreseen that God would divide the Red Sea for them and lead them

through it, the route southwards to the point of crossing would have been

seen to be the fittest and best, securing as it did the continuance of water

and of forage, and avoiding one of the worst parts of the wilderness. But it

was impossible for them to surmise this; and hence their perplexity, alarm,

and anger against Moses. In our ordinary trials it often happens that our

inability to understand how we are being dealt with lies at the root of our

sufferings. The disappointment which most vexes us may be a necessary

preliminary to the success of which we have no thought. The “thorn in the

flesh” (II Corinthians 12:7) may bring us to a higher moral condition than we

should have reached without it. “God’s ways are in the deep, and his paths

in the great waters, and his footsteps are not known.”  (Psalm 77:19)  He

deals with us as He sees to be best, and we cannot see that so it is best. He has

surprises in reserve for us, sometimes as little looked for as the division of the

Red Sea for the Israelites. Hence, if in cases of this kind we would suffer less,

we must trust God more; we must give ourselves wholly up to Him, place

ourselves in His hands, accept whatever He sends as assuredly, whether we

can see it or not, what is fittest for us.





A short respite from suffering was sufficient to enable Pharaoh to recover

from his extreme alarm. No further deaths had followed on the destruction

of the firstborn; and he might think no further danger was to be

apprehended. The worst of Moses’ threats had been accomplished- perhaps

Jehovah had no more arrows in his quiver. At any rate, as he realized to

himself what it would be to lose altogether the services of so vast a body of

slaves, many of them highly skilled in different arts, he more and more

regretted the permission which he had given. Under these circumstances

intelligence was brought him of the change which the Israelites had made in

their route, and the dangerous position into which they had Brought

themselves. Upon this he resolved to start in pursuit, with such troops as

he could hastily muster. As his chariots were six hundred, we may presume

that his footmen were at least 100,000, all trained and disciplined soldiers,

accustomed to warfare. The timid horde of escaped slaves, unused to war,

though it might be five or six times as numerous as his host, was not likely

to resist it. Pharaoh no doubt expected an unconditional surrender on the

part of the Israelites, as soon as they saw his forces.


5 “And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled: and the

heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, and

they said, Why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from

serving us?” It was told the King of Egypt that the people fled. Pharaoh,

when he let the Israelites go, must have felt tolerably certain that they

would not voluntarily return. Formally, however, he had only consented to

their going a three days’ journey into the wilderness (ch.12:31).

When, being at Etham, on the edge of the wilderness, they did not enter it,

but marched southward to Pi-hahiroth, the Egyptians might naturally

report that instead of sacrificing, they were flying — hasting forwards —

placing as much distance as they could between themselves and the

Egyptian headquarters. But this report alone would scarcely have moved

Pharaoh to action. It was in the accompanying circumstances, in the

particular line of route, that he thought to find his opportunity. The people

“were entangled” (v. 3). They might be taken at a disadvantage, and

might be reduced to choosing between starvation and a. return to Egypt.

The heart of Pharaoh, and of his servants, was turned against the

people. The reaction of feeling was not confined to Pharaoh. His subjects

participated in it. The loss of such a large body of laborers would be

generally felt as a severe blow to the prosperity of the nation. It would

affect all classes. The poor laborers might be benefited; but the employers

of labor are the influential classes, and they would be injured. So

“Pharaoh’s servants” were of one mind with their master, and they

“turned against” the Israelites. Why have we done this? In the

retrospect, the afflictions which they had suffered did not seem so very

great. They at any rate had survived them, and were not perhaps even

seriously impoverished. Royal favor will find a way of making up any

losses which court minions have suffered, out of the general taxation of the

country. But in prospect, the loss of 600,000 (more or less skilled)

laborers appeared a terrible thing. The official class was quite ready to

make a strenuous effort to avert the loss.



The Command to Encamp by the Sea (vs. 1-5)


These verses introduce the narrative of what the Lord “did in the Red

Sea” (Numbers 21:14), when His people “passed through… as by dry

land; which the Egyptians, assaying to do, were drowned” (Hebrews 11:29).

This crossing of the Red Sea was no after-thought. God had it in

view when He turned aside the path of the children of Israel from the direct

route, and ordered them to encamp before Pi-hahiroth, near the northern

end of the gulf. His design in this event was to give a new and signal

display of His Jehovah attributes, in the destruction of Pharaoh’s host (. 4),

and in working a great salvation for His Church. By the events of the

Red Sea, He would be shown to be at once a God of mercy and judgment

(Isaiah 30:18); Supreme Ruler in heaven and in earth (Psalm 135:6);

disposing events, great and small, according to His good pleasure,

and for the glory of His name; making even the wrath of man instrumental

to the accomplishment of His purposes (Psalm 76:10). Consider:


  • THE MYSTERIOUS TURN IN THE ROUTE. The command was to

turn to the south, and encamp between Migdol and the sea, over against

Baal-Zephon (v. 2). This route was:


Ψ      Not necessarily an arbitrary one. We need not suppose that God

brought the Israelites into this perplexity — shutting them up

between the sea and the mountains, simply for the purpose of

showing how easily He could again extricate them. The choice

of routes was not great.


o        The way of the Philistines was blocked (ch. 13:17).


o        The way by the north of the Red Sea — between it and the Bitter

Lakes — probably did not then exist. The Red Sea seems at that

time to have extended much further north than it does at present.


o        To go round by the upper end of the Lakes would have been to take

the host far out of its way, besides exposing it to the risk of collision

with outlying tribes.


o        The remaining alternative was to march southwards, and ford the

Red Sea. The route was, nevertheless:


Ψ      A mysterious and perplexing one. Pharaoh at once pronounced it a

strategic blunder (v. 3). Supposing the intention to be to cross the Red

Sea, no one could hazard a conjecture as to how this was to be

accomplished. Ordinary fords were out of the question for so vast a

multitude. Hemmed in by the mountains, with an impassable stretch of

water in front, and no way of escape from an enemy bearing down upon

them from behind, the Egyptian king might well judge their, situation to

be a hopeless, one. Yet how strangely like the straits of life into which

God’s people are sometimes led by following faithfully the guiding

pillar of their duty; or into which, irrespective of their choice, God’s

providence sometimes brings them! Observe, further:


Ψ      No hint was given of how the difficulty was to be solved. This is God’s

way. Thus does He test His people’s faith, and form them to habits of

obedience. He does not show them everything at once. Light is given for

present duty, but for nothing beyond. Fain would we know, when

difficulties crowd upon us, how our path is to be opened; but this God

does not reveal. He would have us leave the future to Him, and think

only of the duty of the moment. Time enough, when the first command

has been obeyed, to say what is to be done next. “We walk by faith,

not by sight” (IICorinthians 5:7).



ends. (“Known unto God are all His works from the beginning of the

world.”  Acts 15:18)  He was not guiding the children of Israel blindly.

His knowledge, His purpose, no less than His presence, go before His saints,

as guiding pillars, to prepare places for them. (John 14:1-4)  God had a

definite purpose, not only in leading the people by this route, but in planting

them down at this particular spot — between Migdol and the sea. His ends



Ψ      The humiliation of Pharaoh. That unhappy monarch was still hard in

heart. He was torn with vain regrets at having let the people go. He had

a disposition to pursue them. God would permit him to gratify that

disposition. He would so arrange His providence as even to seem to

invite him to do it. He would lure him into the snare He had prepared

for him, and so would complete the judgment which the iniquity of

Pharaoh and of his servants had moved Him to visit upon Egypt.

This was God’s hardening of Pharaoh’s heart (v. 4). Note:

(I believe that man is often sympathetic with those upon whom the

judgment of God comes, never considering that the judgment is

deserved and brought upon themselves.  See Genesis 15:14-16 –

CY – 2017)


o        If God is not honored by men, He will be honored upon them (Scott).


o        Retributive providence frequently acts by snaring men through the evil

of their own hearts. Situations are prepared for them in which they fall

a prey to the evil principles or dispositions which, in spite of warnings

and of their own better knowledge, they have persisted in cherishing.

They wish for something, and the opportunity is presented to them of

gratifying their wish. They harbor an evil disposition (say lust, or

dishonesty), when suddenly they find themselves in a situation in

which, like a wild beast leaping from its covert, their evil nature

springs out upon them and devours them. It was in this way that

God spread his net for Pharaoh, and brought upon him

“swift destruction.”


Ψ      The education of Israel. The extremity of peril through which Israel was

permitted to pass — coupled with the sudden and marvelous deliverance

which so unexpectedly turned their “shadow of death into the morning”

(Amos 5:8), filling their mouth with laughter and their tongue with

singing (Psalm 126:1-2) while their pursuers were overwhelmed in the

Red Sea, was fitted to leave a profound and lasting impression on their

minds. It taught them:


o        That all creatures and agencies are at God’s disposal, and that His

resources for the help of His Church, and for the discomfiture of

His enemies, are absolutely unlimited. As said of Christ, “even the

winds and the sea obey him” (Matthew 8:27).


o        That the Lord knoweth, not only “how to deliver the godly out of

temptations,” but also how “to reserve the unjust unto the day of

judgment to be punished” (II Peter 2:9). It was thus:


o        A rebuke to distrust, and a Powerful encouragement to faith.


Ψ      The complete separation of Israel as a people to Himself. Paul says —

“all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the

sea, and were baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea”

 (I Corinthians 10:2). Connect this with the spiritual significance

of baptism. Baptism, especially as administered by immersion,

figures dying to sin, and rising again to righteousness (Romans 6:4).

It is thus the analogue of the passage through the Red Sea, which

was a symbolic death and resurrection of the hosts of Israel. By

saving the people from the waves which engulfed their enemies,

Jehovah had, as it were, purchased the nation a second time

for Himself, giving them “life from the, dead.” The baptism of

the sea was thus a sort of “outward and visible sign” of the final

termination of the connection with Egypt. Its waters were thereafter

“a silver streak” between the Israelites and the land of their former

bondage, telling of a pursuer from whom they had been delivered,

and of a new life on which they had entered.



The Good Resolutions of the Worldly are  Short-Lived (v. 5)


By a long series of judgments, culminating in the destruction of all the firstborn

both of man and beast throughout his whole territory, Pharaoh had been brought down

from his original hardness and pride, had acknowledged God’s hand, and allowed the

Israelites to take their departure. He had even besought them to ask that God would

bestow upon him His blessing (ch. 12:32). But a short time sufficed to change all his

good resolutions. The more he reflected on it, the more grievous did it seem to him to

lose the services of above half a million of industrious laborers. The further they

became removed, the less terrible did God’s judgments appear. He had lost one son;

but probably he had many others; and time, as it passed, brought consolation. He had

quailed before Moses; but now, in Moses’ absence, he felt himself a king again, and

could not bear to think that he had been made to yield. His state of mind was one ripe

for revolt and reaction, when intelligence reached him which brought matters to a

crisis.  The report that he received seemed to show complete geographical ignorance

on the part of the Hebrews, together with a cessation of the special providence and

guidance which their God had hitherto manifested in  their favor. Upon this his

“heart was turned,” (v.5) - he cast his former good resolutions to the winds, and

made up his mind either to detain the Israelites or to destroy them (v. 9).  In all this

Pharaoh’s conduct is but an example of the general law, that “the

good resolutions of the worldly are short-lived.” They are so, because:




the tenth plague was an impression, common no doubt to Pharaoh with the

other Egyptians, such as found vent in the words, “We be all dead men”

(ch. 12:33). They were intensely alarmed for their own safety. This

and this alone produced the resolution to let Israel go. It was better to lose

the services of even six hundred thousand laborers than to lose their own

lives. Expediency was their rule and guide. But expediency changes — or

at any rate men’s views of it change. Were their lives really in danger? Had

they not been over-hasty in assuming this? Or, if there had been danger,

was it not now over? Might it not be really expedient to arrest the march of

the Israelites, to detain them, and once more have them for slaves?



PRINCIPLE. Resolutions made upon principle can scarcely change, for

they are grounded upon that which is the most fixed and settled thing in

human nature. (One should never sacrifice principle for temporary gain -

CY - 2010)  But resolutions based upon impulse are necessarily

uncertain and unstable, for there is nothing so variable as impulse. All men

have from time to time both good and bad impulses. Impulse exhausts itself

from its very vehemence, and can never be counted on as a permanent

force. It is here today, and gone tomorrow. No reliance can be placed

upon it.



MADE TO GOD. When the worldly man says, “I am resolved what to

do,” he means no more than this: “Under present circumstances, I have

come to the conclusion that I will act in this or that way.” He does not

mean to bind himself, or, if he does, he soon finds that he cannot bind

himself. There must be two parties to an obligation or engagement. If we

wish our resolutions to be binding, and so lasting, we must make them

solemnly, with prayer, in the sight of God, and to God. It is neglecting this

which causes so many good resolutions to be broken, so many vows

violated, so many pledges taken fruitlessly. (unfortunately, for example,

marriage vows) - Let men be sure, before they make a solemn resolution or

a vow, that it is a right one to make, and then let them make the engagement,

not to themselves only, or to their erring fellow-mortals, but to the Almighty



6 “And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him:”

He made ready his chariot. The Egyptian monarchs, from the

time of the eighteenth dynasty, always went out to war in a chariot. The

chariots were, like the Greek and the Assyrian, open behind, and consisted

of a semicircular standing-beard of wood, from which rose in a graceful

curve the antyx or rim to the height of about two feet and a half above the

standing-board. The chariot had two wheels and a pole, and was drawn by

two horses. It ordinarily contained two men only, the warrior and the charioteer.


7 “And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt,

and captains over every one of them.”  Six hundred chosen chariots.

Diodorus Siculus assigns to one Egyptian king a force of 27,000 chariots

(1. 54, § 4), which however is probably beyond the truth. But the 1200 assigned

to Shishak (II Chronicles 12:3) may well be regarded as historical; and the great

kings of the nineteenth dynasty would possess at least an equal number. The “six

hundred chosen chariots” set in motion on this occasion probably constituted a

division of the royal body-guard (Herod. 2:168). The remaining force would be

collected from the neighboring cities of Northern Egypt, as Memphis, Heliopolis,

Bubastis, Pithom, and Pelusium.  Captains over every one of them. Rather,

“Captains over the whole of them.” So the Septuagint, the Vulgate and Syriac

version. Some, however, understand “warriors in each of them.”


8 “And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he

pursued after the children of Israel: and the children of Israel went out

with an high hand.” - boldly and confidently, not as fugitives, but as men in

the exercise of their just rights — perhaps with a certain amount of ostentation. 



Jehovah Hardening Pharaoh’s Heart (v. 8)




The hardening of Pharaoh’s heart is mentioned, not in one place only, but in

many. If it were mentioned in one place only, it might be in some doubtful

way, such as would excuse us for passing it over without much examination.

But being mentioned so many times, we dare not leave it on one side as

something, to lie in necessary obscurity, meanwhile consoling ourselves that the

obscurity is unimportant. The statement meets us in the very midst of the way of

Jehovah’s judgments on Pharaoh, and we must meet it in return with a

resolution to understand it as far as believers in Jehovah may be able to do.

Notice, then, exactly, how often the statement is repeated. Jehovah says to

Moses, or ever he leaves Midian, “I will harden Pharaoh’s heart that he

shall not let the people go”  (ch. 4:21). Again, just as Jehovah’s dealings with

Pharaoh were beginning, He says: “I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and

multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt” (ch. 7:3). After the

rod was changed to a serpent his heart was still hardened (ibid. v. 13). Nor

was there yet any change after the waters were turned to blood (ibid. v. 22).

He yielded a little when the frogs came, but as soon as they vanished and there

was respite, he hardened his heart once more (ch. 8:15). When the magicians

confessed the finger of God in the gnats, his heart remained the same

(ibid. v.19).  The flies were taken away, and “he hardened his heart at this

time also, neither would he let the people go” (ibid. v. 32). In ch. 9:12

we have an express statement that the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh.

After the visitation of the hail there seems to have been a complete

surrender; but as soon as it ceases the hardening returns (ibid. v. 35);

and so the references continue down to the end (ch. 10:1, 20, 27;

11:10; 14:4, 8, 17). Making these references, we are led to notice also the

variety of expressions used. Sometimes it is simply said that Pharaoh’s

heart was hardened, sometimes that Pharaoh hardened it, sometimes that

God hardened it; and once or twice the expression rises to the emphasis of

the first person, and Jehovah himself says “I will harden Pharaoh’s heart.”




to escape from the feeling that Jehovah did actually harden Pharaoh’s

heart. We must treat the hardening of his heart as a great fact just as Moses

did the burning bush; not doubting at all that it did happen, but rather

asking how and why it happened. We must turn aside and see this great

sign, why Jehovah exercised such a fearful power over Pharaoh that the

end of it was the destruction of his host in the waters of the Red Sea. It is a

commonplace of speech to say that the expression here is one of the most

difficult in all the Scriptures. It is also a commonplace of action to shake

the head with what is meant for pious submission to an impenetrable

mystery. But what if this be only an indolent and most censurable

avoidance of earnest thought on the ways of God towards men? No one

will pretend that the mystery of this expression is penetrable to all its

depths; but so far as it is penetrable we are bound to explore. How are we

really to know that a thing is unfathomable, until we make an attempt to

fathom it? A devout Israelite, although excluded from the Holy of Holies,

did not make that a reason for neglecting the temple altogether. Our duty

then is to inquire what this hardening of the heart may be, in what sense it

is reconcilable with the goodness and righteousness of God. One reason

why this statement is put so prominently forward in one of the most

prominent narratives of Scripture, and therefore one of the most prominent

in all history, may be this, that we should be kept from wrong conclusions

on man’s agency as a responsible being; conclusions dishonoring to God

and perilous to ourselves. Is it not a great deal gained if only this narrative

sets people thinking, so as to deliver them from the snares of fatalism?


  • Whatever View we take of this statement must evidently be IN THE


THE CHARACTER OF JEHOVAH. In considering all difficult statements

as to the Divine dealings, we must start with certain postulates as to the

Divine character. Before we can say that God does a thing we must know

that the thing done is not out of harmony with the rest of His ascertained

doings. There may be plenty of evidence as to the thing done, when there is

very little evidence as to the doer. That the streams of Egypt were actually

turned to blood was a thing that could be certified by the senses of every

one who inspected those streams. But that God wrought this strange work

could only be made sure by asking, first, what evidence there was of God’s

presence, and next, what consistency there was with His acknowledged

dealings. It is only too plain that Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, that he

became ever more settled in his resolution to keep hold of Israel as long as

he could. But when we are told that God hardened Pharaoh’s heart, then

we must at once bring to mind all that we have heard of God in the

Scriptures. We must take back into our inspection of those distant times all

we know of His character whom Jesus revealed; for the loving Father of

our Saviour is the same with the great Jehovah. The same holy personality

is at work in the God who so loved the world that He gave His only

begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish but have

eternal life, as in the God who hardened Pharaoh’s heart. We must not

tolerate any conception of the hardening which contradicts the Divine

character. Any view of this expression which does not harmonize with the

revelation of God in the New Testament is therefore condemned. There is

certainly no word in the Old Testament that more needs to be looked at in

the light of the New than this. We must then dismiss from our minds any

sort of notion that in hardening Pharaoh’s heart, God dulled his moral

sensibilities and made him proud, indifferent to pity and justice and the

fulfillment of promises. God cannot put even the germs of these feelings

into any human heart; much less can He increase them to such portentous

magnitude as they attained in Pharaoh. We must start with the conviction

and keep to it, that what God does is right, and that it is right not because

He does it, but that He does it because it is right. It is not open for us first to

fix our own interpretation of what may be meant by hardening the heart,

and then call it an outrage on moral sense to say that God should do this.

What if we have blundered in our interpretation?


  • A right view of this statement must evidently also be taken IN THE


CONSCIOUSNESS. As no word God has ever spoken can contradict the

facts of external nature, so neither can it contradict the facts of man’s

consciousness within. That which is true, independently of the teaching of

Scripture, does not become less true, nor does it become false when

Scripture begins to speak. Man is a free agent; he acts as one; he resents

being treated otherwise by his fellow men. He is degraded and

impoverished just in proportion as he sinks to a mere machine. His own

decision is required every day, and he finds that wise decisions lead to

profit, and foolish ones to loss. The law treats him as a free agent. Nay,

more; what can be clearer than that God treated Pharaoh as a free agent?

The plain statement that God hardened his heart is not more frequent than

the equally plain statement that God demanded from him the liberation of

Israel. If the one word is to be taken as simple verity, so is the other. If

when God hardened Pharaoh’s heart, He really did something in his nature;

then also when He asked Pharaoh to liberate Israel, He asked something

which he was at liberty to grant or refuse. Moses does not mock us with a

mere trick of rhetoric in saying that God hardened Pharaoh’s heart; neither

did God mock Pharaoh with a useless appeal when He said, “Let my

People go.” Pharaoh knew well in his heart that it only needed his

resolution and the whole of Israel could march forth at very short notice.

He himself would have been amazed to hear that God had hardened his

heart. True as it was, he would have denied it most strenuously and

indignantly; and he would have denied it with justice, if it had been taken

to mean the destruction of his own free agency.


  • We may now perhaps consider the ground sufficiently cleared for a

positive conjecture as to what is meant by God hardening Pharaoh’s heart.



things in every human being we do not hold that being responsible for, e.g.,

sex, features, temperament, acuteness and activity in senses and intellect.

Some persons have good vision, others poor, others are altogether blind. In

a similar way, some are naturally of a tenacious, determined will. Whatever

they have set their mind upon, they hold to, with bull-dog grip. Others

again are easily swayed about. Now clearly just as there are natural

differences in sight, or hearing, or intellect, so there must be natural

differences in this will-faculty. A man may have it very strong; he may be

one who if he sets high and worthy aims before him, will be called resolute,

inflexible, tenacious, indomitable, loyal to conscience; whereas if his aims

be low, selfish and entirely without ground in reason, he will be called

obstinate, stubborn, self-willed in the fullest sense of that word; and is it

not plain that God may take this power of volition, this will-energy, and do

with it, as we know that Jesus in many of His miracles did with defective or

absent faculties? To the blind, Jesus gave vision, and He who could thus

call a non-existent faculty into existence, evidently could increase a faculty

actually existing to any degree such as man might be able to possess. And

was it not something of this kind that God did in hardening Pharaoh’s

heart? The term has come to have a dreadful meaning to us in connection

with Pharaoh, simply because of Pharaoh’s career. But the very miracle

which God wrought in Pharaoh’s heart would have had good results, if

only Pharaoh had been a different sort of man. Suppose the instance of a

blind man who gets sight from Jesus. He goes into life again with a

recovered faculty: and that life, with respect to its opportunities, is vastly

larger than it was before. How will he use these opportunities? He may use

them selfishly, and Christ’s own blessing will thus become a curse; or he

may use them as Christ would have him use them, to become his efficient

and grateful servant. There is a moral certainty that some who had faith

enough in Jesus to have impaired natural faculties put right were yet

destitute of that faith which went on to spiritual salvation and spiritual

service. It was one thing to believe in Christ for a temporal gain, quite

another to believe in Him for a spiritual one; and the one faith while meant

to lead on to the other, would not always have that effect. It is but a fond

imagination to suppose that it would. So Pharaoh, if he had been a humane,

compassionate and righteous man, a king with a true king’s feelings for his

own people, would, through the very process of hardening his heart, have

become a more efficient ruler. This is the way God helps men who are

struggling with temptation, struggling towards truth and light, towards

conquest over appetite, violent temper, evil habits. God does for them and

in them exactly what he did in Pharaoh. What he did in Pharaoh happened

to hasten him in the way where he was already disposed to go. If Pharaoh

had been a blind man as well as a bad one, no one would have had any

perplexity as to God’s dealings in restoring his sight and giving it the

greatest perfection sight can attain. If Pharaoh had used that restored

vision for bad, cruel purposes, he would have been blamed, and not

Jehovah, and exactly the same remark applies if we change the name of the

faculty. God strengthens the faculty of will, but Pharaoh is responsible for a

right use of the strengthened faculty as much as he was for the use of the

weaker faculty before. God dealt with a part of his nature where he had no

power to resist any more than a blind man would have power to resist, if

God were to restore vision to him. It was not against the hardening that

Pharaoh struggled, but against the delivering. The hardening worked in a

way he was not conscious of, but the delivering was by an appeal to him,

and that appeal he was by no means disposed to entertain. It was not an

awakened conscience that compelled him to his successive yielding; these

were but as the partial taming of a wild beast. Paul said, “When I would do

good, evil is present with me” (Romans 7:21), but Pharaoh was steadily

disposed to do evil. His cry would rather have been, “When I think to get

my own way, one of those terrible plagues comes in to relax my resolutions

and confuse my plans.”


  • A certain amount of weight must also be allowed for PHARAOH’S

TYPICAL POSITION AND CHARACTER. We must distinguish between

what he was typically and what he was personally. Far be it from us to

diminish his guilt or attempt to whitewash his memory. Doubtless he was a

bad man, and a very bad man; but for typical purposes it was needful to

represent him as not having one redeeming feature. His name is not linked

even with one virtue amid a thousand crimes. He had to be set before the

whole world and all ages as the enemy of God’s people. He is the type of a

permanent adversary far greater than himself. And just as the people of

God, typically considered, appeared very much better than they actually

were, so Pharaoh, typically considered, is described so as to appear worse.

(e.g. in Numbers 23:21, it is said, “He hath not beheld iniquity in Jacob,

neither hath he seen perverseness in Israel.”) We do not know all God’s

dealings with Pharaoh. They are hidden beneath the waters of the Red Sea,

(Once again I recommend arkdiscovery.com and The Red Sea Crossing –

CY – 2017)  and it is no duty of ours to pass judgment on the defeated

and baffled opponent. God calls us to the more practical business of going

on with the livings struggling people.


9 “But the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of

Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping

by the sea, beside Pihahiroth, before Baalzephon.”  All the horses and

chariots of Pharaoh Rather, “all the chariot horses.” There is no “and” in

the original. His horsemen. Rather “his riders,” or “mounted men “ — i.e.,

those who rode in the chariots.  That the Egyptians had a powerful cavalry at a

later date appears from II Chronicles 12:3; but the Hebrew text of Exodus, in

remarkable accordance with the native monuments of the time, represents the

army of this Pharaoh as composed of two descriptions of troops only — a chariot

and an infantry force.  Overtook them. It is uncertain how long the Israelites

remained encamped at Pi-hahiroth. They would wait so long as the pillar of

the cloud did not move (Numbers 9:18-20). It must have taken Pharaoh a day

to hear of their march from Etham, at least another day to collect his troops, and

three or four days to effect the march from Tanis to Pi-hahiroth. The

Jewish tradition that the Red Sea was crossed on the night of the 21st of

Nisan (Abib) is therefore, conceivably, a true one.



Trial and Judgment (vs. 1-9)




Ψ      The command to turn and shut themselves in between the wilderness

and the sea. God leads us where troubles will assail us. Jesus was

driven of the spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil.

(Matthew 4:1)


o        It proves us, and reveals needs which otherwise we might not have

suspected. Our weaknesses are manifested.

o        It reveals God. Through experiences of help His glory brightens for us.


Ψ      The circumstances of God’s people are taken advantage of by their foes.

Pharaoh imagined his time had now come. Earthly foes may strike at

such atime; Satan surely will!


Ψ      The result will be God’s triumph over the foe, not the foe’s over us!




Ψ      Terrors are soon forgotten. Repression of evil is not conversion. So

soon as the repressive force ceases, evil reasserts its sway.


Ψ      Justice done through fear only is regretted, not rejoiced in, by the

doer. “Why have we done this?” “As the dog returneth to his vomit.”

(I Peter 2:22)


Ψ      Past lessons are forgotten. Pharaoh might have asked what armies could

do against the God of Israel; yet he assembles his forces, never dreaming

that they are only marshaled for destruction. Those who have known

only the discipline of terror have not found salvation. They have only

heard a cry to flee and seek salvation. To linger upon the way is to

allow evil to overtake them and lead them again into captivity.






It has been argued that the Israelites, if they were so numerous as stated (ch.12:37),

must have been wretched cowards, if they were afraid to risk an engagement with such

an army as that hastily levied one which Pharaoh had brought with him. But the

difference between an army of trained soldiers, thoroughly equipped for war, with

helmets, shields, breastplates, swords and spears, and an undisciplined multitude,

unarmed for the most part, and wholly unaccustomed to warfare, is such, that the

latter, whatever its numbers, may be excused if it does not feel able to cope with

the former, and declines an engagement. Numbers, without military training and

discipline, are of no avail — nay, are even a disadvantage, since the men

impede one another. It is not necessary to suppose that the Israelites were debased in

character by their long servitude to account for their panic on seeing the army of

Pharaoh. They had good grounds for their fear. Humanly speaking, resistance would

simply have led to their indiscriminate massacre. The alarm of the Hebrews, and even

the reproaches with which they assail Moses, are thus quite natural under the

circumstances. What is surprising is, the noble courage and confidence of Moses.

Moses, though only vaguely informed, that God would “be honored upon

Pharaoh and all his host” (v. 4), is perfectly certain that all will go well —

how the result will be achieved, he knows not; but he is sure that Israel will

be delivered and Egypt discomfited; his people have no reason to fear —

they have but to “stand still and see the salvation of God” (v. 13);

“the Lord will fight for them;” they will have simply to “hold their peace”

(v. 14).


10 “And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes,

and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were sore afraid:

and the children of Israel cried out unto the LORD.”  They were sore afraid.

Before the Israelites are taxed with cowardice, let it be considered:


  • That they were unarmed. Egypt was so settled a government that

civilians generally went unarmed; and slaves, like the Hebrews, would

scarcely have been allowed to possess any arms.


  • They had no military training. Whatever had been done to teach them

order and arrangement in connection with their proposed journey, we may

be sure there had been no drill or training in the use of arms, since this

would have been regarded by the Egyptians as open rebellion.


  • They were unaccustomed to warfare. The Pharaohs maintained

large garrisons of Egyptian and mercenary troops in the frontier provinces,

to resist the invasions to which they were liable. The Hebrews may have

had occasionally to defend themselves against a hasty raid: but in real war

they had stood aloof, and left the fighting to the regular Egyptian army.


The children of Israel cried out unto the Lord. The appeal to Jehovah

showed that, with all their weaknesses and imperfections, the Israelites

were yet true at heart. They knew where alone help was to be obtained,

and made their appeal accordingly. No cry is more sure of an answer than

the despairing one — “Lord, save us; we perish.” (Matthew 8:25)




The Pursuit (vs. 5-10)


“It was told the King of Egypt that the people fled.” Consider:


  • THE MOTIVES OF THE PURSUIT. The motives were various.


Ψ      Pharaoh had already repented of having let the people go (v. 5).

Their departure was a sore humiliation to him. Wounded pride was

aggravated by the sense of material loss. “As serfs and bondagers, the

Israelites were invaluable, and to let them go was to annihilate the half

of Egypt’s industry” (Hamilton). Pharaoh and his servants, accordingly,

were ready to adopt any plan which promised them revenge.


Ψ      Pharaoh found an excuse for pursuit, in the allegation that the

Israelites had “fled.” Fugitives, in the ordinary sense of the expression,

the Israelites were not. Pharaoh having to the last refused to let them go

to hold the required feast in the wilderness, God had taken the matter

into His own hands, and had given them their freedom. The only sense

in which they were “fleeing” was, that, fearing treachery, they were

making all the haste they could to get beyond Pharaoh’s reach. They

had left Egypt, unfettered by any stipulation to return. Return, indeed,

after what had happened, was out of the question. When Pharaoh and

his people thrust the Hebrews out from their midst (ch. 11:8; 12:31-34),

they neither desired nor expected to see their faces more. But now that

the king had changed his mind, and wished them back again, it suited

him to represent their withdrawal into the solitary regions by the Red Sea

as a “flight” — a breach of good faith. God had forced him to relax his

grasp, and while his hand was open, the nation had escaped, like a bird

escaped from the snare of the fowler. As reasonably might the fowler

complain that, the bird, thus escaped, does not voluntarily return to its

old quarters.


Ψ      The determining, motive of the pursuit was the news that Israel was

“entangled in the land.” This decided Pharaoh. Almost would it seem

to him as if, by permitting the escaped people to make this huge blunder

in their movements, their Deity designed to give them back to his hand,

as Saul said of David — “God hath delivered him into mine hand, for

he is shut up, by entering into a town that hath gates and bars”

 (I Samuel 23:7).


  • ITS FORMIDABLE CHARACTER. Probably a pursuit of escaped

slaves was never organized with greater chances of success.


Ψ      The expedition was popular. “The heart of Pharaoh and of his

servants was turned against the people” (v. 5). Court sentiment

is not always a reliable index to the feelings of the commonalty; but

it is probable that the movement to pursue Israel commanded a wide

measure of popular support. The grief and humiliation they had

sustained would fill the Egyptians with hatred of the Israelitish name,

and would make them willing co-partners in any scheme to inflict

injury on the fugitives. They also, by this time, would be beginning

to realize how great a loss, financially and industrially, they had

sustained, by the withdrawal of so vast a body of laborers.


Ψ      The whole available military force of Egypt was called into requisition.

“All the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his

army” (v. 9). Pharaoh, at the head of this glorious cavalcade, amidst this

sheen of weapons, must have felt himself a greater man, and would

wonder anew how he could have been so befooled as to let his slaves

depart. And little, truly, to all human appearance, would Israel,

unpracticed in the use of arms, be able to accomplish against this

disciplined and splendidly equipped host. Pharaoh doubtless thought

he had the people this time securely in his grasp. It was no longer the

unarmed Pharaoh of the palace that Moses had to deal with; but Pharaoh,

at the head of the thousands of Egypt, with chariots, and horses, and

men of war; and who was that God that would be able to deliver him

out of his hand? Alas for Pharaoh, and his “pomp and circumstance

of war!” It was soon to be seen what short work God can make on

the earth of the proudest of His assailants, showing strength with

His arm, and scattering the proud in the imagination of their

hearts (Luke 1:51; compare Isaiah 31:3).


Ψ      The situation of the Israelites seemed to make them an easy prey. They

were “entangled in the land” (v. 3). This was the mainstay of Pharaoh’s

hopes. Israel could do nothing to resist him. Penned up like sheep for the

slaughter, they could neither fight nor flee. Success was certain.


  • ITS SPIRITUAL LESSON. It will readily be felt that in this pursuit of

Israel by Pharaoh, we have an image — from the typical character of the

history, an intended image — of a not uncommon experience of the

Christian life.


Ψ      We are liable to be pursued by the evil from which we thought we had

escaped. Whoever thinks to find it otherwise will live to be disappointed.

Conversion — even though one has been led into Christian liberty with

“an high hand” (v. 8) — is not the end of spiritual conflicts. We do not

escape from the power of evil without many an attempt being made on

the part of the enemies of the soul to reassert their dominion ever us.


o       We have a Pharaoh in the evil of our own hearts, who, after

we have left his service, will not fail to pursue us.

o       Another such Pharaoh we have in the world —

old companions, etc.

A third is the evil One himself, who lets no soul slip

from his grasp, without many an attempt to recover it.


This goes on to some extent throughout the whole life. Pharaoh’s

pursuit may be viewed as gathering up all these separate pursuits

into a single picture.


Ψ      This experience is usually most acute and perilous shortly after

conversion. Naturally, after the first breaking of the soul with sin, there

comes, at a little distance, a time of recoil and reaction. Passions formerly

indulged, surge back upon the heart with something of the old fury. We

thought we had got rid of them; but they return, pursuing us with a

vehemence which reminds us of Pharaoh’s chariots and horses, and fills

us with dismay. Old habits, we thought we had broken with them for

ever; but they are back again, struggling for the mastery. The world

tries all its arts to regain its former hold. Temptations come in floods.

This is the time which tests the reality of conversion, and practically

decides whether God is to have us, or Satan. It is the old experience

of Israel, entangled in the land, and pursued by Pharaoh: if we gain

the victory, we shall probably see our enemies no more, or only in

greatly weakened, in semi-ghostlike forms.


Ψ      The destruction of Pharaoh’s host is the pledge of similar victories to

the Church and to the individual in like crises of their history. It

involves the promise that what God did for Israel here, He will do for

us also, if we rely upon His help, every time we are spiritually tempted.

Beyond this, it pledges and foreshadows the ultimate and complete defeat

of all the enemies of the Church, and of the individual soul — even to

that “last enemy that shall be destroyed,” which is death (I Corinthians

15:26).  The victory, like the pursuit, is gathered up typically into a

single picture, though in actual spiritual history it is spread over lifetimes

and ages. It must, however, be sorrowfully admitted that in individual

cases, type and reality too often fall asunder. Who has not to mourn

partial victories gained over him by the pursuing Pharaohs of the soul

— victories ofttimes almost amounting to the dragging of us back to

bondage? And what extensive victories have frequently been gained

by evil over sections of the Church — victories which seem the very

antithesis of this glorious Red Sea deliverance? These, however, are

but ebbings in a tide, which on the whole is on the flow, and they do

not touch the lesson of this incident. The pledge given in Pharaoh’s

destruction, God will not fail to fulfill to those who seek His aid;

and as to the final victory, that is secure, beyond all power of man

to prevent it.


11 “And they said unto Moses, Because there were no graves in Egypt,

hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? wherefore hast

thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt? And they said to

Moses. It was not unnatural that, while flying to God as their only refuge,

they should be angry with Moses.  Moses, they would argue, ought to have

known better than to have brought them into a situation of such peril. He, the

leader, should have known the geography of the country — he, the courtier,

should have known the temper of the court. It is always a satisfaction to men

to vent their anger upon some one when they are in a difficulty. No graves in

Egypt. Egypt, with a necropolis outside every city, was “a land of

tombs;” surely they might have found graves there, instead of being led out

to such a distance simply to die.



Cruel Words Out of Cowardly Hearts (v. 11)


There was much, as we have seen, to excuse the terror of Israel; but there

is one thing not so easy to excuse, and that is the sarcastic, unjust spirit in

which these terrified Israelites treat their visible leader. Formerly

(ch. 5:21) they had turned on him with bitter reproaches; but their

conduct then was the effect of ignorance and hasty expectations, and their

language, however strong, was simply the language of reproach. But now

to reproach they add sarcasm; they speak so as to set Moses in a

ridiculous as well as a painful position. We may suppose that when the

question was asked, “Whatever can we have been brought here for?”

some of the wits of Israel would reply, “There is no room in Egypt to bury

us, and so we are brought to be buried here.” Then this sharp speech,

quickly flying from lip to lip, as clever things usually do, would in no long

time become the well-nigh universal thought. We have then here to

consider the evils of sarcastic speech. That such speech may do good

sometimes, and sometimes be necessary, need not be denied. But inasmuch

as the temptation is almost entirely the other way, we may dismiss as

needless the work of considering what benefits there may be in sarcastic

speech. The ills of sarcasm have so far outweighed the good, that we had

better set ourselves earnestly to consider them. Is it not to be presumed

that fewer such sayings would fall from our lips, if only we habitually

considered all the ill effects that may flow from such a way of speaking?



There may be a great deal of pain inflicted where no sense of pain is

expressed. Moses does not here take any notice of this bitter, clever, far-

echoing word about the graves; but thereby, he only gives another

illustration of his characteristic natural meekness. He may have felt, and felt

deeply, even though he did not speak. If, indeed, he reckoned nothing of

these words, we should hardly think so well of him. To be what is called

thick-skinned is not good, if it is meant thereby that one has no perception

of the insolent, inconsiderate language of others. Lack of sensibility to pain

means a corresponding lack of sensibility to pleasure. We can no more

avoid feeling pain when a harsh word is spoken, than when we receive a

cut or a blow. No doubt it is pleasant to say sharp, clever things; but the

pleasure is a momentary one, an entirely selfish one; it will not bear

thinking about; and it may inflict a durable pain. Sharp words may be like

barbed arrows that not all the lapse of years can work out of the memory.

Assuredly we must not shrink from inflicting pain, if duty, affection, and

prudence point that way; but we had need to be very sure of the

indications. To inflict bodily pain for our own pleasure is admittedly an

unchristian thing; and yet what a monstrous inconsistency is revealed in the

fact that persons who would not tread on a worm, are constantly found

inflicting the intensest pain by the words they speak. Knock a man down,

and you might do him less harm than by the few words that pass so lightly,

easily, and pleasantly between your lips. Less harm is done by the fist than

by the tongue.



never can be true speeches. If they were true, it would be no justification of

them, but in the very nature of things they cannot be true. They must have

about them, more or less, elements of the false and exaggerated. If a thing

is to be sharp at all, there is an irresistible temptation to make it as sharp

and striking as possible; and truth cannot but suffer in the process.

Epigrams are always to be distrusted. How clearly the injustice of sharp

sayings comes out in the illustration before us! The speech about these

graves was a witty, clever one, but how unjust! As it happened, Moses was

under no responsibility whatever for bringing the Israelites to this particular

place. He had not been left to use his own judgment and discretion, but was

as much under the guidance of the cloudy pillar as all the rest. Hence from

this illustration we receive a slight warning that we may not only be

inflicting pain, which is much, but injustice, which is a great deal more.

You who would not steal the least fragment of a man’s property, be

equally careful to speak no word which may do hurt to his reputation.

Speak that you may inflict no pain; speak also that you may do no injustice.



Cleverness is a perilous, and not unfrequently, a fatal gift. To be sharper

than our neighbors may prove in the end a dangerous thing for our own

interests. Some who are admired, courted, widely spoken about, for their

powers of mimicry, find in the end that it might have been far more for

their comfort and permanent well-being, if they had been of only

commonplace abilities. To be admired is a poor satisfaction, mere dust and

ashes, if it has to stand instead of being loved. Make fun of other people,

seize without mercy on their weaknesses, their follies and their natural

defects, and the chances are that you will find yourself exposed, in turn, to

like treatment. Those who attack with sharp speeches are just the men who

deserve — if they always got their deserts, and it were expedient to

retaliate — equally sharp speeches in return. What about these Israelites

here? Did they not by talking in this fashion show clearly what a mean,

miserable company they were? They hurt themselves far more than they

hurt Moses. There is hardly one who takes pride in what he calls his plain

speaking, but might be pilloried himself, and greeted with sarcastic

speeches as severe as any he had uttered, and probably more charged with

truth. And the worst of all is, that in the end those habituated to evil

speaking may find themselves forsaken in their own great need. We need

friends, and, if we would have them, we must show ourselves friendly.

(Proverbs 18:24)  If we go through the world constantly replenishing our

sarcastic quiver with arrows, and stretching the bow on every slight

provocation, then we must expect people to give us a wide berth; and

when at last we come to be stricken ourselves, it will be no matter of just

complaint if we are left well nigh alone.




ourselves that there is good to be gained in making folly ridiculous, and so

there may be; but it can only be when the speaker is one of great wisdom,

goodness, and habitual elevation of life. Certainly we find in the Scriptures

the language of solemn irony from God Himself; but His words are above

our criticism, and we are not at liberty to speak as He speaks. We are all

upon the same level of sin, ignorance, and partial views, and must speak as

remembering this level. To affect authority and superior station will be

ruinous to all good effects from any remonstrance of ours. Whatever truth

is revealed to us, and put upon our consciences to speak, must be spoken

in love, in humility, and in the very best season we can find. (We are

exhorted by Paul to “speak the truth in love.” – Ephesians 4:15)  If it is

really our desire to win others to better, wiser and manlier courses, we had

better not begin with sharp speeches. True it may be that the world is mostly

made up of fools, and perhaps there is no occasion when we do more to

prove our own place in the large company than when, in our contempt and

impatience, we call other people fools. We are not then behaving as fishers

of men. We are not then becoming all things to all men in order to save

some. (I Corinthians 9:22)  Many a Christian has had to sorrow for his

imperfect control over the gift of intellectual quickness. Before his

conversion, he used his gift of wit, repartee, and ludicrous conception with

careless freedom and delight, not staying to consider whom he hurt, whom

he hindered. Then when such a one submits at last to the true lord of the

intellect, he finds it hard, in this matter in particular, to bring his thoughts

into captivity to the obedience of Christ.  (II Corinthians 10:5)




us consider his own temptation to say hard things, and then we shall cease

to wonder that hard things are said of us. We cannot expect to receive

from others, but as we give to them. Anyway we must be ready for hard

things, ready in particular for hard speeches. Where Christ went, His people

must go; and He went in a path where He was called a gluttonous man and a

winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners. If He was sneered at on the

very Cross, it is babyish on our part to complain because the world sneers

at us in the comparatively easy paths we have to tread. Our strength, our

joy, and our serenity must not depend on THE WORLD’S OPINION.

Moses was getting a hint even thus early that he must not expect consideration

from his brethren, with respect to his feelings and difficulties. The joys of

Moses were to be got from quite another direction, even from the assiduous

tenderness of JEHOVAH HIMSELF!




are not happy men. How can a man be happy whose eye is for ever lighting

on the blots and loathsome ulcers of human nature; who seems to have a

morbid acuteness of vision with respect to them, but to become purblind

when noble and Divinely-produced elements of character appear? Such a

man is to be pitied with Christ’s own gentle pity. Do not meet his sarcasm

with sarcasm, but here emphatically return good for evil. Force him to see

that there is a great deal more in the world, if only he will look for it, than

duplicity, selfishness, and stupidity. Show him how to discern, even in the

jostling and wrangling crowd, men who have in them the mind which was

in Christ. (Philippians 2:5)


12 “Is not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt, saying, Let us

alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? For it had been better for

us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness.

Is not this the word that we did tell thee? The reference was probably to that

time of depression, after their burdens had been increased, and before the series

of miracles began, when the Israelites had addressed reproaches to Moses and

Aaron (ch. 5:21), and refused to listen to words of encouragement (ch. 6:9).

It was not true that they had uniformly held the same language, and desired

Moses and Aaron to cease their efforts. It had been better for us to serve the

Egyptians than that we should die in the wilderness.   The spirit to prefer

death to slavery, where they are the only alternatives, is not a common one; and

we must not be surprised that a people which had grown up in servitude and

had no traditions of national independence did not rise to the heroic height

attained under other circumstances by Greeks, by Switzers and by Poles.

It would have been most extraordinary had they done so.




            Israel Stricken with Terror by Reason of a Deliverance

        not yet Completed (vs. 1-12)


It is plain that the Israelites, going out of Egypt. in such circumstances as

they did, must have gone out in a state of great exhilaration, almost beside

themselves with joy at such a complete reversal of all their past experiences

at the hands of Pharaoh. Moreover we are assured in v. 8 that

they went out with a high hand. The power of God for the deliverance of

Israel was manifested in great fullness. What He had done in the past, and

especially in the recent past, if only well considered and kept in the mind,

was sufficient to inspire trust, banish fear, and show the wisdom of most

diligent obedience to every direction that He gave. Nevertheless in v. 10

we find this humiliating statement, “they were sore afraid” — sore afraid,

so soon after deliverance, and such a deliverance! Whence could their

danger have come, and what could have made them so quickly to forget

their God? These are the matters we have now to consider.




awkward and dangerous position from an ordinary point of view. That

position cannot be more forcibly indicated than in the words of Pharaoh

himself. “They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in.”

They were going into a cul-de-sac. Before them lay the sea; on either hand,

as we imagine, rose high ground; it only needed that Pharaoh should come

in at the rear and close them up altogether, then they would be compelled

to surrender. How then had they come into this position? It was not

through any ignorance or carelessness on the part of their leader. Any

general leading an army into such a trap would have been deservedly put to

death for gross incompetency. It was God who had brought them exactly

here, and if the word “trap” is to be mentioned, it was a trap with regard

to Pharaoh and not with regard to Israel. The God who had led the

Israelites out with a high hand, led them on with the pillar of cloud, and led

them into the very position which, if they themselves had been consulted,

was the last they would have chosen. It was not the only way God could

have taken them, but it was the way in which, most effectually, speedily,

and impressively, He could deliver them from Pharaoh. For God, of

course, well knew that the deliverance of His people was not accomplished,

simply because they had got out of Egypt. The exodus had been a miracle

in many ways, and not least in this, that it had. compeled Pharaoh and his

servants to act in contradiction to all the most dominating elements of their

character. Just as afterwards in dealing with the waters of the Red Sea,

God made the force of the wind to overcome the force of gravity; so he

had already by another east wind, in the shape of the death of the firstborn,

completely set aside for a night all the most settled habits of Egypt.

These habits had stood up on the right hand and on the left, and made a

broad and open way for Israel to go out of the land. But presently,

immediately and according to the natural order, these habits resumed their

former sway. What else was to be expected? It mattered not in what

direction Israel took their flight. Pharaoh and his hosts, smarting with

injured pride, panting for vengeance and recovery of lost treasure, would

be after them. There was a void in Egypt because of the death of the firstborn,

but after all the mothers would feel that void the most. There was

another void by reason of the loss of all these slaves, these useful

laborers, these accumulators of Egyptian wealth, and this void, we may be

sure, was more operative in the vexation it produced than the loss of the

first-born. It is a humiliating truth, but men, as a rule, can more easily bear

the loss of kindred, even one so dear as the first-born, than the loss of

fortune. A failure in business is more discomposing and fretting than a

dozen bereavements, considered simply as bereavements; and thus it is

certain that Pharaoh and his generals were very speedily in council as to the

best way of securing the fugitives. While so engaged, the news comes to

them of the direction in which the Israelites had gone. This news was the

very thing to decide Pharaoh and make his preparations large and

overwhelming, especially when God came to harden his heart to a greater

pitch of stubbornness than it yet had reached. Either recapture or

destruction seemed now certain. Therefore, seeing Pharaoh was now

bound by the very force of the passions raging in his heart and the hearts of

his people to follow Israel, it was well as soon as possible, to remove all

danger to Israel consequent on this line of action. No good purpose was to

be served either towards Israel or towards Pharaoh himself, by allowing

him for any length of time, to harass their rear. A catastrophe of the Red

Sea magnitude had to come, and the sooner it now came, the better. Israel

had dangers enough in front and within; from Amalekites, Amorites,

Canaanites, and all the rest of their opponents; from their own character,

their own depravity, blindness of heart, sensuality, and idolatrous

disposition. God does not allow all possible dangers to come upon us at

once. Do not let us be so occupied, with the dangers that are present and

pressing as to forget those which He has utterly swept out of the way,

overwhelmed in a Red Sea, whence they will emerge against us no more

for ever.



THE FEAR WHICH ISRAEL EXPRESSED. In itself this fear was

indefensible. There was no ground for it in the nature of things. God had

done nothing to produce fear; everything indeed, if only it could be rightly

seen, to produce the contrary; everything to call forth the utmost reverence

and obedience from every right-minded Israelite. He was now, even while

the Israelites were entangled in the land, Jehovah as much as ever, the

great I Am, leading Israel by a way which, though they knew it not, was

the best way. But we must also look at things from Israel’s point of view;

we must really remember what God really remembers, that men are dust

(Psalm 103:14), and that even when they have the greatest reasons for

confidence, those reasons get hidden up, or even presented in such

forbidding aspects as to make them powerful in producing unbelief.

Our great adversary, who can make evil appear good also makes good

appear evil. Look then at what there was in the state of things, to excuse

the Israelites in being sore afraid.


Ψ      The magnitude of Pharaoh’s preparations. In spite of all the crippling

effects of the plague, he was able to muster a great array. Doubtless he had

a big standing army, for chariots are not got ready at a moment’s notice.

We may infer that he was a man who always had on hand some scheme of

ambition and aggrandizement, and because the Israelites had long dwelt in

his land, they knew all about the skill, valor and crushing force of the

charioteers. Whatever strength there might be in the natural resources of

Egypt they knew it well. When the unknown Canaan had to be faced, they

gave Moses no rest, till spies were dispatched to report on the land; but

they needed no report of Egypt. The military strength of Pharaoh was only

too deeply impressed on every mind.


Ψ      There was the exasperation of a great loss. The people not only knew

the strength with which Pharaoh came, but the spirit in which he came. He

had lost 600,000 men, with their flocks and herds, and all the choice spoils

of Egypt, in the way of gold, silver and raiment. Then there was a further

loss of population in the mixed multitude. There was everything to

exasperate the despot, and not one thing to soothe his pride or lessen his

calamities. If only he had failed in trying to get hold of a new possession, it

would not have been so hard. But he had failed in keeping the old; he had

gone through ten plagues, and yet lost his treasures after all. We may fear

that only too many among the Israelites, had just that spirit of greed and

grasping in their own hearts which would enable them to appreciate the

spirit of Pharaoh’s pursuit.


Ψ      There was the degrading effect of the long oppression in which the

Israelites had been kept. The spirit of the slave comes out in the way they

talk. These are not imaginary words put in their lips; the very “touch of

nature” is in them. These are the language and conduct that reveal a real

experience. The present generation, and one knows not how many

generations before, had been born in servitude. They had not only been in

servitude, but they had felt and acknowledged the bitter misery of it. And

now the servitude was ended in due course. Freedom was a necessity, a

blessing, and a glory to Israel; but they could not be made fit for it all at

once. Jehovah could show signs and wonders in many ways; He could by

one blow slay the first-born of Egypt and let the oppressed go free; but it

required an altogether different power and method to infuse into the

liberated the spirit and courage of freemen.


13 “And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see

the salvation of the LORD, which He will shew to you to day: for

the Egyptians whom ye have seen to day, ye shall see them again

no more for ever.”  And Moses said… fear ye not. Moses knew that the pursuit

of Israel by the host of the Egyptians was a part of the counsel of God, and

was to tend in some way or other to the promotion of God’s honor and

glory (v. 4). He had sufficient faith to believe in a deliverance the nature

of which it is not likely that he could anyway conjecture. Whether hail

would fall from heaven and destroy them (Joshua 10:11); or the earth

gape and swallow them up (Numbers 16:32); or the angel of death

smite them all in the night (II Kings 19:35); or any other strange form

of destruction come upon them, he did not know; but he concluded from

what had been revealed to him, THAT GOD WAS ABOUT TO VINDICATE

HIS HONOR without the aid of man. Hence his words — Stand still, and see

the salvation of the Lord — which assigned to the Israelites a mere

passive attitude of expectation. For the Egyptians, whom ye have seen today,

ye shall see them again no more for ever. The order of the

words in the original favours the marginal rendering, which is to be

adopted with one slight change. Translate — “For, as ye have seen the

Egyptians to-day, ye shall see them again no more for ever,” i.e., ye shall

see them no more alive, vigorous and menacing, but still and lifeless upon

the Red Sea shore (v. 30). There is no reference to any other Egyptians

than those with Pharaoh in the camp, nor to any later relations between

Egypt and the chosen people.



The Passage of the Red Sea



“Fear ye not, stand still (firm), and see the salvation of God” (v. 13). Mark, by

way of introduction, the critical character of this event, the greatest in Old

Testament history.


  • THE SCENE. In the Gospels, the spiritual significance is almost

independent of topography. Only two or three scenes (e.g., Jacob’s well:

the ridge whence Jesus saw from Olivet the city and wept over it), can be

absolutely and certainly identified. But here sermon and story are

inextricably blended with sea and shore. Note! A twice change of direction:


Ψ      not by way of Philistia:

Ψ      not by caravan road, round by the mouth of the western arm of the

Red Sea; but brought into a position of extreme danger, with the

sea roaring between Israel and the freedom of the desert.


The writer of this section of the commentary believes, that Israel encamped

on what is now known as the plain of Suez, the sea reaching then much

further north than now. (See maps and interesting article, “Une Splendeur

de la Foi,” by L’Abbι Moigno,  in “Les Mondes” for Aug. 28, 1879.) Any

detailed map will show — that there Israel would have the sea on the east,

hills to north and south, an open valley to the west, along which the

Egyptian forces would charge. Deepen the impression, that these two

millions of people, some indeed armed, but not yet organized, with

women, children, and the aged, were in a position utterly hopeless.

It was a situation of despair — but that which is impossible with



  • One of the objects should be to vivify and make very

real to the hearers, the histories of the Old Testament, which sometimes

seem so very far away from modern thought and life. With this intent, bring

out clearly, by aid of exposition elsewhere, points like these: — probably

seven days elapsed between the Passover and the song on the eastern shore

of the sea, occupied thus:


Ψ      By Israel. On the 15th, to Succeth, fifteen miles; on the 16th, to Etham,

fifteen miles; on the 17th, to the dangerous position by the sea; on the

18th, 19th, and 20th, encamped there, completing arrangements for the

pilgrimage to Sinai and Palestine.


Ψ      By Egypt. Every movement watched by the government; night of 15th,

report from Succoth; of the 16th, from Etham; morning of the 17th,

courier could carry in a few hours, over the thirty miles, intelligence that

Israel had taken the wrong (?) road. Sudden determination of the king. Had

three days to overtake. Called together six hundred picked chariots, other

chariots, infantry, and led in person. On the afternoon of the 20th, the

pickets of Israel saw far away the force coming over the sand ridges.

Horror of the two millions. The splendid cities of tombs in Egypt rose to

the memory. But here soon a sort of gigantic anticipation of Isandula. A

cry against Moses, and unto Jehovah. The moral attitude of Moses mixed

— cheer for the people — a fainting heart before God. His silent prayer.

“The upward glancing of an eye.” The word of assurance. “Forward.”

The movement of what must have been, in this instance, wall of cloud and

fire, to give soft electric light to Israel and over the sea, to be darkness to

Egypt, and to cover the greatest military movement in all history. The short

time demanded perfect order. Then came the ploughshare of the east winch

In the confusion and darkness, Egypt eagerly followed. The look out of the

cloud, shot with thunderbolt — a lock which meant ruin. Sea rolls back

from the rear of Egypt. Chariot clashes against chariot. Wheels lost. On the

night of the 14th Israel became a nation. On the morning of the 21st the

nation was free.




Ψ      Neither first nor even second openings in life are always into the way

God intends us to take. A common error to suppose that any opening is

“providential.” Not via Philistia: nor the caravan road to Sinai. God’s

object to develop moral thoughtfulness, and the scrutiny of apparent

leading. E.g., Will this course:


o        imperil my principle,

o        lead into temptation, and

o        ruin my soul?


Ψ      Seemingly hopeless entanglement may have great issues. Moral

firmness developed: dependence upon God. Salvation complete, and

anthem of victory.


Ψ      The temper for crisis is that of calm confidence. No panic! Had there

been panic, Israel had been food for Egyptian sabers! “Stand firm!” (see

Hebrew) Apply this to state of religion; things social, political, at home

and abroad; to affairs personal.


Ψ      Confidence should express itself in PRAYER.  Note the difference:

the cry of Israel, and the evidently silent appeal of Moses.


Ψ      Action must follow prayer. “Wherefore criest thou unto me?”

This is an intimation that prayer was already answered; and now Moses

is to go to the front, and every man to his post.


Ψ      When God leads into danger, He will certainly see us safely through it.

If wantonly and willfully we go into danger, we may (through mercy) be

delivered; if on Divine leading, we shall.  There is a difference between

presumption and courage.


Ψ      The salvations of God are ever timely and complete.


Ψ      After God’s great salvation comes, the dumbness of amazement, and

after the dumbness, a song. “Jehovah shall fight for you, and ye shall be

dumb.” (Hebrew of ch.14:31; 15:1; Revelation 15:2-4.)


14 “The LORD shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace.”

Ye shall hold your peace — i.e., “do nothing, remain at




Divine Trial a Touchstone to Distinguish Faith from Unfaithfulness

(vs. 10-14)



The Israelites had almost as much ground as Moses to believe in God, and

trust His providential care of them. They had seen the whole series of

miracles which Moses had wrought. They had found themselves exempt

from visitations which fell with the utmost severity on their near

neighbors. They had heard from Moses God’s positive promise to bring

them into Canaan (ch. 13:5, 11). Yet at the first appearance of danger they lost

all heart, all hope. They turned upon Moses with reproaches, taxed him with having

brought them out of Egypt against their will, and expressed a readiness

to return, and resume their old service.  Moses, on the other hand, remained firm —

did not blench — though, like the people, he felt the need of crying to God

for aid (v. 15), yet he did so in a different spirit from them — he with faith, they, in

panic terror, without it; he, sure that God would somehow grant salvation, they

expecting nothing less than almost immediate death. Thus the same trial

which shows forth one man’s faith and trust and confidence in God, reveals

other men’s want of faith. (Adversity will either make one bitter or better -

CY - 2010) While things went smoothly, there was no  apparent difference —

an unprejudiced observer might have thought the people just as trustful as their

leader —  but it was not so; and God willed that the difference should be made

apparent. God will have faith distinguished from unfaithfulness, and each

recognized as what it really is.



which He wills to have set forth in the eyes of men, out of the tender love

He bears towards His people. Though they be at the best “unprofitable

servants,” (Luke 17:10) - he deigns to recognize merit in their service, and

wishes them to be honored and held in respect by others, assigning them this

as a part of their reward.



severe trial came, might remain self-deceived, imagining themselves to

have true faith, though wholly lacking it.


Ÿ         FOR THE MERE RIGHT’S SAKE. Because He is a God of justice

and of truth, abhorrent of pretence, semblance, make-believe; and always

on the side of sincerity and openness. “There is nothing secret,” He tells us,

“that shall not be made manifest, nor hid that shall not be known”

(Luke 8:17). And this revelation of the true character of men and

actions, which His truthfulness makes an ultimate necessity, His providence

works for here. His trials are touchstones, potent to detect shams, and to

prove the faithfulness of the faithful





To the faithful prayer of Moses, albeit pitched perhaps in too low a key, God

made gracious answer. A “cry” had been unnecessary, since His word was

already pledged to bring His people safe to Canaan, and to get Himself

honor upon Pharaoh in connection with the pursuit (v. 4). But, as the

appeal has been made, He responds with a plain statement of what has now

to be done:


Ψ      The Israelites are to make themselves ready for a forward movement

      (ver. 15);

Ψ       Moses is to stretch out his rod over the Red Sea, and it will be divided;

Ψ      The Israelites are then to make the passage on dry ground;

Ψ      The Egyptians are to follow, and then honor is to be gotten upon them;

      and they are to know by the result that God is indeed Jehovah


15 “And the LORD said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me?

speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward: 16 But lift thou

up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and

the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea.” 

 “And the LORD said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me?”  It is evident

that Moses, while boldly encouraging the people, himself needed the support and

consolation of prayer. The form of the Divine reply to his prayer seems to indicate

a certain amount of reproach, as if Moses himself had become unduly anxious. 

“Speak unto the children of Israel that they go forward  The Israelites were not

to rest in their encampment, but to form in line of march, and descend to the very

shore of the sea, and there hold themselves in readiness. Moses was to lift up his

rod — the rod with which his other miracles had been wrought — and stretch

out his hand over the sea, and then the drying up was to begin. Thus was most

of the night passed. 



 Speak unto the Children of Israel that They Go Forward! (v. 15)



CHURCH. The law of Christian life is advance. God never brings His

Church or people into positions from which retreat is necessary, or in

which advance is impossible. We may bring ourselves into false positions

of this kind, but God never leads us into them. In proportion as we

surrender ourselves to His guidance, we may depend on being conducted

always “forward.” There is no instance in the whole history of the Old or

New Testament Church in which, while God’s guidance was followed,

retreat had to be made. Forward!


Ψ      In Christian attainments.

Ψ      In holy living.

Ψ      In labors for the advancement of Christ’s kingdom.

Ψ      In missionary enterprise.

Ψ      In doing good to our fellow-men.




These do no good, but much harm. They betray an unbelieving spirit. ]f

God brings us into situations of trial, the fact that it is He who brings us

into them is of itself a pledge that with the trial, He will make also a way of

escape (I Corinthians 10:13). When the foe bears hard upon us, we

should, instead of losing heart, rather feel that the time has come for

getting everything in readiness for advance — the “great door and

effectual” (I Corinthians 16:9) - must be on the very point of opening.



the same moment that He is saying — “Speak unto the children of Israel

that they go forward,” He is doubtless commissioning some Moses to

stretch out his rod over the sea, to open up the way for us. God never says

“Forward,” without at the same time opening the way.




Going forward at God’s word, the Israelites were assured of God’s

protection. They were certain of reaching the further shore in safety. No

fear of the waves rushing back, and burying them. Pharaoh pursued, but he

was not permitted to capture them, and was himself overthrown. We may

confront any perils, if duty calls, and God goes with us. Compare Luther at



17 “And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they

shall follow them: and I will get me honor upon Pharaoh, and upon

all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.” 

I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians. Here, and here

only, are the hearts of the Egyptians generally said to have been

“hardened.” Whatever meaning we attach to the expression, there will be

no more difficulty in applying it to them than to Pharaoh. They had made

themselves partakers in the monarch’s guilt by mustering in hot haste when

he summoned them, and had allowed themselves to revel in the anticipation

of plunder and carnage (ch.15:9). Under such circumstances, the

general laws which govern human nature would be quite sufficient to make

their hearts grow hard. They shall follow them. Upon this act — rash, if

the phenomenon had been a mere natural one — presumptuous and

infatuated if the drying up were regarded as miraculous — depended

altogether the destruction of the Egyptians. They had only to have “stood

still” and allowed the escape, which a week previously they had done their

best to encourage, in order to have remained safe and unhurt. It was their

stupidity and blood-thirstiness which alone brought them into any danger.

Upon his horsemen. Rather “his chariotmen.” See the comment on v. 9.


18 “And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I have

gotten me honor upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his

horsemen.  The Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord. All Egypt

would learn the destruction of the host, and the circumstances under which

it occurred, whose miraculous nature could not be concealed. And the

consequence would be a wide recognition of the superior might of

Jehovah, the God of Israel, over that of any of the Egyptian deities. More

than this the Egyptians were not likely to admit under any circumstances.

(Prior to the end of time and before and during the Second Coming of

Christ, once again God will work in such a way that the world will know


perusing the use of the word “know” in the book of Ezekiel, using a good

concordance.  I have a photocopy of the word used, I think, 62 times in

Ezekiel.  See Ezekiel – The Study of God’s Use of the Word Know –

# 193 – this website – CY – 2017)



The Reward of Faith (vs. 15-18)


God rewarded the faith and trust of Moses by a revelation of the manner of

that deliverance which he so confidently expected. Hitherto the manner had

been involved in mystery; and it is scarcely likely that any one had even

conjectured it as a possible thing. There was no precedent for such an

interference with the laws of nature; and the thought could scarcely occur

to the imagination of any one. But, to reward His faithful servant, to quiet

his anxiety, and give definiteness to his expectations of deliverance, God

now plainly revealed the mode in which He would save his people. God is

ever “a rewarder of them that diligently seek Him,” (Hebrews 11:6) and

especially rewards faith. The faith of Abraham, which made him trust God’s promise

to create of him a great nation, when as yet he had no child, obtained for him the gift

of Canaan and the covenant of circumcision. The faith of Noah, who believed God’s

threat of a deluge, which all the rest of the world scorned, saved him and his family

from perishing by water. The faith of Enoch, by which he “walked with God” –

(Genesis 5:24) though he could not see Him — caused God to “take him.” Faith

brings us, to a certainty:


Ψ      The present blessing of an assured trust which nothing can imperil;


Ψ      Quietness and confidence — the feeling that we may “stand still and see

      the salvation of God;”


Ψ      Freedom from panic fears and unworthy apprehensions;


Ψ      Cheerfulness and hopefulness — a conviction that God will give us what

      is best for us. Faith may also, by God’s mercy, obtain for us further gifts in

      the future — blessings not naturally arising out of it, but added to it as

      rewards by God, and signs of his approval.


The faith of Moses was ultimately rewarded:


Ψ      By success in the great object of his life — the liberation of his people

      and their safe-conduct through all the perils of the wilderness to the

      verge of Canaan;


Ψ      By God’s approval of him as “Moses, the servant of the Lord”

      (Deuteronomy 34:5); and


Ψ      By the vision of Canaan from Pisgah.



Obedience Necessary to Salvation (vs. 15-18)





Ψ      There is a time for action as well as prayer: “Wherefore criest thou unto



o        The time of the leader must not be spent in prayer only — there are

arrangements to make and needs to meet. In times of difficulty God

asks for obedience. A path of love, of forgiveness of injuries, of some

service, lies right before us as our duty in that hour. True faith will

walk in it. This too is an appeal to our Father as well as prayer.


o        Unbelief may hide itself behind a form of devotion.


Ψ      To speak to them that they go forward.


Ψ      To do what God bids them in opening up their brethren’s way. “Lift

thou up thy rod.” The lifting up of the rod seemed a vain thing, but it clove

a path for Israel through the heart of the sea. Our service for our brethren

in the day of their trouble may cleave a way for them. A people’s progress

may be hindered by a leader’s indolence and selfishness.



(vs. 17-18).


Ψ      His mercy was veiled, but He was working still. The very pursuit of the

foe was from Him.


Ψ      Egypt had still to receive one crowning lesson regarding Jehovah’s

might and unfailing guardianship of His people. When foes pursue,

when sins rise up to recover their former sway, it is that God may

destroy the one and judge the other.



                      THE PASSAGE OF THE RED SEA


The Egyptians had arrived in the near neighborhood of the Israelite camp, at

the close of a long day’s march, towards evening. Having ascertained that the

fugitives were still, as they had expected them to be, shut in between the sea

and the wilderness, they were content, and made no immediate attack, but

encamped over against them. Hereupon, “the pillar of the cloud,” which

was at the time in front of the Israelite camp — probably near the point

where God intended the passage of the sea to be effected “removed” from

this position, and placed itself directly behind the Israelite encampment,

between them and the Egyptians. This movement alone was calculated to

alarm the latter, and prevent them from stirring till near daybreak; but, the

better to secure their inaction, the pillar was made to overshadow them

with a deep and preternatural darkness, so that it became almost impossible

for them to advance. Meanwhile, on the side which was turned towards the

Israelites, the pillar presented the appearance of a bright flame, lighting up

the whole encampment, and rendering it as easy to make ready for the

march as it would have been by day. Thus, the beasts were collected and

laden the columns marshaled and prepared to proceed in a certain fixed

order — and everything made ready for starting so soon as the bed of the

sea should be sufficiently dry. Moses, about nightfall, descending to the

water’s edge, stretched forth his rod over the waves, and, an east wind at

once springing up — accompanied perhaps by a strong ebb of the tide —

the waters of the gulf were parted in the vicinity of the modern Suez, and a

dry space left between the Bitter Lakes, which were then a prolongation of

the Gulf, and the present sea-bed. The space may have been one of

considerable width. The Israelites entering upon it, perhaps about midnight,

accomplished the distance, which may not have exceeded a mile, with all

their belongings, in the course of five or six hours, the pillar of the cloud

withdrawing itself, as the last Israelites entered the sea-bed, and retiring

after them like a rearguard. Thus protected, they made the transit in safety,

and morning saw them encamped upon the shores of Asia.


19 “And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel,

removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from

before their face, and stood behind them:”  The angel of God. The

Divine Presence, which manifested itself in the pillar of the cloud, is called

indifferently “the Lord” (ch.13:21; 14:24), and “the Angel of God” — just as the

appearance to Moses in the burning bush is termed both “God” and “the

angel of the Lord” (ch. 3:2). Which went before — i.e.., “which

ordinarily, and (so to speak) habitually preceded the camp” (ch. 13:21;

Psalm 78:14). And stood behind them. Took up a fixed station for the night,

or the greater portion of it.


 20 “And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel;

and it was a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light by night to these:

so that the one came not near the other all the night.”  It was a cloud and

darkness to them, but it gave light by night to these. Though there is nothing

in the Hebrew correspondent to the expressions “to them,” “to these,” yet the

meaning seems to have been rightly apprehended by our translators.



    Light to the Friend, Darkness to the Foe (vs. 19-20)


We are told that as the Israelites were about to cross the Red Sea, the

fiery-cloudy pillar changed its position, and came between them and the

Egyptians. It was the self-same pillar, but it wore a very different aspect to

friends and foes respectively. “It was,” we read, “a cloud of darkness to

them (the Egyptians), but it gave light to these (the camp of Israel).” We

should notice that the same double aspect belongs to all God’s

manifestations of Himself, in Law and Gospel, in matter and spirit, in the

world, and in the Church.


  • GOD’S ATTRIBUTES have this double aspect. Not one of His

attributes but has a bright side turned to the believer, and a dark side to the

wicked. This is true even of such attributes as holiness and justice, from

which the believer, as a sinner, might seem to have most to fear. “If we

confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to

cleanse us from all unrighteousness” (I John 1:9). So God’s omnipotence,

which is hostile to the transgressor, is pledged to defend, bless, and save

the saint (I Peter 1:5; Jude 1:24). God’s eternity, in like manner, is given to

the believer for a dwelling-place (Deuteronomy 33:27; Psalm 90:1), but how

terrible an aspect it has to the evil-doer! The dark side of love is WRATH!

“If God be for us, who can be against us?” (Romans 8:31). But on the

other hand, “It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God”

(Hebrews 10:31).


  • GOD’S LAWS have this double aspect.


Ψ      Physical laws. The constitution of nature is favorable to virtue, hostile

to vice (See Butler’s Analogy of Religion).


Ψ      Moral law, for this, while awarding life to the obedient, is a ministry of

condemnation to the sinner.


Ψ      Mental and spiritual laws. Take e.g. the law of habit. “The law of habit,

which applies alike to all our physical, mental, and moral actions, must

be regarded in its design as a truly benevolent one. But the law of habit,

when the soul yields to sin, WORKS DEATH TO THE SINNER! —

like the pillar of cloud which made day to Israel, and was darkness to

the Egyptians, so the law, which is bright to the well-doer, sheds night

upon the path of the sinner, until he is plunged into the sea of death”

(Theodore D. Woolsey).


  • GOD’S WORD has this double aspect. To the prayerful, believing,

docile mind, it is a source of unfailing light. It is a lamp to the feet and

a light to the path (Psalm 119:105). But to the proud, the unbelieving,

and the presumptuous, it is only darkness. These can see nothing in it but

difficulties, incredibilities, contradictions, moral monstrosities. It is full of

stumbling-blocks. The more they read it, the more are they blinded by it.

They read only to discover some new fault or error?


  • GOD’S VERY GOSPEL has this double aspect. “The preaching of

the Cross is to them that perish foolishness, but to us who are saved it is

the power of God” (I Corinthians 1:18-24). It repels the one class, and

attracts the other. To the one, it is "a savour of life; to the other, a savour

of death (II Corinthians 2:16).


 21 “And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea;

and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that

night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.”

Moses stretched out his hand. As commanded by God (v. 16). Compare the

somewhat similar action of Elijah and Elisha, when they divided the Jordan

(II Kings 2:8, 14). The Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind.

The Septuagint translate (ἐν ἀνέμῳ νότῳ βιαίῳ - en anemo noto biaio - a strong

 south wind ); but the Hebrew kadim is certainly “east” rather

than “south.” It is not, however, “east” in the sense of due east, but

would include all the range of the compass between N.E. and S.E. If we

suppose the Bitter Lakes to have been joined to the Red Sea by a narrow

and shallow channel, the action of a south-east wind, by driving the water

of the Lakes northward, may have easily produced the effect described in

the text. A simultaneous ebb of the lower gulf would have further

facilitated the passage. The waters were divided. Water remained in the

upper extremity of the Gulf, now the site of the Bitter Lakes, and also, of

course, below Suez. The portion of the sea dried up lay probably between

the present southern extremity of the Bitter Lakes and Suez. By the

gradual elevation and desiccation of the region, it has passed into

permanent dry land.


22 “And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the

dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand,

and on their left.”  The waters were a wall — i.e., a protection, a defense.

Pharaoh could not attack them on either flank, on account of the two

bodies of water between which their march lay. He could only come at

them by following after them. The metaphor has been by some understood

literally, especially on account of the expression in ch. 15:8 —

“The floods stood upright as an heap;” and again that in Psalm 78:13

— “He made the waters to stand as an heap.” But those phrases,

occurring in poems, must be taken as poetical; and can scarcely have any

weight in determining the meaning of “wall” here. We must ask ourselves

— is there not an economy and a restraint in the exertion by God even of

miraculous power? — is more used than is needed for the occasion? — and

would not all that was needed at this time have been effected by such a

division of the sea as we have supposed, without the fluid being converted

into a solid, or having otherwise the laws of its being entirely altered.

Protection is at any rate the main idea, and any other is secondary and




      God Protects His Own in Strange Ways (vs. 19-22)


The passage of the Red Sea was the crowning miracle by which God

effected the deliverance of His people from the bondage of Egypt; and all

its circumstances were strange and worthy of notice.




enter the dark and slimy bed from which the sea had retired without the

cheering sight of the Divine presence before their eyes beckoning them on.

So there are occasions of trial in the life of every man, when God ,seems to

withdraw His presence, to remove Himself, to “go behind us,” so that we

cannot see Him. Sometimes He withdraws Himself in grief or in anger; but

more often He does it in mercy. The temporary obscuration will advantage

the soul under the circumstances. There is perhaps some secular work to

be done which requires all its attention, like this passage, where every step

had to be taken with care. Short separations are said to intensify affection;

and the sense of the Divine presence is more valued after a withdrawal, like

the sun’s light after an eclipse.




came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was

a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light by night to these.” The eye

sees that which it has within itself the power of seeing. To the godly the

presence of God is a joy and a delight, a brightness and a radiance. To the

ungodly it is an awful and alarming thing, a cloud which mars their

enjoyment. When Jesus was on earth, there were those among the

inhabitants of Palestine who “besought Him to depart out of their coasts”

(Matthew 8:34). The ungodly fear to look upon God. He is to them

dark, mysterious, terrible. The sense of His presence paralyses them — they

cannot stir till it is removed. But to the godly, it is “light in the darkness”

— it illuminates mind and soul and spirit — it cheers and brightens the path

of life — it irradiates even the obscurest gulf that we have to traverse. Let

us bear in mind that when the Divine presence is removed from before our

eyes, He is still in no case far from us. If at any time we do not see God, He

at all times sees us. (Genesis 16:13) - We have only to make an effort, and we

can in a short time recover our perception of His presence.




THE SEA. We may note here:


Ψ      The weakness of the instrument. The rod of Moses, stretched over

            the sea, or towards the sea, from some vantage-point on the shore —

            how small a thing was this! How incapable in itself of producing any         

            important effect! Yet in the providence of God, it was made a link in

            the chain of causation by which was brought about one of the greatest       

            events in the whole course of mundane history. Must we not conclude       

            from this, that, when God appoints means, however weak and trivial they

            may be in themselves, they become at once by His appointment, matters

            of the highest consequence? Again we may note -


Ψ      The employment of a natural agency, insufficient in itself to

            accomplish the end, yet having a natural tendency towards its        

            accomplishment. God, the author of nature, (I recommend:  Genesis 17

            - El Shaddai - Names of God - by Nathan Stone - this web site - CY -

            2010) uses nature as a help towards accomplishing His ends, even

            when the help is but small. Our Lord fed the 5000 and the 4000, by

            means of loaves and fishes already existing, though the material which      

            they furnished could but have gone a short way. He anointed the blind      

            man’s eyes with spittle and clay, and bade him “go, wash in the pool of   

            Siloam,” (John 9:7) using means which were to some extent reputed          

            salutary, but which of themselves could never have restored sight. So

            with the east wind. We must not suppose that it divided the sea by its

            own natural force. God used it, as He used the spittle and the clay, and

            made it accomplish His purpose, not by its own force but by His own        





THEIR AVENGER. “The waters were a wall unto them.” But for the two

bodies of water, on their right and on their left, Pharaoh’s force might have

outflanked the host of Israel, and fallen upon it on three sides, or even

possibly have surrounded it. God can at any time turn dangers into

safeguards. When persecutors threaten the Church, He can turn their

swords against each other, and allow the Church to pass on its way in

peace. When temptations assault the soul, he can give the soul such

strength, that it conquers them and they become aids to its progress. And

with equal ease can He make the peril which menaces His faithful ones fall,

not upon them, but upon their adversaries. The furnace heated to consume

the “three children” destroyed none but those bitter persecutors who had

arrested them and cast them into the fire (Daniel 3:22). The lions of

Darius the Mede devoured, not Daniel, but “those men that had accused

Daniel’ (ib. 6:24). The Jews, who had sought to destroy the infant Church

by prejudicing the Romans against Christ (John 19:12) and his apostles

(Acts 24:1-9), were themselves within forty years of Christ’s death,

conquered and almost exterminated by these same Romans. The ungodly

are ever “falling into their own nets together,”  (Psalm 35:8) while the

godly man for whom the nets are set “escapes them.”




We Walk by Faith, not by Sight (v. 22)


The great mistake of most people is, that they trust too much to their own

eyes. They will not take into consideration anything that lies beyond the

field of sensible experiences. Now God and His eternity, though manifested

in this field, are practically outside it; the spiritual eyesight is more reliable

than the physical, because that which it sees is safer to rely upon. Natural

sight shows us obstacles, spiritual sight shows us how they may be

surmounted. Try to walk by the one and you must stand still; try to walk by

the other and nothing can long keep you standing. Notice here:


  • FAITH’S SECRET. The story illustrates this; it shows us:


Ψ      What the Israelites saw. Their position looked bad enough. Behind were

the hosts of Pharaoh; before, the sea. They were shut in. Trusting only to

their eyes they could hardly do other than despair (vs. 10-13).

Better to have been “let alone” in Egypt, than thus delivered, to be

destroyed in the wilderness. A clear head, if the heart be faint, is not

much help to any man.


Ψ      What Moses saw. He was in the same position as the people whom he

led, yet he could see more than they did. He looked not merely before

and behind, he looked also up to God. Faith enabled him to ignore

sight, and inspired him to encourage his sight-fascinated followers.

Soon the word came which justified his faith, obstacles were nothing,

let them wait the word of command and then “go forward.” Often

difficulties seem to surround us — no way of escape anywhere visible.

Even so faith can sight the way, for faith can sight God who sees it.

Stand still, wait His word; refuse to allow that for those who trust Him

any difficulties can be insurmountable. Faith would not be of much

good were there no obstacles to test it. Faith is not of much good if

it cannot learn to ignore obstacles.


  • FAITH’S SUCCESS. The path of faith not merely leads out of danger,

it turns dangers into safeguards and transforms them into a protection for

those who tread it. When the word came “Go forward,” the waters no

longer “shut in” the Israelites; instead:


Ψ      They protected them during their passage. The Egyptians could but

follow, they could not circumvent. “The waters were a wall unto them”

on either side; no wall could have been more impregnable.


Ψ      They secured them against the fury of their pursuers. Israel once across,

the waters returned, overwhelming the armies of the enemy. So too faith,

facing the flood, found that waters which drowned the world upheld the

ark and floated it in safety. So too faith, facing the waters of death, finds

that though they overwhelm the unready they float the faithful into a

safe harbor. So too with all difficulties, faced in faith, they are our best

helpers. “The hand of the diligent’ not only “maketh rich,” it cleaves

a way for him through the sea of difficulty, and leaves his pursuers,

sloth, ignorance, all the deadly sins, overwhelmed and swallowed up

behind him.


  • FAITH’S STRENGTH. How comes faith to do all this? It is not faith

that does it, but the God in whom faith trusts. Nothing is impossible to

faith, because NOTHING IS IMPOSSIBLE TO GOD!   The Egyptians are

sure of their prey; the Israelites are sure of destruction; because, whilst

reckoning with what sight sees, they fail to reckon with THE UNSEEN

GOD!  Moses is sure of safety because he is sure of God, and knows that

He is more than a match for all the seeming tyranny of circumstances.


  • APPLICATION:  How many people are shut in, faithless and discouraged

before some sea of difficulty! “I cannot do this,” “I cannot do that,” and

yet no progress is possible until I not merely can but do. “O ye of little

faith, wherefore will ye doubt!” “I cannot;” no, BUT GOD CAN  and

what He bids you do that He will strengthen you to do. Don’t stand facing the

difficulties, but face the God who is above them and beyond them. “Stand

still and wait” until the word comes, but when the word does come, “Go

forward” (compare II Corinthians 12:9-10).




The Destruction of the Egyptians in the Red Sea (vs. 23-31)


As the rearguard of the Israelite host having entered the tract from which the

waters had retired, proceeded along it, and left the western end of the

isthmus vacant, the pillar of the cloud seems to have followed it up and

withdrawn with it. The Egyptians immediately advanced. Notwithstanding

the preternatural darkness, they had become aware, perhaps by means of

their ears, of the movement that was taking place, and with early dawn

they were under arms and pressing on the line of the Israelite retreat. They

found the channel still dry, and hastily entering it with their chariot force,

they hurried forward in pursuit. The first check which they received was

wholly supernatural. “The Lord looked unto the host of the Egyptians

through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the

Egyptians” (v. 24). Details here are wanting; but less cannot be meant,

than that some strange phenomena connected with the retiring “pillar”

caused a panic and threw the ranks of the army into confusion. Then

followed natural impediments. The Lord “took off or “clogged” their

chariot Wheels, and made them go heavily — i.e., the chariot wheels, not

by miracle, but by the operation of God’s natural laws, sank into the soft

sand over which the Israelites had passed easily, having no wheeled

vehicles, and the chariots were consequently dragged forward slowly and

with difficulty. The double hindrance, from the confusion and the stoppage

of the chariots, so discouraged the Egyptians, that after a time they

resolved on beating a retreat (v. 25). They had set out on their return,

when Moses, at God’s instance, stretched forth his hand once mere over

the sea, and the waters on both sides began at once to return. The

Egyptians saw their danger, and “fled against” the advancing tide, racing

against it, as it were, and seeking to reach the shore. But in vain. The

waves came on rapidly, and (in the language of v. 28) there was not a

man of all those who had entered the dry bed of the sea that was not

overwhelmed and drowned in the waters. We should be wrong to press this

language to the extreme letter. In graphic narrative the sacred writers

uniformly employ universal expressions, where they mean to give the

general fact or general result. The true meaning is, that the pursuit

altogether failed. Not an Egyptian made his way alive across the strait. All

that the Israelites ever saw afterwards of the army that they had so much

dreaded (v. 10) was a ghastly mass of corpses thrown up by the tide on

the Asiatic shore (v. 30).


23 “And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of

the sea, even all Pharaoh’s horses, his chariots, and his horsemen.”

All Pharaoh’s horses, his chariots, and his horsemen. Here,

as elsewhere, the word translated “horsemen” probably means the men

who rode in the chariots. Observe that the Pharaoh himself is not said to

have gone in. Menephthah was apt to avoid placing himself in a position of

danger (Records of the Past, vol. 4. pp. 44, 45). Nor is any of the infantry

said to have entered the bed of the sea.



The Deliverance (vs. 10-23)


Consider on this section:




Ψ      Their position. “Encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal

Zephon” (v. 9). The first view of the sea would probably be attractive to

them. Its breeze, after the tedious travel of the desert, would be

deliciously refreshing. They would look with a child’s wonder and

delight on the novel spectacle it presented. They would crowd to the

beach to watch its dancing, white-tipped waves, and curiously to listen

to its soft, lapping ripple on the shore. Yet this sea, which is today their

joy and plaything, will have become by the morrow their terror and

despair — their impregnable prison barrier. The experience is not

uncommon. How often does it happen that the very things which at

first we are disposed to hail with delight, to welcome and rejoice in,

prove afterwards our greatest causes of sorrow! The engagements

we enter into, the friendships we form, the bargains we make, the

society we are introduced to, etc.


Ψ      The approach of the enemy. “The children of Israel lifted up their eyes,

and behold the Egyptians marched after them” (v. 10). The mountains

are around, the sea is in front, and now — terrible situation! — the

Egyptians are pursuing, and close at hand. On they come, in whirling

chariots, in ranks upon ranks of footmen; the long lines are seen defiling

in the distance, and Israel knows that in an hour or two more the

avalanche will be upon them, sweeping all before it, burying them in



Ψ      They were entirely unprepared. They had been resting and

not preparing for battle. The attack took them by surprise. There was no

possibility under the circumstances of presenting an effectual resistance

to the enemy. But, indeed, had the circumstances been ever so favorable,

these hordes of slaves, accustomed so long to crouch before the rod of

the taskmaster, would scarcely have attempted it. How critical, how

perilous, therefore, the entire situation! A picture this of those straits

of life formerly referred to, in which having done our utmost, we can

do no more, and no alternative remains but prayer, and quiet waiting

upon God.


  • THEIR PANIC AND DESPAIR (vs. 10-13). The appearance of the

Egyptians naturally threw the Israelites into a state of the most acute

terror. Remark:


Ψ      Great allowance must be made for them. We do not read that, on this

occasion, God dealt severely with them for the wild, ungrateful words

they uttered. He made allowance.


o        Their situation was really very serious. Placed in like circumstances, we

would perhaps not have shown much more faith than they did.


o        They were unused to the life of freedom. It takes time to teach those

who have always been slaves to appreciate the blessings of the opposite

condition. They carry their slave habits with them into the state of

freedom.  The Israelites had not as yet had much comfort in their

emancipation. Their painful marches had probably been harder work

than even the brick-making of Egypt. They could not as yet feel that

it was better to be free, though enduring hardships in their freedom,

than to be more comfortably situated and be slaves; Do we blame

them? Then reflect how even Christians sometimes murmur and

rebel at the self-denials, the sacrifices, the inconveniences, the

persecutions, which their Christian freedom entails upon them.

You complain, perhaps, that you have a harder time of it now,

than even when you served the flesh. It may be true. But do not

forget that the difference between your condition now and then,

is all the difference between slavery and bondage, between salvation

and a state of wrath.


Ψ      Israel’s behavior was nevertheless very unworthy.


o        It was faithless. They did not wait to ask or see what God, who had

already done so much for them, was about to do now, but at once

concluded that He would leave them to perish. It is, indeed, said that

they“cried unto the Lord” (v. 10), but then, in the next breath, we

read of them reproaching His servant and delegate (v. 11). They are

faithless prayers that come from faithless hearts.


o        It was ungrateful. How willing they had been to be led out of Egypt!

yet now, at the first approach of danger, they turn on their leader, and

taunt him for having given them their liberty. Was Moses to blame for

the pursuit of Pharaoh? Or did he deserve to be thus requited for the

noble stand he had taken on their behalf? Public servants have often

much to endure from the fickle humor of the crowd.


o        it was cowardly. It showed a servile and ignoble spirit even to breathe

so base a regret as that they had not been suffered to continue in



Ψ      The contrast of their conduct with that of Moses. The bearing of Moses

at this crisis was sublime in its calmness and trust. He does not return

“railing for railing.” (I Peter 3:9)  No angry word escapes his lips in

reply to the reproaches of the people. They murmur; he betakes himself

to prayer (v. 15). They look to the visible chariots; he to the invisible

power which is mightier than all. They seem bereft of reason, fearing

immediate death; he is calm, undaunted, self-collected, and gives them

the best of counsel. Ponder his words — “Fear ye not, stand still, and

see the salvation of the Lord, which He will shew to you today” (v. 13).


o        The situation was one in which God alone could bring salvation. They

could do nothing for themselves. The salvation must be God’s from

first to last.


o        God would bring them this salvation. The fact that he had brought them

into this strait was of itself a pledge that be would find them a way out of

it. The believer, who finds himself in situations of difficulty, may cherish

the same confidence.


o        Their duty was to stand still, and see THIS SALVATION!   So long as

means of help are put within our reach, it is our duty to use them. When

no such means exist, or when all available means have been exhausted,

and still the shadow overhangs us, what remains but to wait patiently

on THE HELP OF THE MOST HIGH? “Stand still” — in trust, in

prayer, in expectancy, in readiness to advance the instant the word

is given. “Stand still” — as opposed to weak murmurings, to passionate

regrets, to foolish rebellion against circumstances you cannot alter, —

so shall you “see the salvation of the Lord.” If nothing else will do,

God will cleave a way for you through the waves, or better still,

will enable you, like Peter, to walk on them (Matthew 14:29).


  • GOD’S COMMAND TO MOSES (vs. 15-19).


Ψ      The command came in answer to prayer. “Wherefore criest thou unto

me” (v. 15). The words contain no reproach, but imply that prayer

needed on the instant to be exchanged for action.


Ψ      Moses was to speak to the people that they go forward. See below.


Ψ      He was to stretch his rod over the sea, and divide the waters (v. 16).

The confidence of Moses, that God would show a way of salvation, was

thus justified by the result. The light was not given as early as the people

might have wished, but it was given in time. God also announces to

Moses His purpose of destroying the Egyptians (vs. 17-18).


  • THE ADVANCE THROUGH THE SEA. On this notice:


Ψ      The change in the position of the pillar of cloud and fire (vers. 19, 20).

Moving to the rear, it stood between the Israelites and their pursuers,

turning a bright side to the former, and a dark side to the latter. (See

below.) By this seasonable change in its position, it


o        illuminated the passage for the Israelites. The light would stream on in



o        Made the way dark and perilous for the pursuers.


o        Hid the pursuers from the pursued, and vice versa. This, besides being

an additional defense to the Israelites, saved them from the terror which

the sight of their pursuers would naturally awaken. It is related of a party

of the Waldenses, that escaping by night from their cruel persecutors,

their path lay through the rugged and perilous defiles of the Alps. At

length the day broke, and under the light of the rising sun, they turned

to survey the track along which they had trod. By a unanimous and

irresistible impulse, they fell on their knees to thank God for their

marvelous preservation.“Here, they had walked on the very verge of

a tremendous precipice where a false step would have dashed them

to atoms; there, they had skirted the banks of a mountain lake, whose

black waters seem to indicate unfathomable depths,” etc. But the

dangers amidst which they had moved had been veiled by the

impenetrable darkness. There are some things which it is better

for us not to see.


o        Learn:


§         That God adapts His manifestations of Himself to His

people’s needs.

§         That God’s presence with His Church is an effectual

bulwark against attack. He can hide His people from

their pursuers. He can:

ό      darken the path of the latter; 

ό      confound their wisdom,

ό      divide their counsels,

ό      perplex them in their courses, and

ό      obstruct their progress by  providential obstacles.

§         Spiritually, in times of temptation and trial, we may rely


ό      being illuminated by God’s truth,

ό      defended by God’s power, and

ό      ultimately conducted to a place of safety.


Ψ      The division of the waters (v. 21).


o        It was accomplished by natural agencies, supernaturally directed!

 “The Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that

night.” The recognition of natural agency in no wise detracts from

the supernatural character of the transaction; it heightens our

conceptions of what God can accomplish by means of the agencies

of nature. Instance the defeat of the Spanish Armada.


o        It was unexpected and surprising. In considering the ways by which

God might conceivably save them, the Israelites probably never dreamed

of His opening a path through the sea. So, in those straits of life to which

reference has been made, help usually arrives from unexpected quarters,

in a way we had not thought of. “God’s way is in the sea, and his path

in the deep waters, and his footsteps are not known” (Psalm 77:19).

(No doubt it will be that way in the end times because the Scripture

says “According to the days of thy coming out of the land of

Egypt will I show unto him marvelous things.”  - Micah 7:15-20;

 Jeremiah 23:7-8 – “Then shall the Lord go forth and fight

against those nations, as when He fought in the day of battle.”

Zechariah 12:3 - CY - 2017)


o        It afforded the passage that was required. The march through the sea,

certainly, would not be without its difficulties. The violent gale, the

thunderings and lightnings (Psalm 77:18), the darkness, the boom of

the distant waters, the lurid light of the fiery cloud, the uneven passage,

the panic and confusion, the strangeness and fearfulness of the entire

situation, would make it an experience never to be forgotten. But if

the road was difficult, it was practicable. They could pass by it. God

promises to make a way for us. He does not promise that the way

will always be an easy one.


Ψ      The safe transit (v. 22). The children of Israel got safely across. They

were preserved in the very midst of the hostile element. Nay, the sea,

which they had so much dreaded, became on either side a protecting

wall to them. The same superintending Providence which secured,

in the shipwreck of Paul (and don’t forget that God had promised

them all safety. - Acts 27:22-25), that “so it came to pass, that they

escaped all safe to land” (ibid. v. 44), doubtless brought about a

like happy result in the case of the Israelites. Their deliverance became,

in after days, the type of any great deliverance wrought by God for

His saints. See the figure wrought out in Psalm 18:4-20.


24 And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the LORD looked unto

the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and

troubled the host of the Egyptians”   In the morning watch. The

“morning watch” of the Hebrews at this period of their history lasted from

2 a.m. to sunrise. Sunrise in Egypt, early in April, would take place about

a quarter to six. The Lord looked unto the host of the Egyptians. The

description in Psalm 77:17-18, is generally regarded as belonging to this

point in the narrative of the Exodus, and may be considered as the traditional

exposition of it. “The clouds poured out water: the skies sent out a sound;

thine arrows also went abroad; the voice of thy thunder was in the heavens;

the lightning lightened the world; the earth trembled and shook.” As

Josephus says “Showers of rain came down from the sky, and dreadful

thunders and lightning, with flashes of fire; thunderbolts also were darted

upon them; nor was there anything, wont to be sent by God upon men as

indications of His wrath, which did not happen upon this occasion”

(Ant. Jud. 2:16, § 3). And troubled the host. Or “disturbed the host,”

i.e.,” threw it into confusion.( συνετάραξε -  sunetaraxe - Septuagint).


25 “And took off their chariot wheels, that they drave them heavily: so

that the Egyptians  said, Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the LORD

fighteth for them against the Egyptians.”  And took off their chariot wheels.

The Septuagint has “clogged the axles of their chariots;” but this is from a

reading not at present found in the Hebrew MSS. Most modern commentators,

however, prefer the reading, which gives a good sense; whereas the existing

text is unintelligible. As Kalisch observes, “if the wheels of the chariots had

been broken off, the chariots would not have moved at all. That they drove

them heavily. The marginal rendering, “and made them go heavily,” is

preferable. The wheels no doubt sank into the sand up to the axles, and

were with difficulty extricated, again to sink a few yards further on.

Progress was thus greatly retarded. So that the Egyptians said, “Let us

flee.” Literally, “And Egypt said, ‘I will flee.’” The Lord fighteth for

them. Compare the promise of Moses (v. 14). The Egyptians were

convinced, by the various obstacles which they encountered, that Jehovah

was lending His people active aid, and miraculously obstructing their

advance. If this were so, it was of no use to persevere, and accordingly

they began their retreat.


26 “And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea,

that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots,

and upon their horsemen.  27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the

sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and

the Egyptians fled against it; and the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in

the midst of the sea.”  And the Lord said. God here interposed a new difficulty.

Moses was instructed to stretch out his rod once more, and undo his

former work. At the appointed sign, the east wind ceased to blow, and the

waters of the Bitter Lakes, no longer driven to the north-west by its force,

flowed back with something of a reflux, while at the same time, the tide

having turned, the Red Sea waves came rushing on at unwonted speed. In

vain the Egyptians fled. They were met by the advancing floods, which

poured in on either side, overwhelming and covering up all those who had

entered on the dangerous path.


28 “And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen,

and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained

not so much as one of them.”  The chariots and the horsemen, and all the host

of Pharaoh. Rather “The chariots, and the chariot men of all the host of

Pharaoh.” So Knobel correctly. Kalisch thinks — “We are not permitted

to suppose that only the Egyptian chariots pursued the Israelites into the

sea, while the infantry remained behind, so that the former alone were

devoured by the waves.” But even he admits that “both in this and in the

following chapter, and in most other parts generally, the destruction of the

chariots (chariot force?) and its warriors is chiefly alluded to, so that this

particular stress would perhaps justify that conclusion.” What is clear is,

that no force but the chariot force is said to have entered the bed of the sea

in pursuit of Israel. There remained not so much as one of them. On the

proper understanding of this statement, see the introductory paragraph to

the chapter.


29 “But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the

sea; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on

their left.”  Walked. Rather, “had walked.” The waters were a wall.

Rather, “had been a wall.” For the meaning of the expression, see note on

v. 22.


30 “Thus the LORD saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians;

and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore.”  Josephus says

(Ant. Jud. 2:16, § 6), that, after the passage of the sea by the Israelites, a west

wind set in, which (assisted by the current) drove the bodies of the drowned

Egyptians to the eastern side of the gulf, where many of them were cast up

upon the shore. In this way Moses, according to him, obtained weapons

and armor for a considerable number of Israelites.



God’s Dealings with the Wicked and Impenitent (vs. 23-30)



If the passage of Israel through the Red Sea shows conspicuously God’s

protection of His people in the time of trouble, the overthrow of the

Egyptians indicates, at least as conspicuously, His execution of wrath upon

the wicked.





THEM. Bad men cannot bear God’s eye upon their hearts. It sees through

all veils, penetrates all disguises, detects all subterfuges. The bad man is a

riddle, even to himself, and would feign continue an enigma, impenetrable,

mysterious. But the searching eye of God turned full upon him, so

illuminates every dark corner and unexplored cranny of his nature, that all

becomes only too patent and clear. “All things are naked and open unto

the eyes of him with whom we have to do.” (Hebrews 4:13) - Under that

steadfast gaze the mystery melts away, like a summer fog, and the bad man

sees himself revealed, without disguise as a very ordinary and commonplace

offender.  (In the New Testament he would be described as the person

ashamed at the wedding feast that had not on the proper garments. 

Matthew 22:11-14 - CY - 2010)




The enterprises which the wicked undertake are continually interfered with.

God will not let them have the success which their framers anticipate, and

which for their cleverness and ingenuity they may be said to deserve. He

“clogs the wheels” of their various designs, and makes them drag heavily.

One miscarriage follows another. This enterprise will not advance at all;

that, by dint of great exertion, moves but slowly. It is as though the chariot

wheels sank into quicksands. It is not often that they wake up to the

conviction that “the Lord fighteth against the Egyptians;” though this may

happen sometimes. Then perhaps they repent them of their vain attempt,

and would feign retreat from it. But it is TOO LATE.




NO ESCAPING. “It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.”

(Hebrews 10:31) - Upon the ungodly God at the last rains down “snares, fire

and brimstone, storm and tempest — this is their portion to drink.”

(Psalmn 11:6) “Sudden destruction comes upon them unawares.”

(I Thessalonians 5:3)  Now it is in financial ruin, now in utter failure of health,

now in complete prostration of the spirit, and an intolerable sense of remorse

and despair that the judgment descends — blow follows blow, failure succeeds

to failure, all the old refuges and supports prove unavailing — angry floods

pour in on every side — there is no reaching the shore — all is tossing surf,

slippery rock, and entangling sea-weed — not a hand is stretched out to save.

So they go down to the pit — the devouring waves swallow them up — the

water-floods go up over their heads — they disappear, and their “place knows

them no more. “  (Psalm 103:16)  - “The wages of sin is death”  (Romans

6:23; and the end of sin is death.  (James 1:15) - THE ULTIMATE END OF

IMPENITENT SIN IS DEATH!  Let men, while there is time, turn away

from sin, give up their wicked enterprises, retrace their steps — taking

warning from the awful Red Sea calamity, and the terrible destruction

there wrought.  (Today is the day of Salvation – to delay is one more

day to repent of and one less day to repent!)


31 “And Israel saw that great work which the LORD did upon the

Egyptians: and the people feared the LORD, and believed the

LORD, and his servant Moses.” And Israel saw that great work.

The “work” was, at the least,


(1) the (almost) entire destruction of that arm of the service — the chariot

force, on which the Egyptian kings mainly relied for success in all their

wars; and


(2) the defeat and disgrace of the Egyptian king himself, in an expedition

for which he was alone responsible, involving permanent discredit to his

military capacity, and naturally tending to shake his authority over his

subjects. It secured the Israelites from further persecution, mainly by the

reminiscences which it left behind, but partly also by removing them to a

distance from the natural course of Egyptian warlike or commercial

movement. Though Egypt had mining establishments in the Sinaitic

peninsula, at Wady-Magharah and Sarabit-el-Khadim, yet as these were

avoided by the Israelites on their way to Sinai, and never afterwards

approached, there naturally was no collision between them and the

Pharaonic garrisons at those sites. Still more remote were they during their

wanderings from the Egyptian military route, which proceeded along the

coast from Pelusium to Gaza, and then ran northwards through the

Shephelah. Thus the Passage of the Red Sea brought one phase in the life

of the people to an end, and was the commencement of another. It

separated them from Egypt until the time came when their king would hold

communication with its monarch on equal terms (I Kings 3:1). It

secured their independence, and raised them at once into a nation. It

further caused them to exchange the artificial life of a bureaucratical and

convention-loving community for the open spaces and unrestrained

freedom of the desert. It thus rejuvenated and reinvigorated the race, and

enabled them to enter on that career of conquest which culminated in the

Kingdom — may we not say the Empire? — of David. some writers have

supposed that the blow to the Egyptian power was greater than here

represented. They believe the entire warrior caste or class to have taken

part in the expedition, and to have been destroyed in the Red Sea Thus

they describe the calamity as “the total annihilation of the whole military

force of the Egyptians” (Kalisch). They also believe the Pharaoh to have

perished with his host. To the present writer it seems that the former

opinion is contrary both to the text of Scripture, and to the after course of

Egyptian history, for it is agreed on all hands that Egypt continued nearly

as powerful as before, while the latter he regards as at least exceedingly

doubtful. Psalm 86:15, is quoted as asserting it; but it appears to him


Ψ      that “overthrow” is not necessarily “death;” and


Ψ      that “Pharaoh and his host” may be put for “Pharaoh’s host” by

hendiadys. The absence of any prophecy that God would take the

Pharaoh’s life, and the entire silence of Moses on the subject in

chapters 14 and 15 seems to be scarcely explicable on any other theory

than that he escaped, not having accompanied his chariot force in its

rash pursuit of the Israelites.  (I recommend: www.arkdiscovery.com -

the Red Sea Crossing - CY - 2010)




God Completes the Deliverance of the Israelites from Pharaoh and

Removes their Terror (vs. 13-31)



OF THE ISRAELITES. They had addressed to him sarcastic, flippant, and

in every way unworthy speeches. They were not so filled with fear, not so

occupied with the troubles of their own hearts, but that they could find a

malignant delight in striving to make him ridiculous. This mingling of

feelings on their part, fear mingled with hate, makes the single-heartedness

of his reply all the more manifest and beautiful. The time is not one for him

to stand on his own dignity, or exchange sharp language with mean men, even

were his character such as to incline him that way. There is but a step from

the sublime to the ridiculous; in one sense he makes that step, and by his

noble, impressive exhortation, he at once sweeps the ridiculous out of the

path of the sublime. The subject of the grave surely is never a seemly one

for jesting; and the jesting was unseemliest of all at this present hour. One

almost sees these little, saucy jokers retreating into the background before

the great believer. They would not trouble him again for a while. It was not

Israel that had come out of Egypt seeking for graves, but Pharaoh and his

host. These murmurers did indeed find graves in the wilderness by and by;

but it was for a subsequent transgression. It is part of the peculiar pathos of

human life that no one can tell where he must die and be buried. So much

then with respect to the meek and comely attitude — true attitude of a

prophet of God — which Moses here assumed. He rises clear above the

little men of the crowd, for God has taken him out, in particular, with a

high hand, and now what shall the matter of his answer be? He does not

turn towards God doubtfully. (Contrast his conduct here with his conduct

in ch. 5:22-23.) The peril is to the natural eye overwhelming, but it

is not peril to him, for God has filled him with the spirit of faith. He

himself, unfearing, can tell the people not to fear. He himself, calmly

expectant that some great deliverance is on the way, can recommend, his

face not belying his tongue, the same calm expectancy to the people. Let

them stand still and wait, instead of rushing hither and thither, weakening

themselves still more by their disorder. Moses, exactly comprehending that

the position is one in which man can do nothing, and God must do

everything, presses this view on his brethren. What is his personal dignity,

his amour-propre, compared with the glorious view to be opened out to

them? Here is a lesson then, when people speak to us out of little envies

and personal grudges. Reply by directing them to great soul-filling truths.

Lead, if you can, mean, groveling souls to the mountain top. Give them

the chance of seeing the wide inheritance of the saints; and if they cannot

take it in, then the loss, and the responsibility of the loss, is theirs.



vs. 15-18. These instructions, astounding as they must have seemed at

the time, were, nevertheless, eminently practical. Those who bear the name

of practical among men are those who keep well within what is reckoned

possible by the ordinary judgment. Men of the Columbus type, such as

great discoverers and great inventors, have to bear for long enough the

name of being mere visionaries, day-dreamers, wasters of life. But God’s

practicality is to set His servants at once to things reckoned impossible. His

directions are very simple: “Go forward.” He waits till the people are

indeed shut up on every hand, and then He says, “Go forward.” They were

to continue in the same direction, and that led onward to the sea. This was

the appointed path to the mountain where they were to serve God. Yes;

and if the path had been through the rocky steeps which enclosed them,

God could have dissolved those steeps away. Or if it had been through

Pharaoh’s host, he could have smitten that host utterly, as he afterwards

did Sennacherib’s. (II Chronicles 32:21)  Notice that in this command

there is another proving of faith.


Ψ      First, with regard to Moses. For it will be observed that there

is nothing to show that Moses knew anything of what would

happen in the Red Sea, until God now made it known. Probably

during the whole course of the plagues, the precise nature of each

plague was revealed to Moses only just as it was approaching. And

so here, in this new imprisonment, he was quietly waiting for light

to come from God, well knowing that sufficient would be done to

deliver Israel — that God had led His people into this entanglement,

not without a perfectly definite purpose, and that the end of all

would be the destruction of the Egyptians. But he knew not

any more than the least child in Israel, until just beforehand,

how all this was to be brought about.


Ψ      There was also a great proving of the faith of the people. God has a

command for them, and it is one requiring great faith. Notice how

appropriately it comes on, as the climax of past treatment. We

have seen the Israelites sharing at first in the suffering of the Egyptian

plagues. After a while, the district in which they reside is exempted from

the plagues. Then when the first-born are smitten, the Israelites, by their

obedience to Jehovah’s instructions, escape the blow. And now at last

their escape is to be completed by again obeying Jehovah’s instructions,

and equally in the obedience of a pure faith.


But mark the most important advance and development of faith, which is

here illustrated. Two quite different states of mind are brought out by

slaying the passover lamb in faith, and by going towards and through the

Red Sea in faith. To slay the passover lamb is to do a thing for which no

reason is given but the command of God. But it is a thing which plainly

can be done. It involves no peril; there is no appearance of impossibility

about it; the only temptation is to think it useless, a superfluous reasonless

form. On the other hand, it is perfectly plain that passage through the Red Sea

will provide escape. The question is, can such a passage be gained, and

therein the temptation lies — In slaying the passover lamb, the Israelites had

to humble their intellects before Divine wisdom; in advancing to the Red Sea,

they had to show the utmost confidence in Divine power. We must steadily

believe that all God commands is useful and necessary; we must also

steadily believe that all which is fit for Him to do, He most assuredly can do.

It is a matter deserving consideration that Jehovah should have given such

a command, seeing the state of unbelief and carnality in which the

Israelites evidently were. They had not spoken like men ready for such an

awful miracle. But we can see certain things which made obedience easier.

For one thing, God had shut them up to it. If they had been taken down to

the Red Sea, with no Pharaoh behind, with no enclosing mountains on

either hand, they might have rebelled. But circumstances lent a strong

compulsive aid. We know not what we can do, what triumphs of faith we

can achieve till God shuts us up to them. Then there was something also in

the sight of the rod. God commanded Moses to exhibit something which

had already been associated with wonderful deeds. Thus we see God

making plain to Israel the way out of their peril, and so far all is definite.

But this being told, the definite immediately shades away into the

indefinite. The indefinite mark, but not therefore the uncertain. All is

manifest and straightforward with regard to the Israelites; they are to be

safe. But what about Pharaoh and his army? We remember Peter’s

question to Jesus concerning John (John 21:21). “Lord, what shall this

man do?” So Moses might have questioned Jehovah — “Lord, what is to

happen to Pharaoh?’ Something on this matter Jehovah does say, just

enough to preserve confidence, attention and expectation; but for the

details Moses and Israel must wait a little longer. Meanwhile an inspiring

hint is given of great judgment, great humiliation, and for Jehovah Himself,

great glory. Here the information stops; and here we again notice the

eminent practicality of God’s instructions. For the day’s need and for our

own need God gives us the amplest guidance; but what is to happen to our

enemies, and exactly how they are to be removed he keeps within His own

knowledge, as within His own power. The proper answer to all impious and

curious pryings on our part is that which Jesus gave to Peter — “What is

that to thee? follow thou me.”





Ψ      The altered position of the cloudy pillar. The angel of God removed and

went behind. By the angel of God is possibly meant the pillar itself. Just

as the burning bush is described as a messenger of God (ch. 3:2), so

here there seems an indicating of the cloudy pillar as another messenger.

Just at this moment it was not wanted for purposes of guidance. Indeed it

would not have proved sufficient for these purposes. Jehovah had found it

needful Himself to intervene and signify by unmistakable words, the way

in which He would have the people go. The cloudy pillar was enough for

guidance only as long as the Israelites were in open and ordinary paths.

But where it could not be used for guidance, it could be used for defense.

God’s messengers can easily change their use. The cloud, by changing its

place, hindered Egypt, and thereby helped Israel. Nor did it help Israel in

this way alone; the boon was a positive as much as a negative one. Surely

this was a marvelous cloud, for it had in it darkness as well as light. Thus

it served a double purpose. Hiding Israel from the Egyptian eyes, it

proved the best of fortifications. But at the same time it shone upon the

Israelites and gave them the benefits of day with the immunities of night.

They could put everything in perfect order for the march, so as to take it

the moment the way through the sea was ready. Imagine that miraculous

light shining down on that miraculous path, even from end to end; just

like a light shining down a street; and as it were pointing Israel onward,

even though it stood behind them. Thus we are made to think of all the

double aspect of the work of Jesus, how at the same time He confounds

His enemies and guides and cheers His friends. Consider this especially

in connection with His resurrection. On the one hand He abolished

death; on the other He brought life and immortality to light.

(II Timothy 1:10)


Ψ      The obedience of Moses and the Israelites to the Divine command. As

we have noticed, all this had been well prepared for beforehand. Moses

had been led up to it, and so had Israel; and therefore when the moment

came, there was no hesitation. After what has been already said there is

no need to dwell on this actual obedience. It is enough to note in passing,

that God having duly arranged all conspiring causes, the effect followed

as a matter of course. But now we come to the point of main interest in

the closing section of this chapter, namely:


Ψ      The conduct, treatment, and ultimate fate of the Egyptians. There is

first, their infatuated advance. They go down in the path which Jehovah

had made for Israel as if it was to remain a path for them. The Egyptians

were too full of their purpose, too full of the spirit of vengeance and

greed to notice their danger, even though it was a danger of the most

obvious kind. They might have gone into certain positions where a

miracle would have been required to put them in danger; but here the

miracle is already wrought, and these enemies of Jehovah and Jehovah’s

people advance, as if the piled-up waters were thus to remain, their shape

settled for ages to come, just like the shape of the solid hills around. The

only thing to explain their conduct is the momentum that had been

produced in their own breasts. It was with them just as it is with the

runner when he has gained a certain speed. Suppose in his headlong

career he comes to a chasm, stop he cannot. Either he must clear the

chasm or fall into it. The next point to be noticed is God’s treatment

of them in their advance. The whole progress of affairs is exactly

arranged so as to produce the deliverance of Israel and the destruction

of Pharaoh. The very nearness of Pharaoh and his army to the Israelites,

instead of proving ruin to them, only more effectually proves ruin to him.

Some of the more timid among the Israelites might be tempted

to say, “Oh! that the waters would return, immediately the last Israelite

is ashore; let the great barrier be set between us and Pharaoh as soon as

possible.” But such a course would only have secured a present safety at

the expense of a future one. Jehovah has a far better way of working than

any which human panic can suggest. He lets the Egyptians go on until the

whole army is in the midst of the sea, and then He who has truly proved

Himself a man of war opens the last decisive battle by making the

chariots useless. Nay, not only were they useless; they seem to have

become a hindrance and a terror. Jehovah neither hastens nor lingers;

He smites at the right time, and therefore He smites effectually; and

now we are called to listen to a resolution made too late. “Let us flee

from the face of Israel.” If only they had been wise in time, they would

not have had to flee at all. What were they doing in the midst of the

Red Sea? Nay more, what were they doing out of their own country?

They had trifled and trifled with danger after danger, and now they

had trifled beyond escape. It is no time to talk of flight when the

door of the trap has fallen. The waters are on the point of returning;

the ordinary course of nature is about to assert itself.  Why should

that course be interrupted one moment longer, simply to

preserve a host of proud and dangerous men. The great lesson from

Pharaoh’s fall is to be wise in time. Flee from the wrath to come! 

There is a possibility of that; but when the wrath has come, who

then shall flee? (Revelation 6:16-17).



ON THE MINDS OF THE ISRAELITES (v. 31). More desirable words

surely could not be spoken of any people than that they fear Jehovah and

believe in Him and His servants. The fear and the faith, however, must be of

the right sort, arising out of a right state of the heart, and cleaving to God

through all the changes of circumstance. Such unfortunately was not

the fear and faith of these Israelites. We must have heart knowledge of

God’s character, and come to understand how necessary it is to pass

through a shaking of the things that can be shaken in order that the things

which cannot be shaken may remain. Then we shall fear as we ought to

fear, and believe as we ought to believe.




The Goodness and Severity of God (vs. 19-31)




Ψ      He comes between them and their foes. God’s presence is between us

and our enemies, and they can do no more against us than His love


Ψ      HE IS LIGHT to them in the time of peril.

Ψ      The waters are divided before them. However much our way may seem

hedged in, God’s arm will open up a path for us.

Ψ      The way was not only a path of escape, but one of perfect safety; the

waters were a wall to them upon the right hand and the left.




Ψ      Their path is wrapped in darkness. They cannot lay hold of the weakest

of those who but a moment before seemed wholly in their power. They

are perplexed and baffled.

Ψ      Daring to follow they are filled with horror by the revelation that their

contest is with THE MIGHTY GOD:  they are face to face not with the

servant, but the master.

Ψ      Their progress is arrested (v. 25).

Ψ      They make a vain attempt to flee. Men may FLEE TO GOD!


Ψ      They are overwhelmed with DESTRUCTION!




Ψ      The people are filled with holy awe. They feared JEHOVAH!

 God’s judgments deepen in His people’s hearts the sense of

His terribleness and majesty.”

Ψ      It strengthened their faith; they believed the Lord.

Ψ      It produced a spirit of obedience: they “believed has servant Moses.”

They were baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea.

(I Corinthians 10:2)  The outcome of fear and trust must be full

obedience to Him who leads us into the promised rest — the

Shepherd and Bishop of our souls.  (I Peter 2:25)



The Overthrow of the Egyptians (vs. 23-31)


“The Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea,”

etc. On this observe:




speak of the lessons they had already received as to the folly of contending

with Jehovah. The plagues were past. The memory of them had been cast

behind their backs. What we do wonder at is, that when the Egyptians

reached the shore, and saw there what they did see, they were not deterred

from proceeding further. What did they see?


Ψ      They saw the sea divided. They could hardly mistake this for a merely

natural phenomenon. The place where the Israelites crossed may have

been, under special conditions, and to a limited extent, fordable. But it is

safe to say that the division now effected was one the like of which had

never been heard of before, and such as, occurring at this particular

juncture, ought to have convinced the Egyptians that it was a result of

God’s special Providence, and intended for the protection of the

Israelites.  Special interpositions, on behalf of the Church, ought to

arrest the attention of her enemies.


Ψ      They saw the cloud that went with Israel move to the rear, obviously

with the design of intercepting their pursuit (vs. 19-20). This, with the

ominous darkness which enveloped them, was a second circumstance

which ought to have warned them that Jehovah was fighting for His



Ψ      There was the danger, which could not but present itself to them, of

being overwhelmed by the returning sea. In whatever way the division

of the waters was conceived Of, whether as a natural phenomenon, or

as a fact of supernatural origin, it was plainly a perilous experiment to

attempt the pursuit. Viewing it as the result of an ebb-tide, aided by a

strong east wind, there was the risk of being caught by the returning

tide; or if the wind abated, or changed its direction, of being immediately

submerged. In the other case there was the danger, almost the certainty,

of the supernatural power which restrained the waters permitting them

to flow back on the pursuers. What infatuation, then, possessed the

Egyptians, prompting them to enter the sea?


o        A false sense of honor. Having engaged in the pursuit, it would be

deemed a point of honor not to desist from it, so long as the faintest

chance of success remained. They had gone too far to retreat now at

the water’s edge.


o        Rage. Fury and disappointment would possess them, as, in the very

hour of their fancied triumph, they saw their prey thus elude them.

Was Pharaoh and his mighty host to be thus mocked and set at naught

— thus suddenly reined up and baffled? What would Egypt think of

her warriors, if, setting out on such an expedition, they returned

humiliated and empty-handed?  At all hazards Israel must be pursued.


o        There was the chance of getting through. The distance was short; the

way lay open; if Israel had got across, so might the Egyptians. On this

chance, in the spirit of the gambler, they would stake everything. What

havoc have these same motives — a false sense of honor (compare

Matthew 14:9), a spirit of uncalculating rage, the headstrong gambling

disposition, played in the history of the world! Together, or apart, they

account for much of its infatuation. See especially in this conduct of

Pharaoh, a picture of the infatuation to which the enemies of Christ’s

Church have so frequently been given over, and which will linger

among them till the end.  Compare e.g. the Apocalyptic gathering

of the antichristian powers, to do battle with THE LAMB.

 (Revelation 16:14-17; 19:11-21).




Ψ      In “the morning watch,” and when the Egyptians were in “the midst of

the sea,” God looked forth upon them from the pillar of cloud (v. 23).

The expression is a pregnant one. The look was a “fire-look” — some

fire-appearance of a startling kind which issued from the cloud, and shed

terror over the pursuers. It was accompanied with thunderings and

lightnings (Psalm 77:18-19). God’s looks are potent. When God

“looked” on Israel (ch. 2:25), it meant that He was about to bring

salvation to them. When He “looked” on the Egyptians, it was the

prelude to their destruction. Through that pillar glares forth an eye

which sends a separate dismay into each Egyptian heart and all is felt

to be lost. We find two imitations of this in modern poetry — one by

Coleridge, in his ‘Ode on the Departing Year,’ where he prays God to:


“Open His eye of fire from some uncertain cloud,”


and another (by Southey) in the ‘Curse of Kehama,’ where, after the

‘Man Almighty,’ holding his Amreeta Cup, had exclaimed:


“Now, Seeva, look to thine abode!”


it is added, when the cup is drunk —


“Then Seeva open’d on the accursed one

His eye of anger — upon him alone

The wrath beam fell He shudders, but too late.”



Ψ      God troubled their hosts (vs. 24-25). There is meant by this some

supernatural exertion of power. It was not due to natural causes alone

that the chariot wheels were “taken off,” and that they drave heavily.

It was God who, by His heavy hand upon them, was thus obstructing

their progress. The invisible powers were fighting against the Egyptians,

as “the stars in their courses fought against Sisera” (Judges 5:20).

Those are sure to drive heavily, who drive in the face of God’s

inhibition, and under His ban.


Ψ      God brought the sea back upon them (v. 26). Swiftly, fatally, at the

stretching forth of Moses’ rod, the sea returned in its strength, and utterly

overwhelmed them. And such, in its main outline, is the reception which

Jehovah must give to all His enemies. His wrath already rests upon them.

His fiery look will one day scare them. Even now they are troubled and

impeded by it, and by the resistance which He opposes to their plans.

Finally, He will overwhelm them in the sea of His wrath. He will visit

them with “everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord,

and from the glory of His power” (II Thessalonians 1:9). Hence:


  • THEIR COMPLETE DESTRUCTION (vs. 27-28). They perished

suddenly, miserably, and all together. This is a type of the overthrow of

God’s enemies in the end (II Thessalonians 2:8; Revelation 16:16-17;

19:17-21; 20:9). The blow was a crushing one to Egypt, It filled up the

measure of her punishment for the evil she had done to Israel. After the

death of the first-born, there could remain nothing to Pharaoh and his

servants, in the event of their still hardening themselves, but “a certain

fearful looking for of judgment, and fiery indignation” (Hebrews 10:27).

Does some one say, what a waste of human life — how unlike a

God of mercy! Rather, surely, how striking a testimony to the reality of

retribution — how sure a token of the righteous doom which in the end

will infallibly overtake every obdurate transgressor! God will not permit

sinners always to DEFY HIM!  His wrath and power are resistless. The

“ungodly and sinner” must expect to feel the weight of them (I Peter 4:17-18).


  • RESULT (vs. 30-31).


Ψ      Israel was saved.

Ψ      The Egyptian dead were found strewn upon the shore. This:


o       A memorial of God’s vengeance.

o       An awful satire on so-called human greatness.

o       A pledge of security to Israel.


Ψ      The people were filled with gratitude and fear. They “believed the

Lord.” The wonder is that after so marvelous a deliverance they

could ever again doubt Him.



"Excerpted text Copyright AGES Library, LLC. All rights reserved.

Materials are reproduced by permission."


This material can be found at: