II Timothy 4



1 “I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who

shall judge the quick and the dead at His appearing and His kingdom;”

I charge thee (διαμαρτύρομαι diamarturomai); as ch.2:14 and I  Timothy

5:21 (where see note).  At His appearing and His kingdom. The reading of the

Textus Receptus, κατὰ τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν κ.τ.λ. kata taen epiphaneian k.t.l. - at

His appearing and kingdom, etc. -  makes such excellent sense, and is in such

perfect accordance with the usual grammar, and with the usual connection

of events, that it is difficult not to believe that it is the right reading (see

Matthew 27:15, κατὰ ἑορτήν, kata heortaen -  at the feast;  κατὰ πᾶν

σάββατον kata pan sabbaton - on every sabbath; Acts 13:27, κατὰ τὴν ἡμέραν

kata taen haemeran - in the day; Hebrews 3:8 for the grammar;

and the universal language of Scripture and the Creeds connecting the judgment

with the Lord’s appearing and kingdom). On the other hand, the reading και kai -

(and) is almost impossible to construe. No two commentators scarcely are agreed

how to do so. Some take τὴν ἐπιφανείαν καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν taen

epiphaneian kai taen basileianthe advent of Him and the kingdom of Him –

 as the object governed by διαμαρτύρομαι (I call to witness) is in the Septuagint

of Deuteronomy 4:26, “I call to witness… Christ’s epiphany and kingdom,” taking

διαμαρτύρομαι in two senses or two constructions. Others take them as

the accusatives of the things sworn by, “I charge thee before God and Jesus Christ,

and by His epiphany and kingdom,” as Mark 5:7, τὸν Θεόν - ton Theon - by God;

Acts 19:13, τὸν Ἰησοῦν – ton Iaesoun - by Jesus;  I Thessalonians 5:27, τὸν Κύριον

 ton Kurion - by the Lord.  But how awkward such a separation of the thing sworn by

from the verb is, and how unnatural it is to couple with και kaiand,  the two ideas,

before God” and “by Christ’s epiphany,” and how absolutely without

example such a swearing by Christ’s epiphany and kingdom is, nobody

needs to be told. Others, as Huther, try to get over part at least of this

awkwardness by taking the two καιs kai’s as “both:” “by both his epiphany and

his kingdom.” Ellicott explains it by saying that as you could not put “the

epiphany and the kingdom” in dependence upon ἐνώπιον enopionbefore;

in the sight of; (as if they were persons like God and Christ), they “naturally

pass into the accusative.” But surely this is all thoroughly unsatisfactory. The

Textus Receptus is perfectly easy and simple. (ἐπιφανεία epiphaneia appearing);

v. 8; ch. 1:10; II Thessalonians 2:8; I Timothy 6:14; Titus 2:13. His kingdom. So in

the Nicene Creed: “He shall come again with glory to judge both the quick

and the dead: whose kingdom shall have no end” (compare Matthew 25:31,

followed by the judgment).


2 “Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove,

rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine.” Preach the Word.

(κήρυξον τὸν λόγον - Kaeruxon ton logon – proclaim you or herald

You the word). It is impossible to exaggerate the dignity and importance here

given to preaching by its being made the subject of so solemn and awful an

adjuration as that in v.1 (compare the designation of κῆρυξ kaerux – preacher –

which Paul gives to himself in I Timothy 2:7; ch. 1:11). Be instant. (ἐπίστηθι

epistaethi – be you standing by, urgent). The force of the exhortation must be

found, not in the verb itself taken alone, but by coupling εὐκαίρως ἀκαίρως

 eukairos akairosin season; out of season - closely with it. Be

at your work, attend to it always, in and out of season; let nothing stop

you; be always ready, always at hand. Reprove (ἔλεγξον elexonrebuke;

expose); see ch.3:16, note (compare Matthew 18:15; Ephesians 5:11; I Timothy

5:20).  Generally with the idea of bringing the fault home to the offender. Rebuke

(ἐπιτίμησον - epitimaeson); a stronger word than ἔλεγξον, implying

more of authority and less of argument (Matthew 8:26: 17:18; Luke 19:39;

Jude 1:9, etc.). Exhort (παρακάλεσον parakalessonexhort; entreat you).

Sometimes the sense of “exhort,” and sometimes that of “comfort,” predominates

(see I Timothy 2:1; 6:2, etc.). Every way of strengthening and establishing

souls in the fear and love of God is to be tried, and that with all long

suffering and teaching. (For μακροθυμία makrothumialongsuffering;

patience -  see ch. 3:10, note.) For “teaching” or “doctrine” (διδαχή

didachae),  Paul more frequently uses διδασκαλία didaskaliateaching –

in the pastoral Epistles (1 Timothy 1:10; 4:6, 13, 16; 5:17; ch. 3:10, 16, etc.);

but there does not seem to be any great difference of meaning. Possibly διδαχή

points more to the act of teaching. The use of it here, coupled with “long suffering,”

directs that the man of God, whether he preaches, reproves, rebukes, or exhorts,





            A Solemn Charge to Timothy to Make Full Proof of His Ministry

                                                      (vs. 1-2)


The prospect of his approaching death led the apostle to address his young

disciple with deep and earnest feeling.


·         THE SOLEMN ADJURATION. “I charge thee in the sight of God, and

of Christ Jesus, who shall judge the quick and the dead, and by His

appearing and His kingdom.” The object of the apostle is to impart to

Timothy a solemn sense of responsibility in the discharge of his ministry.


Ø      All preachers must one day give an account of their stewardship. Such

a thought ought to stimulate them to greater faithfulness.


Ø      Their responsibility is to God and Jesus Christ, who are Witnesses of

their work, as they have made them good ministers of the New Testament.


Ø      Jesus Christ is the Judge of the two classes of living and dead saints,

who in the last day shall appear before His judgment seat. All judgment is



Ø      The judgment will take place at “His appearing and His kingdom;” that



Ø      The reward of fidelity is also held out to faithful servants in connection

with the glory of “His kingdom.”


·         THE DUTIES OF THE FAITHFUL MINISTER. “Preach the Word;

be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort, with all long

suffering and teaching.”


Ø      His first and pre-eminent duty is to preach the gospel, because it is the

power of God to salvation. There is no injunction to administer the

sacraments, though that would be included in his duties. There is nothing,

therefore, to justify the higher place which Tractarians assign to the

sacraments beside the Word. It is a significant fact that the success of the

apostles, as recorded in the Acts, is never once attributed to the

sacraments, but always to the Word.


Ø      The minister must have an earnest urgency in every part of his work. He

must create opportunities where he cannot find them; he must work at

times both convenient and inconvenient to himself; he must approach the

willing opportunely and the unwilling inopportunely.


Ø      He must reprove, or convince, those in error as to doctrine.

Ø      He must rebuke the unruly, or immoral in life.

Ø      He must “exhort with all long suffering and teaching” — exercising due

patience, and using all the resources of a sanctified understanding, to

                        encourage men to keep to the ways of good doctrine and holiness.




                                    The Apostolic Injunction (v. 2)


“Preach the Word.” Timothy had not to create a gospel, but to preach one; and

the “Word” is broad and vast enough for any preacher. The cross has for its

circumference all truth, and is to be carried into ALL SPHERES OF LIFE!


·         PREACH IT WITH INSTANCY. It is not a mere philosophy to interest

students as an esoteric (intended for or likely to be understood by only a

small number of people with a specialized knowledge or interest) study;

nor is it a mere elaborate theological thesis to be proven true. It has to do

with “the present salvation” and the future well being of man. Instancy, for:


Ø      The season may be only NOW!  Tomorrow preacher or hearer, or both,



Ø      The truth can never be out of season. We need it alwaysin all

      places, in all our duties, temptations, and trials.


·         PREACH IT WITH AUTHORITY. That is, with the authority of truth,

not your own ex-cathedra authority. “Meekly;” but not as though your

congregations were patrons to be pleased, or Sanhedrims to try your

opinions. Modestly; but with authority; not, as I said, your own authority,

but the authority of truth, which has its own witness within. So you will

reprove men fearlessly, never hiding them from themselves by cunning

words of flattery. And you will “rebuke” — for evil soon spreads if it be

not exposed and condemned at once — just as Nathan boldly faced David,

and said, “Thou art the man.”  (II Samuel 12:7)


·         PREACH IT WITH EXHORTATION. The teacher is not to be

merely a scornful satirist of immorality — a sort of Juvenal (a Roman

satirist poet). Nor is he to be a lightning conductor of Divine wrath

(Luke 9:54-56); he is to seek to save men. He has not done his work

when he has revealed the Law of God against evil. He is to remember

that the Christ he preaches is the Son of man who is come, “not to condemn

the world, but that the world through him might be saved.”  (John 3:17)


Ø      Long suffering is to be the spirit of his method. Remembering that

humanity is frail and fallen, the preacher must be sympathetic, as

himself needing mercy.


Ø      Doctrine is to be his remedy. THE GREAT REVELATION OF




3 “For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine;

but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers,

having itching ears;   ἡ ὑγιαίνουσα διδασκαλία hae hugiainousa

didakalia - sound doctrine; sound teaching - is characteristic of the

pastoral Epistles, having arisen, no doubt, from the growth of heresy (see

I Timothy 1:10; 6:3. II Timothy 1:13; Titus 1:9, 13; 2:1, 8). In classical Greek,

ὑγιής hugiaes is frequently applied to words, sentiments, advice, etc., in the

sense of “sound,” “wise;” and ὑγιαίειν hugiaiein is also applied

to the mind and character. Applied to the body means good health. 

Endure (ἀνέξονται anexontaithey will be tolerating); usually, as

applied by Paul to persons as the object, as elsewhere in the New Testament

(Matthew 17:17; Acts 18:14; Ephesians 4:2, etc.); but not invariably (see

II Thessalonians 1:4; so too Hebrews 13:22). In classical Greek, ἀνέχεσθαι,

followed by persons or things, usually governs an accusative case, if any, but a

genitive frequently in Plato. Having itching ears (κνηθόμενοι τὴν ἀκοήν

 knaethomenoi taen akoaen); only here in the New Testament. The phrase,

κνησέως ὤτων knaeseos oton is ascribed by Plutarch to Plato –

scratching the (itching) ear;” κνᾶσθαι τὰ ῶτα, “to tickle the ears” (Lucian);

 ἀποκναίουσιν ἡμῶν τὰ ᾤτα (Philo). The verb κνήθω - knaetho( i.q.

κνάω –-  knao ) means “to scratch;” “to tickle,” and in the passive “to itch.”

Shall heap to themselves (ἐπισωρεύσουσι episoreusousi – they shall

be heaping up); a contemptuous word (found only here in the New Testament,

and nowhere in early classical Greek), implying the indiscriminate

multiplication of teachers (compare our use of “exaggerate”). The simple

σωρεύειν soreuein ladened; heaped - occurs in ch. 3:6. After their

own lusts. The measure of the number or the quality of their self-chosen

teachers will be their own insatiable and ever-varying fancies and mental

appetites, not the desire to be taught GOD’S TRUTH  by teachers SENT

FROM GOD!  Compare Jeroboam’s conduct in ordaining a feast “in the month

 which he had devised of his own heart” (I Kings 12:33).


4 “And they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be

turned unto fables.”  Shall turn away, etc. The sober, sound doctrine

of the Word of God, teaching self-discipline, humility, and purity of heart and life,

will not assuage their itching ears, and therefore they will turn away from it,

and go after more congenial fables — those taught by THE HERETICS.

Shall be turned.   (ἐκτραπήσοναι - ektrapaesonaishall be being

urned aside; turn aside); as I Timothy 1:6, note. Fables (μύθους muthous

myths; fables); see I Timothy 1:4; 4:7; Titus 1:14; II Peter 1:16.


The reason for the APOSTASY - “For the time will come when they will not

endure the sound doctrine.” The gospel doctrine is sound, because it necessitates

 a holy life, and holds the gratification of sinful passions to be INCONSISTENT

with  the hopes of salvation.  This evil men cannot endure, because it is so opposed

to the corruption of human nature, and therefore treat it with neglect, if not with contempt.

The Apostle Paul foresees the growth of evil in the Church, and therefore seeks to

prepare ministers to war against it.


The effect of this MORAL DISGUST with the gospel is to heap to themselves

teachers after their own lusts.. They wanted to hear new things or smooth things,

such as would reflect the caprices of a corrupt nature.  They wished to have their

fancies gratified — “after their own lusts.” They wanted indulgent guides, who

would flatter the pride of human nature, and not lay too great a stress upon the

importance of a holy life. However, sound doctrine is necessarily for a



The retribution that awaits such PERVERSION OF JUDGMENT.

 “And will turn away their ears from the truth, and turn aside unto fables.”

It is a solemn fact in Divine providence, that when men do not like to return to the

knowledge of the truth, God gives them up to a reprobate mind, so that they lose

all relish for sound doctrine.  (Romans 1:28)  God has designed us to be

religious beings and the heart cannot long remain empty (Luke 11:24-26). 

Fables rush in to occupy the place which denies a footing to truth,

(witness the results of the United States’ policy of “separation of church and

state – CY – 2013),  just as infidelity has a vacuum-creating power, which

superstition immediately rushes in to fill up. WHAT A WASTE OF SOUL

profitless fables taken in exchange for SOUL SAVING TRUTH!


5 “But watch thou in all things, endure afflictions, do the work of an

evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry.”  But watch thou.  (νῆφε

 naephe - be you being sober) as I Thessalonians 5:6, 8; I Peter 1:13; 4:7; 5:8.

The adjective νηφάλιος naephalionsober - occurs in I Timothy 3:2 (where see

note), 11; Titus 2:2. Here “Be sober in all things” clearly does not refer to literal

sobriety, which Timothy was in little danger of transgressing (l Timothy 5:23), but

comprehends clearness, calmness, steadiness, and moderation in all things.

Endure afflictions.   (κακοπάθησον kakopathaeson - suffer hardship;

suffer evil); as ch.2:3 (Textus Receptus) and 9. An evangelist (εὐαγγελιστοῦ

 euaggelistou - of evangelist); one whose business it is to preach the gospel,

according to Matthew 11:5. The verb εὐαγγελίζειν euaggelizein - to preach the

gospel - and αὐαγγέλιον auaggelion - the gospel.  are of very frequent use in

the New Testament. But εὐαγγελιστής euaggelistaes - an evangelist occurs

elsewhere only in Acts 21:8 and Ephesians 4:11. Full proof of thy ministry.

This is rather a weak rendering of  the Greek πληροφόρησον plaerophoraeson

fully discharge you;  fulfil thy ministry., adopted also in the Revised Version

of Luke 1:1. The verb occurs elsewhere in Romans 4:21; 14:5, and v. 17 of this

chapter. The phrase is metaphorical, but it is uncertain whether the metaphor is

that of a ship borne along by full sails, or of full measure given. If the former is the

metaphor, then the derived meaning, when applied to persons, is that of full

persuasion, entire and implicit faith, which carries men forward in a bold

and unwavering course; or, when applied to things, that of being undoubtedly

believed. But if the metaphor is taken from “bringing full measure;” then the sense

in the passive voice when applied to persons will be “to be fully satisfied,” i.e.

 to have full assurance, and, when applied to things, “to be fully believed.”

Applying the last metaphor to the passage before us, the sense will be

“discharge thy ministry to the full.” Let there be no stint of ministerial labor,

but carry it out in its completeness, and to the end.



                                    The Duty of Timothy in Trying Times (v. 5)




Ø      The presence of false teachers necessitated a wakeful attitude, a

constant presence of mind, a quick discernment of opportunities for

advancing the truth.


Ø      There ought to be a consistently sober and watchful care extending

through the whole life of the minister, who has to “give account of

souls.”  (Hebrews 13:17)


·         “SUFFER HARDSHIP.”


Ø      If the minister fears the anger of men, he will not be faithful to God.

Ø      There is a reward for brave suffering. (vs. 3-12.)

Ø      The example of the apostle’s life was ever before Timothy as a powerful

incentive to endurance. (vs. 10-12.)




Ø      There was a separate class of officers called evangelists in the apostolic

Church (Ephesians 4:11), whose special business was to break new

ground in the open fields of heathenism or the narrower confines of

Judaism. They preached the gospel, while pastors shepherded the flocks.

But we are not to suppose that pastors did not also “do the work of an

evangelist.” They had saints and sinners under their care in all places.


Ø      As Timothy had been lately occupied in organizing the Church life of

Ephesus, the admonition was not needless that he should henceforth

devote himself to the direct work of evangelization, as the best antidote to

heresy and impiety.


·         “MAKE FULL PROOF OF THY MINISTRY.” This was to be done:


Ø      By constant labors.

Ø      By unswerving faithfulness to God and man.

Ø      By efforts to save sinners and edify saints, which were seen to be

successful. Such a man fulfils his ministry, for he seeks not his own

                        things, but the things of Christ.


6 “For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is

at hand.”  For I am now ready to be offered. I am already being offered.

The ἐγώ - ego – I - is emphatic, in contrast with the σύ (you) of v. 5: “Thou, who

hast still life before thee, suffer hardship, do the work of an evangelist, make

full proof of thy ministry. I can do so no longer, for my martyrdom has already

commenced, and my end is close at hand. Thou must take my place in the great

conflict.”  Am …..to be offered.  (σπένδομαι spendomai am being poured out,);

as the drink offering, or libation, is poured out. Paul uses the same figure in Philippians

2:17, where he couples it with the sacrifice and service (or offering up) of the faith of

the Philippians by himself as the priest, and looks upon the pouring out of his own life

as the completion of that sacrifice. The libation always formed the conclusion of

the sacrifice, and so the apostle’s martyrdom closed his apostolic service

which had been a continual sacrifice, in which he had been the ministering priest

(Romans 15:16). So that the use of σπένδομαι here exactly agrees with that in

Philippians 2:17. “My sacrificial work,” Paul says, “being now finished and

 ended, I am performing the last solemn act, the pouring out of my own life

 in martyrdom, to which I shall pass out of the prison where I now am.”

The time of my departure (τῆς ἐμῆς ἀναλύσεωςtaes emaes analuseos

of my dissolution). The word is found nowhere else in the New Testament, but

Paul uses the verb ἀναλῦσαιanalusai - to depart, in Philippians 1:23,

where, the verb being in the active voice, the metaphor clearly is from

weighing anchor, as in common use in classical Greek; hence simply “to

depart.” The classical use of ἀνάλυσις analusis rather favors the sense,

either of “release” or of  “dissolution.” But Paul’s use of ἀναλύωanaluo

to depart – in Philippians 1:23, and the frequent use of the same verb in the

Septuagint and by Josephus, in the sense of “to depart,” favors the rendering of

ἀνάλυσις by “departure,” as in the Authorized Version  and Revised Version.

Is at hand.   (ἐφέστηκεepestaeke ); the same verb as ἐπίστηθι epistaethi

instant; urgent in v. 2.


Mark the calmness with which the Paul contemplates a violent death.

There is no tremor, or hurry, or impatience in his last days. The language is

singularly composed. He knew that Nero would soon put an end to his life,

for that monster of cruelty and crime was even then striking out wildly

against the Christians. Nothing but an assured hope and a living faith could

maintain the spirit in such trying circumstances.




                                    Life’s Evening Hour (v. 6)


“For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at

hand.” Paul felt sure that the enemies of the gospel would be successful

in their designs upon his life. Sooner or later he knew that the lions or the

flames, the executioner’s axe or the cruel cross, would complete his earthly

course. But as he had made an “offering” of his life to Christ, so he was

ready in death to be offered up for the Master’s sake.


·         THE APOSTOLIC READINESS. Although a prisoner, he had been

permitted to be a preacher in the neighboring camp of Caesar’s palace

during his first imprisonment at Rome. But not so now. Amid the

Praetorian Guard alone could he testify now; and as the soldier to whom he

was chained by the wrist would often be changed, he had the opportunity

of speaking to each one in turn the good word of the kingdom of God. His

imprisonments had been preceded by missionary journeys, in which he had

planted Churches of Christ everywhere — Churches which had become

centers of evangelization and edification. He was “ready;” for his character

had been molded by “great tribulation;” so that his soul was purified by

the grace of God working there the self-conquests of his nature. The

righteous indignation of a strong nature — which we know full well once

in his apostolate would have been aroused at his adversaries — had been

softened into a calm submission to the Divine will, and he was conscious

that God would take care of His own Church in the perilous times which

had come. Moreover, Timothy was there to take up the great work and to

preach the Word. Paul was ready for the “rest;” and the “rest” was ready

for him.


·         THE APOSTLE’S TIME. “The time of my departure.” All our times

are in God’s hand: “the time to be born and the time to die.”  (Ecclesiastes

3:2)  This was with Paul no fatalistic creed; he did not forget that there was a

divinely wise will ordering all.


Ø      Death was a departure. It was not the habit of Paul to dwell on

death in itself, but rather on its glorious issues to the Christian. The faith

was strong in him. The motto — Mors janua vitoe (Death is the gate

of life) was the spirit of his creed.


Ø      But death was not the departure of the Christ. He was here. By His

Spirit He was still working in the hearts of all who believed. The Christ

in him was the Christ in Timothy too; and Paul well knew that the

triumphant chariot of the Redeemer stops at no man’s grave.


7 “I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith:”

I have fought a  good fight; as I Timothy 6:12 (τὸν ἀγῶνα τὸν καλόν

ton agona ton kalon), meaning that, however honorable the contests

of the games were deemed, the Christian contest was far more honorable

than them all.   (Translate more honorable than THE SUPER BOWL;



Etc. – CY – 2013).   The word “fight” does not adequately express by ajgw~na

(a contest; conflict or fight) hich embraces all kinds of contests — chariot race,

foot race, wrestling, etc. “I have played out the honorable game” would give

the sense, though inelegantly. My course (τὸν δρόμον – ton dromon – the

course; the running; my career); Acts 13:25; 20:24. The runner in the race

had a definite δρόμος (course) to run, marked out for him. Paul’s life was that

course, and he knew that he had run it out. (So do you and I have a course

marked out for us by a loving Heavenly Father – CY – 2013). I have

 kept the faith. Paul here quits metaphor and explains the foregoing figures.

Through his long eventful course, in spite of all difficulties, conflicts, dangers, and

temptations, he had kept the faith of Jesus Christ committed to him,

inviolable, unadulterated, whole, and complete. He had not shrunk from

confessing it when death stared him in the face; he had not corrupted it to

meet the views of Jews or Gentiles; with courage and resolution and

perseverance he had kept it to the end. Oh! let Timothy do the same.

(With God’s help,  let YOU AND I DO THE SAME! – CY – 2013)


The good fight ended.  Every Christian is a soldier. He has to fight against the

threefold enmity of:


o       the world,

o       the flesh, and

o       the devil.


 He overcomes through faith as his sole weapon.  (I John 5:4-5).


The race ended.  There is a limit to the duration of the fight. Death ends it.


o       It is a long race;

o       a wearying race;

o       yet a glorious race,


because it has a happy ending.  Faith has been preserved,  a precious deposit

placed  in our hands (ch.1:14).  Errorists of all sorts are continually striving to

wrest it out of our hands by their specious sophistries.  Believers keep it safest

who treasure it in their hearts as well as their minds.




                                    The Battle Finished (v. 7)


“I have fought a good fight.” Nothing in nature is more beautiful than the

all-glorious sunset; even the storm clouds make it a more magnificent

scene. So it was with Paul. Amid the threatening clouds of persecution

the Saviour’s glory shone all around and about him, and lighted up the dark

firmament of the martyr experiences.


·         THE PAST FIGHT. He was a man of war in the best sense, and had

fought a good fight. He had conflicts in himself — fightings without, and

fears within.” (II Corinthians 7:5)  He had opposition from the Jews of the

ancient Church, and from the Judaistic Christians, who were trying to pervert

the gospel!  Rome, that dreaded sedition, looked upon him as a stirrer-up of

strife, and though Paul was not an enemy of Caesar, this gave Caesar’s enemies

an opportunity for casting censure on him. He had, too, as we all have,

invisible enemies, so that he did not war only “against flesh and blood.”

The past fight was a lifelong one with him, for he had at first to withstand

even his Christian coadjutors in his determination to proclaim and to

preserve the universality and spirituality of the gospel kingdom; he boldly

and triumphantly withstood even Peter to the face, and so gave to the

Church of all ages the Magna Charta of its Divine freedom.


·         THE FINISHED COURSE. He could look back upon the racecourse

now, and he varies his imagery. Now he introduces the idea of the Grecian

games. We can see the eager athlete girding his loins for the race — a race

which taxed all his energies. In heat and cold, amidst enemies and friends,

Paul “pressed toward the mark.”  (Philippians 3:14)  There is no tone of

finality, however, about his language in the strictest sense. The end was only

a post which he had to pass, not a grave in which he had to sleep. For to him

to live was Christ, and to die was gain.   (ibid. ch. 1:21)


8 “Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which

the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to

me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing.”

Henceforth (λοιπόνloipon - furthermore); as Hebrews 10:13. The work

of conflict being over, IT ONLY REMAINS TO RECEIVE THE CROWN!

A crown of righteousness means that crown the possession of which marks

the wearer as righteous before God. The analogous phrases are, “the crown

 of glory” (I Peter 5:4) and “the crown of life” (James 1:12; Revelation 2:10).

The righteousness, the glory, and the life of the saints are conceived as

displayed in crowns, as the kingly dignity is in the crown of royalty. The

righteous Judge (κριτήςkritaes - Judge). In Acts 10:42 the Lord Jesus

is said to be ordained of God to be Κριτὴς ζώντων καὶ νεκρῶνKritaes zonton

 kai nekron - the Judge of quick and dead -  and in Hebrews 12:23 we read,

Κριτῇ Θεῷ πάντωνKritae Theo panton -  God the Judge of all. But nowhere

else, either in the Old Testament or the New Testament, is this term applied directly

either to God or to Christ. Surely its use here is influenced by the preceding metaphor

of the ἀγών (fight; contest) and the δρόμος (course) and the στέφανος (crown) and

“the righteous Judge” is the impartial βραβεύςbrabeus or judge, who assigned

the prizes at the games to those who had fairly won them. And this is the proper

meaning of κριτής,, “the umpire,” applied, especially at Athens, to the “judges”

at the poetic contests). Thucydides contrasts the κριτής and the ἀγωνιστής

agonistaes -  Aristophanes the kritai > kritaijudges and the θεαταί - 

theatai spectators -  and the word “cr κριταί itic” is derived from this meaning of

κιτής kitaesjudge and κριτικός -  kritikos – discerner.  The whole

picture is that of the apostle running his noble race of righteousness to the

 very end, and of the LORD HIMSELF assigning to him the well earned



(So, if the world is a conflict; test; fight, contest, and the trophies will be

passed out at A CEREMONY, with all heaven and earth assembled,








  • Winner?
  • Loser
  • Also played?
  • Cast Away?
  • Cut from the scene (team)


Ephesians 1:10 tells us that Jesus Christ is in the process of gathering

“together in one all things….which are in heaven and which are

on earth.”  My prayer is that after this ceremony, that you will be ushered

into heaven to be with God, His Christ, the Holy Spirit, with all angelic

beings that have been faithful to Him throughout eternity, and finally, with

all God’s people who have had the opportunity of life and have responded

to God’s call to life!  THEY WILL COME FROM EVERYWHERE,

 “many shall come from the east and west, and shall sit down with

Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven” – Matthew

8:11 - and out of  “all nations of them which are saved.”  - Revelation 21:24 –

If you are in danger of being among those who are “THRUST OUT”

Luke 13:28 – I recommend highly #5 – How to Be Saved – this web

site – CY – 2013)  (What chance do you think an abortionist has on that

day?  A person who has done all he or she could to keep an individual,

yea, many individuals, from BEING IN THAT NUMBER!  The Bible

says, “For the time is come that judgment must begin at the house

of God:  and if it first begin at us, what shall the end be of them

that obey not the gospel of God?  And if the righteous scarcely be

saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?  - I Peter

4:17-18 – CY - 2013)  That love His appearing. That have loved His

appearing. It will be a characteristic of those who will be crowned at

 that day that all the time they were fighting the good fight they were

 looking forward with hope and desire for their Lord’s appearing

and kingdom.Thy kingdom come” was their desire and their petition.

They will be able to say at that day, “So, this is our God; we have

 waited for Him, and He will save us:  this is the Lord; we have

waited for Him, we will be glad and rejoice  in His salvation”

 (Isaiah 25:9).


 True believers do not dread Christs appearance in judgment.

They look forward with hope, satisfaction, and joy, to the day of final

account.  All who love Him now will love Him at His appearing, when

they shall see him in His glory.  (“Beloved, now are we the sons of

God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be:  but we know

that, when He shall appear, we shall be like Him; for we shall

see Him as He is!”  (I John 3:2)



The Last Charge (vs. 1-8)


The words of this chapter have the peculiar interest which attaches to the

last words of one who was prominent above his fellow men, and they have

this striking character, that the apostle, knowing that the time of his

departure was at hand, when the great work of his life must cease as far as

he was concerned, was intensely solicitous that the work should go on

after his death with uninterrupted course and with undiminished force. It is

one of the features of the holy unselfishness of Paul’s character that he

was not anxious for the success of the gospel only as far as that success

was connected with his own labors, and was the fruit of his own apostolic

energy; but that the growth of Christ’s kingdom, and the increase of

Christ’s Church, and the salvation of souls, were things that he intensely

longed for for their own sake, and without the slightest reference to

himself. Accordingly, in the words before us, he throws his whole soul into

the task of urging Timothy to carry on the work of the ministry with a

vigor equal to his own. By the most solemn motives. speaking as in the

immediate presence of the great Judge of the quick and the dead, with the

expectation of the great epiphany in full view, with all the glories of the

mediatorial kingdom spread out before his mind’s eye, he urges him to the

work — the ministerial work; the evangelistic work; the work in which

Paul had spent his strength, and ungrudgingly used his splendid faculties;

the work which is described in three words, “Preach the Word.” For these

words do really comprehend all the details which are added. Go as God’s

herald, and deliver to the people God’s message:


o       His message of abounding grace,

o       His Word of pardon and forgiveness,

o       His Word of love and reconciliation.


Preach the Word which tells:


o       of Jesus Christ,

o       of death to sin by His death upon the cross,

o       of life to God by His resurrection from the dead.


Preach the Word :


o       of holy obedience,

o       of charity, and purity,

o       of patience, gentleness, and peace;

o       the Word of like mindedness with Christ,

o       of conformity to the will of God; the Word

of truth and righteousness;

o       the unerring Word, which is like God, and cannot lie.


Preach the Word :


o       as one who knows its worth and its power;

o       as one who knows that the issues of life and death

are bound up with it;

o       as one who will brook no delay in preaching it.


Preach it with special application to the varying needs of those who hear it.


o       Reprove sin by its searching light.

o       Rebuke offenders by its sharp two-edged blade.

(Hebrews 4:12)

o       Exhort the weak and sluggish by its comforting and

animating truths.

o       Exemplify its excellence by the spirit in which you teach it.

(Ephesians 4:15)


And be prepared for hardships and opposition and contradiction in your work.

You may have to stand alone. You may see popular preachers all around you,

leading astray silly souls by hundreds and thousands; tickling their ears with

foolish fancies; ministering to their idle lusts; leading them away from the truth.

But do thou “preach the Word.” Flinch not, shrink not, wince not.


Do the work of an evangelist:


o       faithfully,

o       steadfastly,

o       boldly.


Fill my place; take up my work; witness for Christ as I have witnessed;

 suffer for Christ as I have suffered; and then join me in the kingdom

 of glory.  Such is the tenor of the last apostolic charge. The Lord

grant to his Church an unfailing succession of men to carry out its

directions, and to fulfil it in its spirit and in its letter!


All preachers must one day give an account of their stewardship. Such

a thought ought to stimulate them to greater faithfulness.  Their

responsibility is to God and Jesus Christ, who are Witnesses of their work,

as they have made them good ministers of the New Testament.





                                    Solemn Charge to Timothy (vs. 1-8)





Ø      Witnessing the charge.


o        Christ associated With God. “I charge thee in the sight of God, and of

Jesus Christ.” Unseen by Timothy, they were really present as Witnesses

of the charge now to be laid on him. The first Witness, who is the First

Person of the Godhead, is simply designated God. It is the highest, most

comprehensive, of names. With God is associated the historical Jesus with

the Divine commission. While the apostle is very careful to place himself

and other ministers at a distance from Christ (1 Corinthians 3.), he does not

hesitate to bring Him into the closest association with God. The spirits of

the departed cannot communicate with us; but Jesus, who died thirty-eight

years before the writing of this Epistle, is thought of as present with Paul in

his dungeon, witnessing to the charge in all its particulars that is to be sent

on to Timothy.


o        Christ at the time of greatest solemnity for Timothy. “Who shall judge

the quick and the dead.” Timothy is not mentioned; but, as the quick and

the dead are all-inclusive, he was to regard himself as included. The time

was to come when Christ was to return to earth. Before His judgment

seat were to be gathered the quick (suddenly changed) and the dead

(raised from their graves). Timothy (changed or awakened) would have

to take his place along with others, to give an account to the Judge

especially of his official work.


o        Christ at the time of greatest joy to His people. “And by His appearing

and His kingdom.” Christ is now concealed from human view, and men

may dispute His being the Son of God, may dispute the fact that He died.

At His appearing, His relation to the Father and to human salvation will

be made clear beyond all possibility of doubt. Christ is now reigning,

but there is not a full acknowledgment of His power. Many never think

of His reigning at all. The time is to come when His kingdom is to be

established as it is not established now — established in the full

acknowledgment of His power — established to know neither modification

nor end. (Isaiah 9:7)  On His return to heaven He is to come into a certain

subordination to the Father (I Corinthians 15:27-28), and yet is the order


KINGDOM!  To His people the time of His appearing, and from which

His kingdom dates, will be full of joy as the time when their Master shall

be publicly honored, and when their own sharing with Him shall stand out

in its full meaning. Timothy must not, by unfaithfulness, take from the joy

of the future disclosure of Christ to him.


Ø      Particulars of the charge. These are given in rapid succession, without

connecting words, by which there is gain in force.


o        Duty of preaching. “Preach the Word.” The Word, i.e. of God, was

what he was to preach; but the stress is more on the preaching. That was

his work:


§         let him preach,

§         let him utter Divine truth;

§         let him utter it loudly as a herald, so that men may hear.


o        Season for preaching. “Be instant in season, out of season.” He was to

be ready for every opportunity of preaching. He was to have his stated

season for preaching, so that men might know when they could hear the

Word; but he was also to preach beyond the stated season. His season was

to be every season, i.e. within natural and moral limits. He was to preach,

strength permitting, whenever an opportunity of doing good thereby was

presented to him.


o        Parts of preaching. “Reprove, rebuke, exhort, with all long suffering

and teaching.”


§         He was to reprove, i.e. to expose the real nature of sin.

§         He was to rebuke, i.e. to impute blame for sin.

§         He was to exhort, i.e. to use persuasion against continuing

in sin, and toward leading a better life.


He was to execute the three offices of a reprover, rebuker, exhorter, with

all long suffering — not vehemently, but, as with all proper restraint on

himself, so with all proper consideration for others; and with all teaching

not unintelligently, but with repeated instruction, and not out of his own

thoughts, but out of the Word, led by the Holy Spirit.




Ø      The intolerableness of sound doctrine. “For the time will come when

they will not endure the sound doctrine.” The sound or healthful

teaching, according to ch. 3:16, is that which, founded on the facts of

redemption and leads to godliness. Men find it intolerable, because it

binds them down to thoughts and courses which are contrary to “their

own lusts.”


Ø      The teachers that spring up for those who find sound doctrine

intolerable. “But, having itching ears, will heap to themselves teachers

after their own lusts.” Their relief is not to get rid of all teachers (which

would be too drastic), but to get teachers after their own lusts. These

teachers are the birth and reflection of their own depraved sentiments.

Those who strive to have their desires regulated by the Word of God are

satisfied with the gospel teachers; those who have their desires

unregulated (i.e. in the state of lusts) are not easily satisfied. “Having

itching ears, they heap to themselves teachers.” They have a constant

uneasy feeling which seeks to be gratified with new teachers, both many

and indiscriminate.


Ø      The abandonment of those who have itching ears to myths. “And will

turn away their ears from the truth, and turn aside unto fables.” Their

duty is to turn their ears to the truth, but, as they have itching ears, they

turn aside to listen to fables — not truth, but inventions. When men do

not find the truth agreeable to the ear, they may take:


o       the wildest fancies,

o       the most childish beliefs.


There were anticipations of these myths of the future with which

Timothy had to do.




Ø      Sobriety. “But be thou sober in all things.” Those who had to do with

myths had not clearness and caution of mind, but were intoxicated with

their own wisdom. Timothy was to avoid their fault. There is a sobriety

which is revelant to the truth. It does not flatter a man, but keeps him to

the humility of fact. It may deeply move him, but does not take away his

clearness and caution. It does not, like many myths of the false teachers,

morbidly excite the imagination, or leave room for morbid gratification,

but acts as a principle of self-restraint. Timothy, in seeking to influence

others, was to exercise all self-restraint in manner and matter of

preaching and in personal dealing.


Ø      Hardihood. “Suffer hardship.” This is not the first time that he has been

thus exhorted. In ch. 2:3 there was the added idea of association

with Paul. The exhortation is reintroduced in this comprehensive charge,

again and more impressively to remind him of hardships that he might

expect in his future ministry.


Ø      His evangelistic office. “Do the work of an evangelist.” There was need

to remind Timothy of this, inasmuch as for the time he was settled in

Ephesus. Paul had been very much of an evangelist, i.e. an itinerant

preacher, himself. However important the establishing of congregations, he

was not to overlook the importance of circulating the gospel, with a view

to new congregations being formed.


Ø      All the parts of his ministry to be attended to. Fulfil thy ministry.” He

has mentioned one part; in the concluding direction he includes all. His

ministry was partly determined by his talents and circumstances. He was

rightly to proportion between the various parts of his ministry, giving

each the attention to which it was entitled, though one might be attended

with greater hardship than another. He was to fill up the Divine measure

in all, and to the end of his life.




Ø      His end approaching. First mode of conceiving of his end. “For I am

already being offered.” The force of the connection is that Timothy was to

be faithful, because Paul was no longer to remain to carry on Christ’s

work. Upon him the mantle of his master was to fall. The language in

which Paul describes his end is Jewish, and sacrificial, in its coloring. The

conclusion of the sacrifice was the libation, or pouring out of the drink

offering of wine around the altar. His service of Christ had been all of the

nature of sacrifice. He “counted not his life dear unto himself.” (Acts 20:24)

He was among those who, for Christ’s sake, were killed all the day long, who

were accounted as sheep for the slaughter. There was now only the concluding

libation, viz. the pouring out of his blood as a martyr around Christ’s altar.

The concluding ceremony was already commenced, in what he was

suffering in his dungeon. It had a painful significance, and a rich

significance too; for it was as the pouring out of strong wine (Numbers

28:7). Second mode of conceiving of his end. “And the time of my

departure is come.” (v. 6)  The word translated “departure” has a common

nautical application, viz. to the loosening of the cable that binds the vessel

to land, that it may speed on to its destination. By his martyrdom the

connection between Paul and earth was to be let loose, that he might

speed, as with the quickness of lightning, to the haven where he was

forever to rest. The time of the loosening was all but come; there on the

pier was the man appointed to let slip the fastenings.


Ø      Feelings with which he regarded his approaching end.


o        Consciousness of faithfulness in view of the past. First mode of

conceiving of his faithfulness. “I have fought the good fight.” The

language is taken from the games. The fight is to be interpreted as the

fight of faith. It is the good fight, being on behalf of Christ, on behalf

of souls.  He had the testimony of his conscience that he had “fought

the good fight.”  By faithful preaching, by holy example, by fervent

prayers, by patient sufferings, he had sought to advance Christ’s cause,

he had sought to save souls. Now the end of the conflict was come,

little being left but its effects, these effects partly shown in his own

wearied frame. Second mode of conceiving of his faithfulness.

“I have finished the course.” The language is taken specially from

the racecourse. At one point we find him nobly anxious to finish his

course (Acts 20:24). At another point we find him conscious of the

space that lay between him and the goal (Philippians 3.).  Here he is

conscious of his standing at the goal. He had finished his course,

not in the sense of having done with it, but in the sense of having done

what properly belonged to it. He had followed on (after the Master),

without stopping, without abating zeal, till he now had come up to the

goal. Third mode of conceiving of his faithfulness. “I have kept the

faith.”  He had been specially entrusted with the talent of the universal

faith. It had been his, to let it be known that Christ was the Friend of

man, that as Incarnate God He had made infinite satisfaction for sin,

that he was longing to embrace all in his saving love. Amid all

temptations to lose it, to substitute something else for it, he had kept

it inviolate. He had not allowed the truth to suffer in his hands; nor

must Timothy allow it to suffer in his hands now that more depended

on him.


o        Full assurance of hope in view of the future.


§         Present laying up.Henceforth there is laid up for me the

      crown of righteousness.” There is the idea of laying up,

as for future use or enjoyment. What was laid up was the

crown of righteousness, i.e. the reward of him who conquers,

and of him who rightfully conquers. In the Christian view

this is he who does the work which is appointed for him by

            Christ. From that time forth the crown of righteousness was

            laid up for him. To such a height the assurance of the apostle

            rose. There was no self-exalting element in his assurance,

as though he had been working in his own strength, or as though

he had the deciding of what, comparatively, his reward was to

be. But that, from his experience of assisting grace m the

doing of his work, he was among those who were to be

crowned, he had no more doubt than he had of his own



§         Future bestowal. “Which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall

      give to me at that day.” The Rewarder is the Lord — whose

prerogative is indisputable. He is to reward at that day — the

day of the future by preeminence.  He is then to act as the

righteous Judge — whose judgments are all to be founded

on righteousness. From His reserved treasures He is to

bring forth the crown due to faithful service, and place it on his



§         General occasion. “And not only to me, but also to all them

      that have loved His appearing.” He expressly excludes the

thought of his being exceptionally crowned. His being crowned

would not prevent others, such as Timothy, from being crowned.

All would be crowned who continued to love Christ’s

appearing. This event is to be affectionately regarded,

because it is the time when His loveliness is to be fully

displayed, when also His love for His people is to be fully

displayed. It is an event which is fitted to purify and elevate

our spiritual life. Let it be the test by which we try our

being included in the number of the faithful.


ü      Does it occupy our thoughts?

ü      Does it inflame our affections?




                                    The Nearness of the Apostle’s Death,


                            His Prospects in Connection with It (vs. 6-8)


He urges Timothy to increased zeal on account of his own approaching



·         THE IMMINENCE OF HIS DEATH. “For I am already being offered,

and the time of my departure is at hand.”


Ø      Mark the calmness with which the apostle contemplates a violent death.

There is no tremor, or hurry, or impatience in his last days. The language is

singularly composed. He knew that Nero would soon put an end to his life,

for that monster of cruelty and crime was even then striking out wildly

against the Christians. Nothing but an assured hope and a living faith

could maintain the spirit in such trying circumstances.


Ø      The apostle is not too preoccupied with his own approaching sufferings

to forget the cause for which he is now about to surrender his life. He is

now more urgent than ever in his instructions to Timothy.



the good fight, I have finished the course, I have kept the faith.”


Ø      The good fight ended.


o        Every Christian is a soldier.

o        He has to fight against the threefold enmity of:

§         the world,

§         the flesh, and

§         the devil.

o        He overcomes through faith as his sole weapon (I John 5:4-5).

o        There is a limit to the duration of the fight. Death ends it.


Ø      The race ended.


o        It is a long race;

o        a wearying race; yet,

o        a glorious race, because it has a happy ending.


Ø      The faith preserved.


o        It is a precious deposit placed in our hands (ch. 1:14).

o        Errorists of all sorts are continually striving to wrest it out of

            our hands by their specious sophistries (deceptions).

o        Believers keep it safest who treasure it in their hearts as well as

            their minds.



there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the

righteous Judge, shall give to me at that day: and not only to me, but also

to all them that have loved His appearing.”


Ø      The reward. “The crown of righteousness.”


o        It was the symbol of excellence and glory.(The following is

                       a commentary on I Peter 1:4 “that fadeth not away”:    

                       The crown reserved for its blessed inhabitants is an amaranth

                       wreath  (compare ibid. ch. 5:4 - The Greek word there rendered

                       “that fadeth not away” ἀμαράντινον -  amaravtinon

                       compossed of amaranth, thus unfading -  is not exactly the same

                       with that so rendered here - ἀμάραντον amaranton – unfading –

                       a symbol of perpetuity.   Taken literally, the words

                        used here mean an amaranthine wreath — a wreath of amaranth

                        flowers; the general meaning remains the same, “unfading.”

                        Peter is thinking, not  of a kingly crown, but of the wreaths

                        worn on festive occasions or bestowed on conquerors.).


                                    “ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away.”

                                    (ibid,)  This is the true reward of the faithful  presbyter, not

                                    power or filthy lucre. Literally, it is “the crown of glory,” the

                                    promised glory, the glory of the Lord which He hath promised

                                    to His chosen. “The glory which thou gavest me, I have given

                                    them” (John 17:22). The crown is the glory; the genitive seems

                                    to be one of apposition. The Greek word here  (ch. 5:4)

                                    rendered “that fadeth not away”-  ἀμαράντινος - amarantinos -  

                                    is not exactly the same with that so rendered in ch.1:4 –

                                    ἀμάραντονamaranton taken literally, the words used here

                                    mean an amaranthine wreath — a wreath of amaranth flowers;

                                    the general meaning remains the same, “unfading.”

                                    Peter is thinking, not of a kingly crown, but of the wreaths

                                    worn on festive occasions or bestowed on conquerors.  They

                                    are to be crowned as with flowers,  i.e. with all that is most

                                    beautiful in body and soul. The designation given to

                                    the crown of beauty is derived from a flower, to which Milton

                                    thus makes allusion in Paradise Lost:


“Their crowns inwove with amarant and gold;

Immortal amarant, a flower which once

In Paradise, fast by the tree of life

Began to bloom.”


                                    As the lily is symbolic of purity, so the amaranth (being what

                                    we call an “everlasting”) is symbolic of immortality. What is

                                    at last to blossom forth in the faithful servants of Christ is

                                    NEVER TO LOSE ITS FORM OR BRIGHTNESS!


o        It was a recognition of the righteousness of the wearer.

o        It was not a crown of ambition.

o        It was not won by inflicting miseries on the human race.


Ø      The certainty and manner of its bestowal.


o        It is laid up in reserve securely for its wearers.

o        It is conferred

§         as matter of grace, for the Judge “awards” it of grace; and

§         as matter of righteousness, for, as righteous Judge, He will

      not allow the works of believers to go unrewarded

(Revelation 14:13).


Ø      The character of those receiving the reward. “Them that have loved His



o        Believers do not dread Christ’s appearance in judgment.

o        They look forward with hope, satisfaction, and joy, to the day of

      final account.

o        All who love Him now will love Him at His appearing, when they

      shall see Him in His glory.  (I John 3:2) 

                                    The day of reward; the day of judgment.




                                    The Great Reward (v. 8)


“Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness.” This is the

keynote. Many successful Roman generals and some of the philosophers of

the old world committed suicide in weariness and disgust of life. To live

was boredom, and worse; for all was “vanity and vexation of spirit.”

(Ecclesiastes 1:14)


·         THE FUTURE IS PROVIDED FOR. “Henceforth [or, ‘as to the

rest’] there is laid up for me.” Christ will not let any one of His faithful

servants go uncrowned; all receive the prize — only their crown will be the

perfecting of character, as the flower blossoms in its summer beauty.

Heaven is the everlasting summer of the saints; and there “the crown of

righteousness,” which never was fully attained upon earth, will be given to

all those who endure unto the end. Sometimes it is called “the crown of

glory,” sometimes “the crown of righteousness,” and sometimes “the

crown of life;” for the crowns of God are not the tinsel of earth’s

corruptible gold, but crowns of conscience, mind, and character — in one

word, crowns of life.


·         THE RIGHTEOUS JUDGE WILL BE THERE. He before whom all

hearts are open, He whose judgment is according to knowledge, and who

understands all the unknown and unnoticed conflicts of every earnest soul.

He is the righteous Judge. Human judgment at its best cannot be perfectly

righteous — it may approach to it, but “What man knoweth the things of a

man, save the spirit of man which is in him?” (I Corinthians 2:11)  None,

indeed, but himself and God.



      “And not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing.” Some

men dread that appearing. They never have liked thoughts of God, and how

shall they like THE PRESENCE OF GOD?  Those who have lived in pleasure,

and said to God, “Depart from us” (Matthew 8:34)  may well tremble at His

appearing. But the true Christian, who has walked by faith, loves Christ’s



Ø      We long to see equity or righteous judgment triumphant in the

      universe.  So much judgment seems to miscarry now.


Ø      We long to see the Saviour, whom not having seen, we love; for at his

appearing “we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is.”

(I John 3:2)  Paul was no rhapsodist, but he desired to depart and be

                        with Christ, which was far better. (Philippians 1:23)


9 “Do thy diligence to come shortly unto me:” Do thy diligence

(σπούδασον - spoudason – hasten to do a thing; to exert oneself;

Endeavor , give diligence); see ch. 2:15, note. Paul’s affectionate longing

for Timothy’s company in present danger and desertion is very touching.


10 “For Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this present world, and

is departed unto Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia, Titus unto

Dalmatia.”  Demas. Nothing more is known of Demas than what is gathered

from the mention of him in Colossians 4:14 and Philemon.1:24. We learn from

those passages that he was a fellow laborer of the apostle, and it is remarkable

that in them both he is coupled, as here, with Luke and Mark (Colossians 4:10).

Having loved this present world. It would appear from this that Demas had not

the faith or the courage to run the risk of sharing Paul’s imminent

martyrdom at Rome, but left him, while he was free to do so, under

pretence of an urgent call to Thessaloniea; just as Mark (John Mark) left Paul

and Barnabas (Acts 13:13). But there is no ground to believe that he was

an apostate from the faith. The coupling together of Demas and

Aristarchus in Philemon 1:24 suggests that Demas may have been a

Thessalonian, as we know that Aristarchus was (Acts 20:4). Demas is

thought to be a shortened form of Demarchus. If so, we have a slight

additional indication of his being a Thessalonian, as compounds with

archos or arches would seem to have been common in Thessalonica

(compare Aristarchus and πολιτάρχης - politarchaes  - rulers of the city;

city magistrates - Acts 17:6, 8). Crescens (Κρήσκης); only mentioned here.

It is a Latin name, like Πούδης - Poudaes - Pudens, in v. 21. There was a

cynic philosopher of this name in the second century, a great enemy of the Christians.

The tradition (‘Apost. Constit.,’ 7:46) that he preached the gospel in Galatia is

probably derived from this passage. Titus. The last mention of Titus, not reckoning

the Epistle to Titus, is that in II Corinthians 12:18, from which it appears that Paul

had sent him to Corinth just before his own last visit to that city. How the

interval was filled up, and where Titus passed the time, we know not. He is

The desertion of Demas was caused, like so many, for  “Having loved this

present world.” It may have been love of life or love of ease, or the desire

to get back to old associations at Thessalonica (probably his native place),

or the desire for pleasure or wealth. But it was a fatal passion. THE LOVE


LIFE for all that is in the world is evil — “the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye,

and the pride of life.” (I John 2:16).  It is all (because of sin and Satan)  in the

present order of things, OPPOSED TO GOD and DESTRUCTIVE TO


of this present evil world


11 “Only Luke is with me. Take Mark, and bring him with thee: for he

is profitable to me for the ministry.” Luke; probably a shortened form of

Lucanus. Luke was with Paul in his voyage to Rome (Acts 27:1; 28:11, 16),

and when he wrote the Epistles to the Colossians and Philemon (Colossians 4:14;

Philemon 1:24), having doubtless composed the Acts of the Apostles during Paul’s

two years’ imprisonment (Acts 28:30). How he spent his time between that

date and the mention of him here as still with Paul, we have no

knowledge. But it looks as if he may have been in close personal

attendance upon him all the time. if he had been permitted to write a

supplement to the Acts, perhaps the repeated “we” would have shown this.

Take Mark. Mark had apparently been recently reconciled to Paul

when he wrote Colossians 4:10, and was with him when he wrote

Philemon 1:24. We know nothing more of him till we learn from this passage

that he was with or near to Timothy, and likely to accompany him to Rome

in his last visit to Paul. He is mentioned again in I Peter 5:13, as

being with Peter at Babylon. The expression, “take” (ἀναλαβών - analabon),

seems to imply that Timothy was to pick him up on the way, as the word is

used in Acts 20:13-14; and, though less certainly, in Ibid. ch. 23:31.

He is profitable to me.  (εὔχρηστοςeuchraestos - He is useful to me,);

as ch. 2:21 (where see note). This testimony to Mark’s ministerial usefulness,

at a time when his faithfulness and courage would be put to a severe test, is very

satisfactory.  For the ministry. (εἰς διακονίανeis diakonian - For

ministering; into service). It may be doubted whether διακονία here

means “the ministry,” and I Timothy 1:12, or, as in the Revised Version

 more generally “for ministering,” i.e. for acting as an assistant to me

in my apostolic labors. The words, “to me,” favor the latter rendering.

The sense would then be the same as that of the verb in Acts 19:22,

where we read that Timothy and Erastus “ministered unto him,” i.e. to

Paul, and that of ὑπηρέτηςhupaeretaesto their minister; subservient

deputy -  applied to Mark in Acts 13:5.




            The Apostle’s Loneliness and Need of Assistance and Comfort

                                                    (vs. 9-11)


The longing for sympathy and help in his hour of trial was natural. “Do thy diligence

to come shortly unto me.” There were several reasons for his desire to see Timothy,

apart from the natural anxiety to see the most attached of his faithful disciples.



forsaken me.”


Ø      This brought great distress to the apostle:


o        Because Demas had been a fellow laborer and friend (Colossians


o        Because he forsook him at a critical time in his personal history, when

he was already disheartened by the Asiatic deserters and in the near

prospect of death.

o        Because there was a special need for such as Demas to stand by the

gospel in the city which was the heart of paganism, and to show

courage and constancy in persecution.


Ø      The cause of the desertion was more distressing. “Having loved this

present world.” It may have been love of life or love of ease, or the desire

to get back to old associations at Thessalonica (probably his native place),

or the desire for pleasure or wealth. But it was a fatal passion. The love of

this world is inconsistent with the true life, for all that is in the world is evil

“the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life.” (I John

2:16)  It is all, in the present order of things, opposed to God and destructive

to man.  Nothing but Christ can deliver us from the power of this present

evil world (Galatians 1:4).


·         THE APOSTLE WAS NOW ALMOST ALONE. Other fellow

laborers had gone on their errands of usefulness to various quarters — no

doubt with his heart’s consent: Crescens to Galatia; Titus to Dalmatia, on

the Adriatic; Tychicus, an old friend, and once before sent to Ephesus,

goes back there by the apostle’s directions. Luke alone of all the ministers

of Christ keeps the aged apostle company; for though such brethren as

Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, and Claudia now dutifully attend upon him, yet

the apostle is anxious to see Timothy, and begs that Mark may accompany

him, for “he is useful to me for ministering,” both in evangelistic and in

            personal service.


12 “And Tychicus have I sent to Ephesus.” Tychicus was with

Paul when he wrote the Epistle to the Colossians (Colossians 4:7),

as was also Timothy (Ibid. ch.1:1). The presence of Luke, Timothy,

Tychicus, Mark, with Paul now, as then, is remarkable (see v. 10).

I sent to Ephesus. Theodoret (quoted by Alford, ‘Proleg. to II Timothy,’

ch. 9. sect. 1) says, “It is plain from this that Timothy was not at this

time living at Ephesus, but somewhere else.” And that certainly is the

natural inference at first sight. But Bishop Ellicott suggests the possibility

of Tychicus being the bearer of the First Epistle to Timothy, written not

very long before, and this being merely an allusion to that well known fact.

Another and more probable idea is that he was the bearer of this Epistle,

that the object of his mission, like that of Artemas (Titus 3:12), was to

take Timothy’s place at Ephesus during Timothy’s absence at Rome, and

that he is thus mentioned in the Epistle in order to commend him to the

reverent regard of the Ephesian Church. It is argued against this that πρός σε

 pros se – unto thee  (Titus 3:12) - would have been the more natural

expression after the analogy of Colossians 4:7 and Titus 3:12. But this

objection would be removed if we suppose that the Epistle was sent by

another hand, and that it was very possible that Timothy might have started

for Rome before Tychicus could arrive at Ephesus. He might have orders

to visit Corinth or Macedonia on his way.


13 “The cloke that I left at Troas with Carpus, when thou comest, bring

with thee, and the books, but especially the parchments.” The cloke

(τὸν φελόνην - ton phelonaentraveling cloke -  more properly written

φαινόληνphainolaen);  the Latin paenula, the thick overcoat or cloke.

Only here in the New Testament. Some think it was the bag in which

the books and parchments were packed. The parchments (τὰς μεμβράνας

tas membranas). This, again, is a Latin word. It occurs only here in the New

Testament. They would probably be for the apostle to write his Epistles on.

Or they may have been valuable manuscripts of some kind. In v. 20 we

learn that Paul had lately been at Miletus; and in I Timothy 1:3 that

he was then going to Macedonia. Troas would be on his way to

Macedonia, Greece, and Rome (Acts 16:8-9, 11), as it was on the

return journey from Macedonia to Miletus (Acts 20:5, 15). It should

further be observed that the journey here indicated is the same as that

referred to in I Timothy 1:3, which confirms the inevitable inference

from this chapter that Paul, on his way to Rome from Miletus, whither

he had come from Crete (Titus 1:5), passed through Troas, Macedonia,

and Corinth (v. 20), leaving Timothy at Ephesus.




               The Apostle’s Directions Concerning His Cloke (v. 13)


It has been considered beneath the dignity of inspiration that there should

be such a trivial record. But the criticism is singularly superficial.


·         THE APOSTLE’S DIRECTIONS. “The cloke that I left at Troas with

Carpus, bring when thou comest, and the books, especially the



Ø      There is no evidence that the cloke was an ecclesiastical vestment; for

there is no evidence of vestments being worn at all in the primitive

Church.  It was a thick cloke or mantle which the apostle needed in

view of the approaching winter. His death might be near at hand, but,

as its day was uncertain, it was natural he should provide against

the winter cold.


Ø      It was a precious consignment that was left with Carpus, the Christian

disciple, at Troas. It included, besides his cloke, books and parchments.


o       Even an apostle could not do without books for his ministry.

o       The parchments were more valuable than the books, containing,

as they did probably, some of his own writings, if not the Holy





Ø      The request concerning his cloke implied that he was a poor man, as

well as exposed to hardship and cold.


Ø      It suggests that he was partially deserted by the Roman Christians.

Why could they not give him or lend him a cloke? What had become

of the Roman Christians who met him, so many years before, fifty miles

from the city, and gave him such a hearty welcome?


Ø      It proves his personal independence. He will not ask a cloke from any



14 “Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil: the Lord reward him

according to his works:” Alexander; apparently an Ephesian, as appears by

 the words, “of whom be thou ware also” (v. 15).  It seems probable, though

it is necessarily uncertain, that this Alexander is the same person as that mentioned

in I Timothy 1:20 as “a blasphemer,” which agrees exactly with what is here said

of him, “he greatly withstood our words” (compare Acts 13:45, “contradicted the

things which were spoken by Paul, and blasphemed”). He may or may not

be the same as the Alexander named in Acts 19:33. Supposing the

Alexander of I Timothy 1:20 and this place to be the same, the points

of resemblance with the Alexander of Acts 19:33 are that both resided

at Ephesus, that both seem to have been Christians (see note on I Timothy 1:20),

and both probably Jews, inasmuch as I Timothy 1 relates entirely to Jewish

heresies (vs. 4, 7-8), and Acts 19:33 expressly states that he was a Jew.

The coppersmith (χαλκεὺς - ho chalkeus only here in the New Testament);

properly, a coppersmith, but used generally of any smith — silversmith, or goldsmith,

or blacksmith. Did me much evil (πολλά μοι κακὰ ἐνδείξατοpolla moi kaka

endeixato). This is a purely Hellenistic idiom, and is found in the Septuagint of

Genesis 50:15, 17; Song of the Three Children, 19; II Maccabees 13:9. In classical

Greek the verb ἐνδείκυυμαιendeikuumai in the middle voice, “to

display,” can only be followed by a subjective quality, as “good will,”

“virtue,” “long suffering,” an “opinion,” and the like.  And so it is used in

I Timothy 1:16; Titus 2:10; 3:2. The question naturally arises — When and where

did Alexander thus injure Paul? — at Ephesus or at Rome? Bengel suggests Rome,

and with great probability. Perhaps he did him evil by stirring up the Jews at Rome

against the apostle at the time of “his first defense;” or by giving adverse testimony

before the Roman tribunal, possibly accusing him of being seditious, and bringing up

the riot at Ephesus as a proof of it; or in some other way, of which the

memory has perished. Will render. The Received Text has the future, ἀποδώσει

 apodosei  - will render; may be paying - for the optative ἀποδώη apodoae

a late and incorrect form for  ἀποδοίη apodoiae


15 “Of whom be thou ware also; for he hath greatly withstood our

words.”  Of whom be thou ware.  (ὃν φυλάσσου - hon phulassou – whom

be guarding against). This is the proper construction in classical Greek, the

accusative of the person or thing, after φυλάσσομαι phulassomaikeep

from; to being guarded.   But it is only found in Acts 21:25. In Luke 12:15 the

equally correct phrase, Φυλάσσεσθε ἀπὸ τῆς πλεονεξιας Phulassesthe

apo  taes pleonexias – beware of covetousness -  is used. The inference from

this caution to Timothy is that Alexander had left Rome and returned to his

native Ephesus. The Jews were always on the move. He hath  greatly withstood

our words (ἀντέστη antestae – he hath withstood). For an exactly similar use,

see Acts 13:8, where Elymaswithstood” Paul and Barnabas; and ch.3:8, where

Jannes and Jambres “withstood” Moses. In this case we may be sure that

Paul, in pleading for his life, did not omit to preach the gospel to his

Gentile audience. Alexander tried to refute his words, not without effect.

The apostle says “our words” (not “my words”), perhaps to associate with

himself those other Christians who were with him. It certainly cannot mean

“yours and mine,” as Timothy was not with him when the “words” were





               The Warning against Alexander the Coppersmith (vs. 14-15)


·         THE CHARACTER OF THIS MAN. “Alexander the coppersmith did

me much evil… for he greatly withstood our words.” This implies that he

had been at Rome, and was still an enemy to the gospel (I Timothy 1:20),

as in the day when the apostle delivered him and Hymenaeus over to

Satan at Ephesus. Probably trade interests may have inspired the fierceness

of his hatred to the apostle, for he may have been an idol maker. He was

insulting and spiteful and obstinate in his gainsaying.



will render to him according to his works.”                                  


Ø      This is to state a fact in Divine providence, quite irrespective of the

apostle’s wishes or feelings.


Ø      Transgressors against the cause of God have to reckon in the last

resort, not with humble apostles, but with God Himself.


Ø      WARNING AGAINST HIS WAYS. “Of whom be thou ware also.”

He was a heretic and a blasphemer, and as such had been delivered to

Satan, and was still perversely opposed to the truth. Timothy was

warned to be watchful against his devices. It was no personal injury,

but resistance to the gospel, that dictated this counsel.


16 “At my first answer no man stood with me, but all men forsook me:

I pray God that it may not be laid to their charge.”  Answer.  (ἀπολογίᾳ

 apologia  - verbal defense ). “The technical word in classical Greek for a defense

in answer to an accusation;” as Acts 22:1 (where see note for further illustration),

and Philippians 1:7.  Stood.  παρεγένετοparegeneto – stood; took my part;

Received Text  for συμπαρεγένετοsumparegeneto – came together -of the

Textus Receptus,  which occurs elsewhere in the New Testament only in Luke 23:48,

in a somewhat different sense. The simple παραγίνομαιparaginomai -

is very common in the New Testament, but nowhere in the technical sense in which

it is used here. In classical Greek both forms are common in the sense of “coming to

aid,” “standing by any one,” “assisting.” Here it represents the Latin assistere or

 adesse in its technical sense of “standing by” an accused person as friend or assistant,

to aid and abet them in their defense. Powerful men sometimes brought such a

multitude of assistants as to overawe the magistrate, as Orgetorix the

Helvetian, when summoned to trial, appeared with ten thousand followers,

and so there was no trial. Paul, like his Lord and Master, of whom it is

written, “All his disciples forsook him and fled” (Mark 14:50), had no

one to stand with him in his hour of need.


17 “Notwithstanding the Lord stood with me, and strengthened me; that by

me the preaching might be fully known, and that all the Gentiles might hear:

and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion.” Stood with me (μοὶ παρέστη

- moi parestae – stood by me) as in Acts 27:23; Romans 16:2 (where

see also the use of προστάτις prostatissuccorer;  a helper).  Παρίσταμαι

 paristamai means simply to stand by the side of a person — to be present. But,

like παραγίνομαι paraginomai -  it acquires the meaning of standing by for

the purpose of helping. The contrast between the timid faithless friends who failed

him like a deceitful brook (Job 6:15), and the faithfulness of the Lord who was

A VERY PRESENT HELP IN TROUBLE,  is very striking.  (Psalm 46:1).

Strengthened me.  (ἐνεδυνάμωσέ με enedunamosen me – He invigorates

me); see I Timothy 1:12, note, and Acts 6:8. The preaching.  (κήρυγμα

 kaerugma – preaching; heralding). Paul means that gospel which he was

commissioned to preach, and which he did preach openly in full court when he

was on his trial (see v. 15, note).  Might be fully known.  (πληροφορήθη

plaerophoraethae - might be fully proclaimed); see v.5, note; and compare

Romans 15:19. All the Gentiles might hear (compare Philippians

1:12-14). The brave, unselfish spirit of the apostle thinking more of the

proclamation of the gospel than of his own life, is truly admirable. I was

delivered out of the mouth of the lion. Surely there can be no doubt that,

this is a quotation from Psalm 22:20-21. The verb ἐῥῤύσθην errusthaen

 I was delivered -  comes from the twentieth verse, “Deliver my soul from

the sword,” and the phrase, ἐκ στόματος λέοντος ek stomatos leontos

from the lion’s mouth - is found verbatim in v. 21. The apostle means his

deliverance from the executioner’s sword. In the next verse we find both the

 words ρύσεται rhusetai – deliver; rescue - and σώσει sosei – save -

and the whole tone of the psalm breathes the same spirit as the saying,

“The Lord stood by me.” Dean Alford’s suggestion that the lion

here is Satan, as in I Peter 5:8, and the danger which the apostle

escaped was not death, which he did not fear, but betraying the gospel

under the fear of death, is ingenious, but rather far fetched, though not

impossible. It may possibly have been part of what was in Paul’s mind.


18 “And the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve

me unto His heavenly kingdom: to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.”

Deliver me... save me (see preceding note). The language here is also very like

that of the Lord’s Prayer: Ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ σοῦ γὰρ ἐστιν

βασιλεία... καὶ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας Ἀμήν Rhusai haemas apo tou

ponaerou sou gar estin hae basileia....kai doxa eis tous aionas. Amaen.

Deliver us from the evil for thine is the kingdom…and glory for ever. Amen.

(Matthew 6:13). Every evil work.  Interpreted by the Lord’s Prayer, and by its

own internal evidence, the meaning clearly is, “The Lord, who stood by me at my

 trial, will continue to be my Saviour. He will deliver me from every evil

 design of mine enemies, and from all the wiles and assaults of the devil, in

 short, from the whole power of evil, and will bring me safe into his own

kingdom of light and righteousness.” There is a strong contrast between

“the evil work” and “His heavenly kingdom.” A triumphant martyrdom is

as true a deliverance as escape from death. Compare our Lord’s promise,

“There shall not an hair of your head perish” (Luke 21:18 compared with

v. 16). Paul’s confidence simply is that the Lord would, in His own good time and

way, transfer him from this present evil world, and from the powers of darkness,





               The Apostle’s Trial before Nero, with Its Memorable Incidents

                                                     (vs. 16-18)


·         HIS DESERTION BY MAN. “At my first defense no one took my part,

but all forsook me; may it not be laid to their account.”


Ø      The apostle had to make his defense before the emperor. There is no

record of the nature of the charge. It was probably a charge of sedition or

disobedience to the pagan authorities, which, on account of the close

complication of civil and religious duties in the state, could not be

explained to the satisfaction of a ruler jealous of civil obedience.


Ø      The saints at Rome deserted the apostle through fear. They failed to

support him either by their presence, their sympathy, or their witness in

his favor. Their weakness and timidity must have been a sore trial to the

apostle. Yet he could remember that his Divine Master had been similarly

deserted in His last hours.


Ø      The apostle’s prayer for these timorous saints. “May it not be laid to

their account.” This implies:

(1) That they had been guilty of a grave trespass in forsaking the apostle.

(2) That a single sin, unpardoned, would be destructive to the saints.

(3) That the apostle had a deep interest in their welfare.

(a) He would be concerned for the great weakness of their faith, with its

accompanying depression and discomfort;

(b) for the effects of their weakness on the high repute of the gospel;

(c) and he would seek their restoration in the very spirit of his Divine




“But the Lord stood by me, and strengthened me; that through me the

message might be fully proclaimed, and that all the Gentiles might hear.”

Like his Divine Master, he might say, “Yet I am not alone, because the

Father is with me.”  (John 16:32)


Ø      The Divine support accorded to him. The secret but gracious presence

of the Lord delivered him from all unworthy fears of man. He would feel,

“If God be for us, who can be against us?” (Romans 8:31)  He was

strengthened inwardly unto all long suffering with joyfulness; so that he

could make his defense with all clearness and courage, with all presence

of mind, and with all freedom of thought and expression.


Ø      The end of this Divine support was that the gospel might be still more

fully known at Rome and elsewhere by all Gentiles.


·         THE EFFECT OF HIS DEFENCE. “And I was delivered out of the

mouth of the lion.” He had, for a time, escaped condemnation. Nero was

the cruel lion out of whose power the Lord had delivered him.



DELIVERANCE. “And the Lord will deliver me from every evil work, and

will save me unto His heavenly kingdom.”


Ø      This is no declaration that the apostle shall escape death, for he had

already spoken of himself as “already being offered.” (v. 6.)


Ø      It is a declaration that he shall be carried beyond the sphere of evil in

every form, and translated securely into the heavenly kingdom. All

the evil influences at work around him would not affect him. There

is not a note of fear in his last days.



whom be the glory forever and ever.”


Ø      The glory is here ascribed to the Son of God, an express evidence of

      His Divinity.


Ø      There is no time more appropriate for such an ascription of glory as

after deliverance from death and evil. (As in heaven – Revelation

4:8-11 – CY – 2019)


19 “Salute Prisca and Aquila, and the household of Onesiphorus.”

Prisca and Aquila. Prisca is elsewhere always called Priscilla (Acts 18:2, 18, 26;

Romans 16:3; I Corinthians 16:19). A similar variation of names is seen in Drusa and

Drusilla, Livia and Livella, etc. She is named before her husband, as here

in Acts 18:18; Romans 16:3. The mention of them here is in favor

of Timothy being at Ephesus at this time, as Ephesus is one of the places

where they were wont to sojourn (Acts 18:19, 26). The household (as in

Authorized Version -  ch. 1:16) of Onesiphorus (see ch. 1:16, 18, note). This

repetition of the “house of Onesiphorus is almost conclusive as to the recent

death of Onesiphorus himself.


20 Erastus abode at Corinth: but Trophimus have I left at Miletum sick.”

Erastus abode at Corinth. We learn from Romans 16:3 that Erastus was the

chamberlain of Corinth, which accounts for his abiding there, he was one

of Paul’s companions in his missionary journey, and we learn from

Acts 19:22 that he was sent by Paul with Timothy into Macedonia

just before the great riot at Ephesus. The mention of him here clearly

indicates that Paul had gone from Troas, where he left his cloke, to

Corinth on his way to Rome. Trophimus is first mentioned in Acts 20:4,

where we learn that he was an Asiatic, and more definitely in

Acts 21:29, that he was an Ephesian. He had traveled with Paul’s

party from Macedonia to Troas, and thence to Miletus and Jerusalem,

where we lose sight of him till we find him again in this passage journeying

towards Rome with Paul and others, but stopped at Miletus by

sickness. Miletus, not Miletum, is the correct form.


21 “Do thy diligence to come before winter.  Eubulus greeteth thee, and

Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren.”  Do thy diligence

 (σπούδασονspoudason – be diligent; endeavor you); see v. 9 and 

ch.2:15, note. Before winter; lest, when winter storms come, it be impossible to

do so.  Paul’s longing to have Timothy with him is apparent throughout. Eubulus;

mentioned nowhere else. The name is not uncommon as a Greek name, and appears

also in the patronymic Eubulides, and the female name Eubule. And Pudens,

and Linus, and Claudia. Of these persons Linus is probably the same as is

mentioned by Irenaeus and Eusebius as the first Bishop of Rome. Irenaeus

(3:111, 3) says, “When the apostles, therefore, had founded the Church (of

Rome) they entrusted the office (λειτουργίαν) of the episcopate to Linus,

of whom Paul makes mention in his Epistles to Timothy.” Eusebius (‘Ecc.

Hist.,’ 3:2) says, “Linus was ordained the first Bishop of Rome (πρῶτος

κληροῦται τὴν ἐπισκοπήν) after the martyrdom of Paul and Peter” (see,

too, § 4 of the same book). Some identify him with a certain Llin in Welsh

hagiography, said to be the son of Caractacus. As regards Pudens and

Claudia, nothing is known about them unless the very ingenious and

interesting theory of Archdeacon Williams is true, which is necessarily very

uncertain. According to this theory, Claudia is the foreign lady, a Briton,

whose marriage with Pudens is spoken of by Martial in two epigrams, and

who also bore the cognomen of Rufina. It is supposed that she was the

daughter of the British king Cogidubnus, the ally of the Romans and of the

Roman governor, Aulus Plautius, whose wife Pomponia is said by Tacitus

to have been impeached of the crime of embracing a “foreign superstition,”

which was probably Christianity. Cogidubnus appears by an ancient

inscription now at Goodwood to have taken the name of the Emperor

Claudius, being called Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus, which would

naturally lead to his daughter being called Claudia. And if further she was

adopted by the wife of her father’s ally, the name Rufina would be

accounted for, as a distinguished branch of the gens Pomponia bore the

name of Rufus. And Martial’s epigram is addressed to “Rufus,” as one

interested in the marriage. Claudia may either have learned Christianity from

Pomponia, or may have conveyed the knowledge of the gospel to her. On

the other hand, the name of Pudens appears on the Goodwood inscription

as having given, while still a heathen, a site for a temple of Neptune and

Minerva, which was built “pro salute” of the imperial family under the

authority of King Cogidubnus — curiously connecting him with the British

king. It is probable that Pudens and Claudia were not yet married. Thus it

will be seen that, while this theory is borne out by many coincidences, it

cannot by any means be adopted as certain (see Dean Alford’s excussus in

the ‘Proleg. to 2 Timothy;’ and Conybeare and Howson’s ‘Life of St.

Paul,’ vol. it. p. 501). Lewin (‘Life and Epist. of St. Paul,’ vol. 2, p. 392)

warmly espouses the theory, but hesitates between Caractacus and

Cogidubnus as the father of Claudia. Farrar rejects the whole theory “as an

elaborate rope of sand” (‘Life of St. Paul,’ vol. 2, p. 569). If Linus was the

son, and Claudia the daughter, of Caractacus, they would be brother and





                                    Timothy’s Presence Desired (v. 21)


“Do thy diligence to come before winter.” Traveling would be difficult

then, if not impossible, and perhaps the white snow would be the shroud of

the apostle. Anyway, he has been delivered once for a brief space out of

the mouth of that lion — Nero. But it is not easy to believe that this

ferocious lion, satiated for the time with blood, should seek to devour him

no more. But a Roman prison in winter is a very desolate place, and he

who has been hurried from place to place by his keepers has left even his

warm cloke behind him, and hopes to cover himself with that black goat’shair

skin when winter comes. Bring the cloke, Timothy, and the papyrus

books — old vellum manuscripts, perhaps the roll of Isaiah and the

prophets; let not Timothy forget them, for there are songs of prisoners in

those inspired prophetic rolls. And let Timothy remember that Paul

wants to see his face again.


·         HERE IS ABSENCE OF MURMURING. We may and ought to learn

what the gospel can achieve. Here is Paul prevented from preaching, with

arrest laid on all his missionary work. In a dreary Roman dungeon he is

persecuted, but not forsaken;” “struck down, but not destroyed.”

(II Corinthians 4:9)  Yet mark this — he never suffered one murmuring

word to pass his lips.


·         HERE IS PRESENCE OF GREETING. He would cheer Timothy, and

sends him various greetings, from the Roman saints, as we may see by their

namesEubulus, Pudens, Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren —

send greeting. What sublime self-abnegation there was in Paul!

Forgetful always of himself! How like the Master! In the hour of expected

dissolution he is thinking only of others.


22 “The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit. Grace be with you. Amen.”

The Lord …be with thy spirit, etc. The manuscripts vary. The salutation as it

stands in the Received Text  is like the versicles, “The Lord be with you.

And with thy spirit.” It is a peculiarity of the salutation here that it is double —

one to Timothy personally, μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματός σου - meta tou pneumatos sou

with the spirit of you - the other to the Church, χάρις μεθ ὑμῶν hae charis

 meth humon – the grace be with you.  I Corinthians 16:24 exhibits another variety.

Grace.  (see I Timothy 6:21, note). The Received Text omits the “amen” at the end,

as in I Timothy 6:21. Thus does our last authentic account of this great apostle; these

are, perhaps, the last words of him who wrought a greater change in the condition of

mankind by his speech than any man that ever lived. Honor be to his blessed memory!




            Orpah kissed her mother-in-law; but Ruth clave unto her.”

                                                (vs. 9-22)


In this little social incident of some three thousand years ago, which may

have passed at the time with little observation, we have a pithy and

pregnant example set before us, with the usual searching wisdom of Holy

Scripture, of the difference between friendship and friendship, religion and

religion, according as they lie deep in the roots of the heart or merely lie on

the surface. The contrast between Demas and Luke affords another

example of this important difference. We may believe that Demas had faith

in Christ, and also that he had a measure of friendship for St. Paul. We

need not suppose that, when he was a “fellow worker” with Paul in the

good work of evangelizing the world, when he was his companion with

Luke and others during his first imprisonment at Rome, and traveled with

him again Romewards, he was playing the hypocrite, and that he was either

false in his profession of faith to the Lord Jesus or of attachment to his

apostle. But neither his faith nor his friendship had been put to a severe

test. The force of Paul’s character had hitherto borne him along like an

impetuous torrent, he had confidence in his star; he felt sure, perhaps, that

the cause which Paul espoused would triumph; and no difficulties had

arisen sufficient to make him waver in his purpose. But suddenly all was

changed. This second imprisonment, with its ominous trial, with the

defection of the Asiatic Christians, and the desertion of friends, had altered

the whole aspect of affairs. Instead of the triumphs of the faith and the

supremacy of the great apostle, he saw the probability of a cruel death for

Paul and his nearest companions. The trial was too great for his weak

faith and his superficial friendship. Without denying Christ, and without

withdrawing from his outward attachment to Paul, we can fancy him,

perhaps, with protestations of undiminished love, and regrets at the

necessity which called him away, hurrying off to Thessalonica, his native

place. But Paul felt it to be, what it was, a desertion. “Orpah kissed her

mother-in-law; but Ruth clave unto her.” (Ruth 1:14)  In the words, “Only

Luke is with me,” we see the different stamp both of his faith and of his

friendship. Luke the physician was as loving as he was loved. With admirable

fidelity and unshaken constancy, he had followed his great master from Philippi to

Troas, and from Troas to Jerusalem. In the graphic narratives of Paul’s

trials before the Sanhedrim, before Felix, before Festus and Agrippa; in his

account of the shipwreck and of the arrival at Rome, — we trace his

presence at all those eventful scenes. Through the two whole years of

imprisonment he had never left him. And now that the end of that great

career was drawing nigh, and the clouds were gathering up and darkening

the evening of that glorious life, and various sorrows were thickening

around that noble spirit, we read still, not in the inferences of Luke’s

modest narratives, but in the testimony of Paul himself, “Only Luke is

with me.” “Ruth clave unto her.” “Whither thou goest, I will go; and where

thou lodgest, I will lodge: thy people shall be my people, and thy God my

God The Lord do so to me, and more also, if aught but death part me and

thee.”  (ibid. vs. 16-17) We see, too, how he who had recorded in such graphic

words “all that Jesus began both to do and teach, until the day in which He was

taken up” (Acts 1:1-2), had imbibed the spirit of his Divine Master. He had not

taught others to know Jesus Christ, without coming to the knowledge of Him

himself.  And so his faith was firm in that day of shaking. He was ready to lose his

life that he might gain it; and he stands before us, not only as the evangelist

who teaches and delights us, but as the strong believer and the faithful

friend, whose example is as persuasive as his words.




                                                Personal (vs.  9-22)


·         TIMOTHY.


Ø      Requested to come to Rome. “Do thy diligence to come shortly unto

me.” His formerly expressed longing to see him (ch.1:4) is now turned

into a formal request to come, and to come shortly, unto him. In the

diligence he was to show in this there is not the idea of pure haste, but

of the utmost haste that was compatible with the interests of Christ at

Ephesus. Certain arrangements would require to be made, not merely for

his journey, but for the carrying on of the work after his departure. But as

soon as these arrangements could be made he was to hasten to him at



Ø      Special reason in Paul’s isolation. “For Demas forsook me, having

loved this present world, and went to Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia,

Titus to Dalmatia. Only Luke is with me.” The fundamental reason for

the request was the apostle’s approaching martyrdom; but there was an

additional and special reason in his isolation at Rome. This should not

have been the case; for Demas, who had been his trusted assistant, had

been there, and if he had done his duty would still have been with him.

But he forsook him in his hour of distress, which may probably be

associated with his first defense (v. 16). The reason for desertion was

that he loved the present world. We are not to understand world in the

ethical sense in which it is sometimes used; the world as it has become

by the entrance of sin, in opposition to the world as it was intended to be.

Demas loved the good things of the world — absence from the scene of

peril, ease in his own home — in preference to what would have

advantaged him in the future world — bravely standing by Paul and

lovingly ministering to his sufferings. The conduct of Demas was

wicked and cruel, calculated to destroy his influence as a Christian

teacher. We are not warranted in saying that it excluded after penitence

and wrecked his destiny. It has been his earthly destiny to be associated

with a black act done to one of the noblest of men at a time when his

nobility shone forth most clearly. In explanation of his isolation, Paul

mentions without comment the departure of Crescens to Galatia, and

of Titus to Dalmatia. In their case we may understand that there was

not desertion of Paul, but pressure of Christian work and a mission from

Paul. The only one of Paul’s assistants who was with him was Luke, so

often mentioned in connection with Paul. In connection with the

mention of his name here, it is remarkable that he who was with Paul

during his second imprisonment in Rome only brings down the apostolic

history to the period of the first imprisonment there. With the exception

of Luke there were no Christian workers with Paul who could enter

intelligently and sympathetically into his plans and render assistance on

the spot.


Ø      Requested to take Mark, and bring him with him. “Take Mark, and

bring him with thee: for he is useful to me for ministering. But

Tychicus I sent to Ephesus.” After what had happened, the honorable

mention of Mark in Colossians 4:10 and again here is honorable to Paul.

His opinion of him had undergone great change. He had made a firm stand

against him as an unsuitable companion in labor; now he bases his request

for the presence of the evangelist at Rome on his being useful for

ministering. Tychicus, who is warmly commended in Ephesians 6:21,

had been thus useful; but he had been under the necessity of sending him

on a mission to Ephesus. The ministering to be thought of was not so

much to Paul the prisoner as to Paul in his imprisonment planning for the

future of Christianity. These, then, we are to think of as the three workers

who surrounded the apostle in Rome as he neared his martyrdom —

Timothy, Mark, Luke. They were men of like spirit, to whom he could

freely communicate his plans and also the enthusiasm necessary for

carrying them out. All three had the evangelistic faculty. If Timothy

had more of the administrative faculty, marking him out as, more than

the other two, the successor of Paul, they had more of the literary faculty,

marking them out for service to future generations.


Ø      Requested to bring belongings of the apostle with him from Troas.

      “The cloke that I left at Troas with Carpus, bring when thou comest,

and the books, especially the parchments.” The apostle had not lived

to accumulate property; and none would be much the richer by what he

left behind. He possessed a cloke, which some friend may have gifted

to him — a large warm cloke for winter, when lately at Troas — since

the previous winter, we may suppose — he had not been able to bring

it with him, but had left it with Carpus. As Timothy would pass Troas

on his way to Rome, he is requested to bring it with him. Paul did not,

in the spirit of modern monasticism, court suffering; he provides against

the coming winter, even when that winter was to bring his martyrdom.

He also possessed books, which are a necessity for the preacher. He

who has influenced so many by his books was himself influenced

by the books of others. He also possessed parchments, on which he

laid greater stress as his own compositions, containing records and

statements of truth in which he was deeply, interested, as fitted to

keep the current of Christianity clear and pure.  Timothy, who in

I Timothy 4:13) is charged to attend to reading, would find in these

books  and parchments good pabulum and companionship on

his journey from Troas to Rome.


·         ALEXANDER.


Ø      His injurious conduct. “Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil.”

The fact of his being styled the coppersmith seems to point to his being

distinguished from others of the same name. We would not, therefore,

identify him with the Alexander of the First Epistle, or the Alexander

of the Acts of the Apostles. We may conclude, from the language,

that he bore personal animosity to Paul.


Ø      The Righter in heaven. “The Lord will render to him according to his

works.” This is very different from invoking a curse on Alexander. He

found it in his heart to make matters much worse for Paul. The Lord

would judge between them. This would issue in evil to Alexander, unless

his present spiteful works were followed by repentance.


Ø      No confidence to be placed in him. “Of whom be thou ware also; for he

greatly withstood our words.” Paul had good reason to be on his guard

against him. We can understand his having a certain connection with

Christianity, which would give him all the more power to injure Paul. But

he had not the spirit of Christianity, when on the occasion, we may

suppose, of the first defense, he made injurious statements against the

great champion of Christianity. If he still professed to be a friend of

Christianity at a distance from Rome, he was to be regarded with



·         PAUL.


Ø      First defense. “At my first defense.” This first defense was in

connection with a second imprisonment, of which there can be no doubt.

The account of Eusebius is that “after defending himself successfully, it is

currently reported that the apostle again went forth to proclaim the gospel,

and afterwards came to Rome a second time, and was martyred under

Nero.” Some would place an interval of five years between the first and

second imprisonments. We have not the means of knowing the precise

charge against which he had to defend himself on this second occasion.

There is apparently this fact to go upon, that, after the conflagration of

Rome which was attributed by Nero to the Christians, Paul as their leader

was liable at any moment to be arrested. The supposition is adopted by

some that on this ground he was arrested at Nicopolis, where Titus was to

join him (Titus 3:12), and taken across the Adriatic to Rome. His trial,

which does not seem this time to have been long delayed, was yet recent;

for Timothy had not been informed of it. The trial would probably take

place, not before Nero, as on the previous occasion, but before the city

prefect, who, as more the emperor’s creation, was supplanting the regular

judges. The scene of the trial would probably be in one of the basilicas in

the Roman forum, where a large audience could be accommodated. “A

dense ring,” says Pliny, “many circles deep, surrounded the scene of trial.

They crowded close to the judgment seat itself, and even in the upper part

of the basilica both men and women pressed close in the eager desire to

see (which was easy) and to hear (which was difficult).” We may

conclude, from the language here (first defense), and also from his being

still in  bonds as a malefactor  (ch. 2:9), that the trial resulted neither in

his condemnation nor in his full acquittal. Some imagine that he was

acquitted on a first charge; but that there was a second charge on which

he was yet to be tried. The more probable supposition is that there was a

postponement in consequence of the case not being clear, and that the

apostle was looking forward to a second trial when, on the whole case, be

would have to make a second defense.


Ø      Assistance at his trial. “No one took my part, but all forsook me: may it

not he laid to their account. But the Lord stood by me, and strengthened

me; that through me the message might be fully proclaimed, and that

all the Gentiles might hear.” He had not the assistance which was usually

enjoyed by the accused on his trial. No stress need be laid on the absence

of a professional advocate; for Paul was well able to defend himself. But

there was no one beside him to give him countenance. There was no one -

which would have rendered great assistance — to come forward and

testify that his relation to the Roman law, in his conduct and teaching,

had been all that Romans could have desired. It was his fortune to be put

in the position in which his Master had been put before him. “All,” he

says, “forsook me.” The resemblance extended not merely to his position,

but to his gentleness of spirit. The Master had said on the cross, “Father,

forgive them; for they know not what they do.”  (Luke 23:34)  The

servant echoes this sentiment when he says, “May it not be laid to

their account.” The absence of earthly friends was, however, more

than made up by the presence of A HEAVENLY FRIEND! This was

the Lord Jesus Christ, who stood by him, not merely as his Friend,

but as his Advocate, and strengthened him as such. That is to

say, he supplied him, in matter and spirit, with all that was necessary

for his defene. This was according to the Master’s own promise, “And

when they bring you before the synagogues, and the rulers, and the

 authorities, be not anxious how or what ye shall say: for the

Holy Spirit shall teach you in that very hour what ye ought to say.”

(Luke 12:12)  We learn that the defense of himself was adroitly turned

into a defense of the gospel. If there was a charge of arson, it would be

open to him to show that the gospel did not encourage crime

or resistance to the powers that be. It would also fall naturally to him

to give a statement of the points on which he laid greatest stress in his

teaching. The assistance he received was of the highest avail; for it

brought his life work to its culmination. He had been proclaiming the

gospel in many places, and in many places the Gentiles had heard.

Now, when his opportunity had come before Roman officials and

before a Roman multitude, as apparently it had not come before,

he could say that, as far as his instrumentality was concerned, his

proclamation had reached its climax, and the last of the Gentiles

had heard.


Ø      His description of the restart of the trial. “And I was delivered out of

the mouth of the lion.” The ancient opinion, that the lion here was Nero,

may be taken as substantially correct. We are not to understand that Paul

had become personally obnoxious to Nero since his acquittal by him.

Away from Rome, he may not have attracted the attention of the tyrant.

But it suited Nero, according to the testimony of Tacitus, to avert the

rage of the populace from himself to the Christians. As the result of that

rage, Paul, as the ringleader of the Christians, was apprehended, and

put on his trial. In the state of feeling which prevailed, it would be very

difficult for Paul to get a calm hearing. He was more likely to meet

with fierceness than with justice. The Roman power, of which Nero

was the fit embodiment, was like a lion opening its mouth to devour

him. That he was not instantly devoured was nothing less than a

miracle. The Lord standing by him, he was delivered out of the mouth

of the lion. We must not put more meaning into this than it will bear.

It simply means that he got a respite. Roman fierceness was not then

gratified; the lion did not get him then between its teeth. But Roman

fierceness, consequent on the conflagration, had not died out; the lion

might again open its mouth on him.


Ø      Confident hope of future and everlasting deliverance. “The Lord will

deliver me from every evil work, and will save me unto His heavenly

kingdom.” His respite gave him this confidence. It did not make him

self-confident; but, mindful of the source whence his respite had come,

his confidence was in the Lord, that he would deliver him still. It was

not a deliverance from death that he expected, as appears from the second

clause. But it was deliverance from all that would intimidate him or unfit

him for bearing a worthy testimony on the occasion of his second trial. A

wicked attempt might be made to damage Christianity in him, as may

have been made by Alexander on the occasion of the first trial. The

Lord would not allow that attempt to succeed. Christianity would come

forth out of the trial untarnished. The issue, so far as he was concerned,

would be his being placed safely in Christ’s heavenly kingdom. This

would be his receptacle after and through death. For Christ’s kingdom

is already commenced in heaven. The safe placing of Paul in it meant,

on the one side, removal from the sphere of all evil, and, on the other

side, the coming under the highest conditions of happiness in the

enjoyment of Christ — barring what is associated with the completing

of the number of the elect and the reunion of soul and body.


Ø      Doxology. “To whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen.” Doxology

is an accompaniment of the highest spiritual mood. It is offered here to

the Son, as elsewhere to the Father. For it was the Lord’s assistance

that he had enjoyed, and still expected, and into whose kingdom

in heaven he was, by the same assistance, to be safely brought,

it would take THE AGE OF THE AGES to declare all that Christ

had been and was still to be to him.


·         SALUTATIONS.


Ø      The distant to whom salutations are sent. “Salute Prison and Aquila,

      and the house of Onesiphorus.” Prisca and Aquila were workers with

Paul, who for his life had laid down their own necks. Prisca being

mentioned before her husband would seem to point to her characteristics

being more remarkable. The house of Onesiphorus is saluted, apparently

for the  reason that Onesiphorus himself was dead.


o       Appended notices. Erastus abode at Corinth: but Trophimus

      I left at Miletus sick. Do thy diligence to come before winter.”

Erastus and Trophimus, who were associated with Ephesus,

he did not salute, because they were not at the time there, as

far as he knew. His feeling with regard to Timothy himself

was to have his immediate fellowship.  Let not winter come

on and prevent his coming; for his martyrdom was imminent.


Ø      The near who send their salutations. Eubulus saluteth thee, and

Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren.” The brethren in

Rome all sent their salutations. They were numerous enough to be known

as Christian’s by Nero. The members of the Roman Church whose names

are given would be specially interested in Timothy.


·         BENEDICTION. “The Lord be with thy spirit. Grace be with you.”

The peculiarity of the benediction is that it is twofold — first to Timothy

separately, and then to Timothy and those with him. What Timothy is to

have separately is the presence of the Lord with his nobler part; what he is

to have along with others is undeserved favor.





Grace is when God gives us good things that we don’t deserve.

Mercy is when He spares us from bad things that we deserve.

Blessings are when He is generous with both.

God is good all the time!





                        Salutations and Personal Notices (vs. 19-22)


·         SALUTATIONS. “Salute Prisca and Aquila, and the house of



Ø      The apostle remembers his absent friends in his solitude, but especially

those who gave him such hearty cooperation at Corinth or Ephesus.


Ø      He likewise transmits to Timothy the Christian salutations of Eubulus,

Pudens, Linus, and Claudia, Roman saints, of eminence and grace in the

Church, yet who failed to stand by him on his memorable trial.


·         NOTICES. Erastus abode at Corinth.” Probably the chamberlain of

that city (Romans 16:23), who once showed much kindness to the

apostle, and afterwards accompanied Timothy on a journey into Macedonia

(Acts 19:22). Trophimus I left at Miletus sick.” This was a Gentile

Christian of Ephesus, whose presence with the apostle at Jerusalem caused

such an uproar (Acts 21:29). Miletus was a seaport of Caria, thirty

miles from Ephesus. Trophimus would have been with the apostle at

Rome, probably, but for his sickness. The apostle left him at Miletus,

probably, shortly before his present imprisonment.


·         FINAL WORDS FOR TIMOTHY. “Do thy diligence to come before

winter.” We see here the tender anxiety of the apostle to see his young

friend before death. If he did not come at once, the severities of the winter

might prevent his journey altogether. “The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy

spirit. Grace be with you.” We have here a double benediction — one

addressed singly to Timothy, the other to Timothy and the Ephesian

Church. The presence of Christ would be his comfort and stay in every

difficulty, and strengthen him for every duty.




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