(The following texts highlighted in this color of blue is taken from

The Treasury of David by Charles Haddon Spurgeon)  "Excerpted text

Copyright AGES Library, LLC. All rights reserved.  Materials are reproduced

by permission."



                                                            Psalm 17


TITLE and SUBJECT. A prayer of David. David would not have been a

man after God's own heart, if he had not been a man of prayer. He was a

master in the sacred art of supplication. He flies to prayer in all times of

need, as a pilot speeds to the harbor in the stress of tempest. So frequent

were David's prayers that they could not be all dated and entitled; and

hence this simply bears the author's name, and nothing more. The smell of

the furnace is upon the present psalm, but there is evidence in the last verse

that he who wrote it came unharmed out of the flame. We have in the

present plaintive song, AN APPEAL TO HEAVEN from the persecutions

of earth. A spiritual eye may see Jesus here.


DIVISIONS. There are no very clear lines of demarcation between the

parts; but we prefer the division adopted by that precious old

commentator, David Dickson. In vs. 1-4, David craves justice in the

controversy between him and his oppressors. In vs. 5-6, he requests

of the Lord grace to act rightly while under the trial. From vs. 7-12,

he seeks protection from his foes, whom he graphically describes; and in

vs. 13-14, pleads that they may be disappointed; closing the whole in

the most comfortable confidence that all would certainly be well with

himself at the last.


1  Hear the right, O Lord,” - He that has the worst cause makes the

most noise; hence the oppressed soul is apprehensive that its voice may be

drowned, and therefore pleads in this one verse for a hearing no less than

three times. The troubled heart craves for the ear of the great Judge,

persuaded that with Him to hear is to redress. If our God could not or

would not hear us, our state would be deplorable indeed; and yet some

professors set such small store by the mercy-seat, that God does not hear

them for the simple reason that they neglect to plead. As well have no

house if we persist like gypsies in living in the lanes and commons; as well

have no mercy-seat as be always defending our own cause and never going

to God. There is more fear that we will not hear the Lord than that the

Lord will not hear us. "Hear the right;" it is well if our case is good in itself

and can be urged as a right one, for right shall never be wronged by our

righteous Judge; but if our suit be marred by our infirmities, it is a great

privilege that we may make mention of the righteousness of our Lord

Jesus, which is ever prevalent on high. Right has a voice which Jehovah

always hears; and if my wrongs clamor against me with great force and

fury, I will pray the Lord to hear that still louder and mightier voice of the

right, and the rights of His dear Son. "Hear, O God, the Just One; "i.e.,

"hear the Messiah, "is a rendering adopted by Jerome, and admired by

Bishop Horsley, whether correct or not as a translation, it is proper enough

as a plea. Let the reader plead it at the throne of the righteous God, even

when all other arguments are unavailing - “attend unto my cry,” -  This shows

the vehemence and earnestness of the petitioner; he is no mere talker, he weeps and

laments. Who can resist a cry? A real hearty, bitter, piteous cry, might almost melt

a rock, there can be no fear of its prevalence with our heavenly Father. A cry is our

earliest utterance, and in many ways the most natural of human sounds; if our

prayer should like the infant's cry be more natural than intelligent, and more

earnest than elegant, it will be none the less eloquent with God. There is a

mighty power in a child's cry to prevail with a parent's heart -“give ear unto my

prayer,” -  Some repetitions are not vain. The reduplication here used is neither

superstition nor tautology, but is like the repeated blow of a hammer hitting the

same nail on the head to fix it the more effectually, or the continued knocking of a

beggar at the gate who cannot be denied an alms - “that goeth not out of feigned

lips.” Sincerity is a sine qua non in prayer.  Lips of deceit are detestable to man

and much more to God. In intercourse so hallowed as that of prayer, hypocrisy even

in the remotest degree is as fatal as it is foolish. Hypocritical piety is double iniquity.

He who would feign and flatter had better try his craft with a fool like himself, for to

deceive the all seeing One is as impossible as to take the moon in a net, or

to lead the sun into a snare. He who would deceive God is himself already

most grossly deceived. Our sincerity in prayer has no merit in it, any more

than the earnestness of a mendicant in the street; but at the same time the

Lord has regard to it, through Jesus, and will not long refuse His ear to an

honest and fervent petitioner.


2  Let my sentence come forth from thy presence;” - The psalmist has

now grown bold by the strengthening influence of prayer, and he now

entreats the Judge of all the earth to give sentence upon his case. He has

been libeled, basely and maliciously libeled; and having brought his action

before the highest court, he, like an innocent man, has no desire to escape

the inquiry, but even invites and sues for judgment. He does not ask for

secrecy, but would have the result come forth to the world. He would have

sentence pronounced and executed forthwith. In some matters we may

venture to be as bold as this; but except we can plead something better

than our own supposed innocence, it were terrible presumption thus to

challenge the judgment of a sin hating God. With Jesus as our complete

and all glorious righteousness we need not fear, though the day of

judgment should commence at once, and hell open her mouth at our feet,

but might joyfully prove the truth of our hymn writer's holy boast—


                        "Bold shall I stand in that great day;

                        For who aught to my charge shall lay?

                        While, through thy blood, absolved I am,

                        From sin's tremendous curse and shame."


let thine eyes behold the things that are equal.” Believers do not desire any

other judge than God, or to be excused from judgment, or even to be

judged on principles of partiality. No; our hope does not lie in the prospect

of favoritism from God, and the consequent suspension of His law; we

expect to be judged on the same principals as other men, and through the

blood and righteousness of our Redeemer we shall pass the ordeal

unscathed. The Lord will weigh us in the scales of justice fairly and justly;

He will not use false weights to permit us to escape, but with the sternest

equity those balances will be used upon us as well as upon others; and with

our blessed Lord Jesus as our all in all we tremble not, for we shall not be

found wanting. In David's case, he felt his cause to be so right that he

simply desired the Divine eyes to rest upon the matter, and he was

confident that equity would give him all that he needed.


3 “Thou hast proved mine heart;” - Like Peter, David uses the argument,

"Thou knowest all things, thou knowest that I love thee." (John 21:17) -

It is a most assuring thing to be able to appeal at once to the Lord, and call upon

our Judge to be a witness for our defense. "Beloved, if our heart condemn us

not, then have we confidence toward God."(I John 3:21) - “thou hast visited

me in the night;” - As if he had said, "Lord, thou hast entered my house at all hours;

and thou hast seen me when no one else was nigh; thou hast come upon me unawares

and marked my unrestrained actions, and thou knowest whether or not I am guilty of

the crimes laid at my door." Happy man who can thus remember the omniscient eye,

and the omnipresent visitor, and find comfort in the remembrance. We hope we

have had our midnight visits from our Lord, and truly they are sweet; so

sweet that the recollection of them sets us longing for more of such

condescending communings. Lord, if indeed, we had been hypocrites,

should we have had such fellowship, or feel such hungerings after a

renewal of it?  - “thou hast tried me, and shalt find nothing;” Surely the

Psalmist means nothing hypocritical or wicked in the sense in which his slanderers

accused him; for if the Lord should put the best of His people into the crucible, the

dross would be a fearful sight, and would make penitence open her sluices

wide. Assayers very soon detect the presence of alloy, and when the chief

of all assayers shall, at the last, say of us He has found nothing, it will be a

glorious hour indeed —"They are without fault before the throne of God."

(Revelation 14:5) - Even here, as viewed in our covenant Head, the Lord sees no

sin in Jacob, nor perverseness in Israel; even the all detecting glance of Omniscience

can see no flaw where the great Substitute covers all with beauty and

perfection.  I am purposed that my mouth shall not transgress.”  Oh those

sad lips of ours! We had need purpose to purpose if we would keep them from

exceeding their bounds. The number of diseases of the tongue is as many

as the diseases of all the rest of the man put together, and they are more

inveterate. Hands and feet one may bind, but who can fetter the lips? Iron

bands may hold a madman, but what chains can restrain the tongue? It

needs more than a purpose to keep this nimble offender within its proper

range. Lion taming and serpent charming are not to be mentioned in the

same day as tongue taming, “for the tongue can no man tame.” – (James 3:8)

 Those who have to smart from the falsehoods of others should be the more

jealous over themselves; perhaps this led the Psalmist to register this holy

resolution; and, moreover, he intended thereby to aver that if he had said

too much in his own defense, it was not intentional, for he desired in all

respects to tune his lips to the sweet and simple music of truth.

Notwithstanding all this David was slandered, as if to show us that the

purest innocence will be bemired by malice. There is no sunshine without a

shadow, no ripe fruit unpecked by the birds.


4  Concerning the works of men,” - While we are in the midst of men we

shall have their works thrust under our notice, and we shall be compelled

to keep a corner of our diary headed "concerning the works of men." To be

quite clear from the dead works of carnal humanity is the devout desire of

souls who are quickened by the Holy Spirit - “by the word of thy lips I have

kept me from the paths of the destroyer.” He had kept the highway of

Scripture, and not chosen the bypaths of malice. We should soon imitate the

example of the worst of men if the grace of God did not use the Word of God

as the great preservative from evil. The paths of the destroyer have often tempted

us; we have been prompted to become destroyers too, when we have been sorely

provoked, and resentment has grown warm; but we have remembered the example

of our Lord, who would not call fire from heaven upon His enemies, but meekly

prayed, "Father, forgive them." All the ways of sin are the paths of Satan,

—the Apollyon or Abaddon, both of which words signify the destroyer.

Foolish indeed are those who give their hearts to the old murderer, because

for the time he panders to their evil desires. That heavenly Book which lies

neglected on many a shelf is the only guide for those who would avoid the

enticing and entangling mazes of sin; and it is the best means of preserving

the youthful pilgrim from ever treading those dangerous ways. We must

follow the one or the other; the Book of Life, or the way of death; the

word of the Holy Spirit, or the suggestion of the Evil Spirit. David could

urge as the proof of his sincerity that he had no part or lot with the ungodly

in their ruinous ways. How can we venture to plead our cause with God,

unless we also can wash our hands clean of all connection with the enemies

of the Great King?


5  Under trial it is not easy to behave ourselves aright; a candle is not

easily kept alight when many envious mouths are puffing at it. In evil times

prayer is peculiarly needful, and wise men resort to it at once. Plato said to

one of his disciples, "When men speak ill of thee, live so that no one will

believe them;" - good enough advice, but he did not tell us how to carry it

out. We have a precept here incorporated in an example; if we would be

preserved, we must cry to the Preserver, and enlist divine support upon our

side. “Hold up my goings as a careful driver holds up his horse when going

down hill. We have all sorts of paces, both fast and slow, and the road is

never long of one sort, but with God to hold up our goings, nothing in the

pace or in the road can cast down. He who has been down once and cut his

knees sadly, even to the bone, had need redouble his zeal when using this

prayer; and all of us, since we are so weak on our legs through Adam's fall,

had need use it every hour of the day. If a perfect father fell, how shall an

imperfect son dare to boast? - in thy paths,” -  Forsaking Satan's paths,

he prayed to be upheld in God's paths. We cannot keep from evil without

keeping to good. If the bushel be not full of wheat, it may soon be once more full

of chaff. In all the appointed ordinances and duties of our most holy faith, may the

Lord enable us to run through His upholding grace! - “that my footsteps slip not.”

 What! slip in God's ways? Yes, the road is good, but our feet are evil, and

therefore slip, even on the King's highway.  Who wonders if carnal men slide and

fall in ways of their own choosing, which like the vale of Siddim, are full of deadly

slime pits? One may trip over an ordinance as well as over a temptation. Jesus Christ

Himself is a stumbling block to some, (Matthew 21:42-44) and the doctrines of grace

have been the occasion of offence to many. Grace alone can hold up our goings in

the paths of truth.


6  I have called upon thee, for thou wilt hear me, O God:” - Thou hast

always heard me, O my Lord, and therefore I have the utmost confidence

in again approaching thine altar. Experience is a blessed teacher. He who

has tried the faithfulness of God in hours of need, has great boldness in

laying his case before the throne. The well of Bethlehem, from which we

drew such cooling draughts in years gone by, our souls long for still; nor

will we leave it for the broken cisterns of earth.  (Jeremiah 2:13) - “incline

thine ear unto me, and hear my speech.”  Stoop out of heaven and

put thine ear to my mouth; give me thine ear all to myself, as men do when

they lean over to catch every word from their friend. The Psalmist here

comes back to his first prayer, and thus sets us an example of pressing our

suit again and again, until we have a full assurance that we have succeeded.


7  Shew thy marvelous lovingkindness,” - Marvelous in its antiquity, its

distinguishing character, its faithfulness, its immutability, and above all,

marvelous in the wonders which it works. That marvelous grace which

has redeemed us with the precious blood of God's only begotten, is here

invoked to come to the rescue. That grace is sometimes hidden; the text

says, "Shew it." Present enjoyments of divine love are matchless cordials to

support fainting hearts. Believer, what a prayer is this! Consider it well. O

Lord, shew thy marvelous lovingkindness; shew it to my intellect, and

remove my ignorance; shew it to my heart, and revive my gratitude; shew it

to my faith, and renew my confidence; shew it to my experience, and

deliver me from all my fears. The original word here used is the same

which in Psalm 4:3 is rendered set apart, and it has the force of, Distinguish

thy mercies, set them out, and set apart the choicest to be bestowed upon

me in this hour of my severest affliction. “O thou that savest by thy right

hand them which put their trust in thee from those that rise up against

them.”  The title here given to our gracious God is eminently consolatory. He

is the God of salvation; it is His present and perpetual habit to save believers;

He puts forth His best and most glorious strength, using His right hand of wisdom

and might, to save all those, of whatsoever rank or class, who trust themselves

with Him. Happy faith thus to secure the omnipotent protection of heaven!

Blessed God, to be thus gracious to unworthy mortals, when they have but grace

to rely upon thee! The right hand of God is interposed between the saints and all

harm; God is never at a loss for means; His own bare hand is enough. He

works without tools as well as with them.


8  Keep me as the apple of the eye,” - No part of the body more

precious, more tender, and more carefully guarded than the eye; and of the

eye, no portion more peculiarly to be protected than the central apple, the

pupil, or as the Hebrew calls it, "the daughter of the eye."  (Our pastor,

Bro. Larry Wilson, says that it is the upside down image in the eye which

we seen when looking into the eyes of another that is meant – CY – 2010)

The all wise Creator has placed the eye in a well protected position; it stands

surrounded by projecting bones like Jerusalem encircled by mountains.

Moreover, its great Author has surrounded it with many tunics of inward

covering, besides the hedge of the eyebrows, the curtain of the eyelids, and

the fence of the eyelashes; and, in addition to this, He has given to every

man so high a value for his eyes, and so quick an apprehension of danger,

that no member of the body is more faithfully cared for than the organ of

sight. Thus, Lord, keep thou me, for I trust I am one with Jesus, and so a

member of his mystical body - “hide me under the shadow of thy wings.”

 Even as the parent bird completely shields her brood from evil, and meanwhile

cherishes them with the warmth of her own heart, by covering them with her

wings, so do thou with me, most condescending God, for I am thine offspring,

and thou hast a parent's love in perfection. This last clause is in the Hebrew

in the future tense, as if to show that what the writer had asked for but a moment

before he was now sure would be granted to him. Confident expectations should

keep pace with earnest supplication.


9  From the wicked that oppress me, from my deadly enemies, who

compass me about.” The foes from whom David sought to be rescued were

wicked men. It is hopeful for us when our enemies are God's enemies. They

were deadly enemies, whom nothing but his death would satisfy. The foes of a

believer's soul are mortal foes most emphatically, for they who war against

our faith aim at the very life of our life. Deadly sins are deadly enemies, and

what sin is there which hath not death in its bowels? These foes oppressed

David, they laid his spirit waste, as invading armies ravage a country, or as

wild beasts desolate a land. He likens himself to a besieged city, and

complains that his foes compass him about. It may well quicken our business

upward, when all around us, every road, is blockaded by deadly foes. This is

our daily position, for all around us dangers and sins are lurking. O God, do thou

protect us from them all.


10  They are inclosed in their own fat:” Luxury and gluttony beget

vain-glorious fatness of heart, which shuts up its gates against all

compassionate emotions and reasonable judgments. The old proverb says

that full bellies make empty skulls, and it is yet more true that they

frequently make empty hearts. The rankest weeds grow out of the fattest

soil. Riches and self indulgence are the fuel upon which some sins feed

their flames. Pride and fullness of bread were Sodom's twin sins. (Ezekiel

16:49.) Fed hawks forget their masters; and the moon at its fullest is

furthest from the sun. Eglon was a notable instance that a well fed

corporation is no security to life, when a sharp message comes from God,

addressed to the inward vitals of the body.  (Judges 3:17-22) - “with their

mouth they speak proudly. He who adores himself, will have no

heart to adore the Lord. Full of selfish pleasure within his heart, the wicked

man fills his mouth with boastful and arrogant expressions. Prosperity and

vanity often lodge together. Woe to the fed ox when it bellows at its

owner, the poleax is not far off.


11  They have now compassed us in our steps:” The fury of the

ungodly is aimed not at one believer alone, but at all the band; they have

compassed us. All the race of the Jews were but a morsel for Haman's

hungry revenge, and all because of one Mordecai. The prince of darkness

hates all the saints for their Master's sake. The Lord Jesus is one of the us,

and herein is our hope. He is the Breaker, and will clear a way for us

through the hosts which environ us. The hatred of the powers of evil is

continuous and energetic, for they watch every step, hoping that the time

may come when they shall catch us by surprise. If our spiritual adversaries

thus compass every step, how anxiously should we guard all our

movements, lest by any means we should be betrayed into evil!

they have set their eyes bowing down to the earth.” Trapp wittily explains

this metaphor by an allusion to a bull when about to run at his victim; he

lowers his head, looks downward, and then concentrates all his force in the

dash which he makes. It most probably denotes the malicious jealousy with

which the enemy watches the steps of the righteous; as if they studied the

ground on which they trod, and searched after some wrong footmark to

accuse them for the past, or some stumbling stone to cast in their future

path to trip them in days to come.


12  Like as a lion that is greedy of his prey, and as it were a young

lion lurking in secret places.”  Lions are not more greedy, nor their ways

more cunning than are Satan and his helpers when engaged against the children

of God. (I Peter 5:8-9)  - The blood of souls the adversary thirsts after, and

all his strength and craft are exerted to the utmost to satisfy his detestable appetite.

We are weak and foolish like sheep; but we have a shepherd wise and strong,

who knows the old lion's wiles, and is more than a match for his force; therefore

will we not fear, but rest in safety in the fold. Let us beware, however, of our lurking

foe; and in those parts of the road where we feel most secure, let us look

about us lest, peradventure, our foe should leap upon us.


13  Arise, O Lord,” - The more furious the attack, the more fervent the

Psalmist's prayer. His eye rests singly upon the Almighty, and he feels that

God has but to rise from the seat of His patience, and the work will be

performed at once. Let the lion spring upon us, if Jehovah steps between

we need no better defense. When God meets our foe face to face in battle,

the conflict will soon be over –“disappoint him” - Be beforehand with him,

outwit and outrun him. Appoint it otherwise than he has appointed, and so

disappoint him - “cast him down:” - Prostrate him. Make him sink upon his

knees. Make him bow as the conquered bows before the conqueror. What a

glorious sight will it be to behold Satan prostrate beneath the foot of our glorious

Lord!  (Revelation 20:10) -  Haste, glorious day! - “deliver my soul from the

wicked, which is thy sword.”   He recognizes the most profane and oppressive

as being under the providential rule of the King of kings, and used as a sword in the

divine hand. What can a sword do unless it be wielded by a hand? No more could

the wicked annoy us, unless the Lord permitted them so to do. Most translators are,

however, agreed that this is not the correct reading, but that it should be as Calvin

puts it, "Deliver my soul from the ungodly man by thy sword." Thus David

contrasts the sword of the Lord with human aids and reliefs, and rests

assured that he is safe enough under the patronage of heaven.


14  Almost every word of this verse has furnished matter for discussion to scholars,

for it is very obscure. We will, therefore, rest content with the common version,

rather than distract the reader with divers translations. “From men which are thy

hand, O Lord,” -  Having styled the ungodly a sword in his Father's hand, he now

likens them to that hand itself, to set forth his conviction that God could as easily remove

their violence as a man moves his own hand. He will never slay His child with his

own hand - “from men of the world,” -  mere earthworms; not men of the world to

come, but mere dwellers in this narrow sphere of mortality; having no hopes or

wishes beyond the ground on which they tread - “which have their portion in

this life,” -  Like the prodigal, they have their portion, and are not content to

wait their Father's time. Like Passion in the "Pilgrim's Progress, "they have their

best things first, and revel during their little hour. Luther was always afraid lest he

should have his portion here, and therefore frequently gave away sums of money

which had been presented to him. We cannot have earth and heaven too for our

choice and portion; wise men choose that which will last the longest.

whose belly thou fillest with thy hid treasure:” -  Their sensual appetite gets

the gain which it craved for. God gives to these swine the husks which they

hunger for. A generous man does not deny dogs their bones; and our

generous God gives even His enemies enough to fill them, if they were not

so unreasonable as never to be content. Gold and silver which are locked

up in the dark treasuries of the earth are given to the wicked liberally, and

they therefore roll in all manner of carnal delights. Every dog has his day,

and they have theirs, and a bright summer's day it seems; but ah! how soon

it ends in night!  - they are full of children,” -  This was their fondest hope,

that a race from their loins would prolong their names far down the page of history, and

God has granted them this also; so that they have all that heart can wish.  (ch. 73:7)

What enviable creatures they seem, but it is only seeming!  and leave the rest of

their substance to their babes.”  They were fat housekeepers, and yet leave no

lean wills. Living and dying they lacked for nothing but grace and alas! that lack

spoils everything!  They had a fair portion within the little circle of time, but

eternity entered not into their calculations. They were penny wise, but

pound foolish; they remembered the present, and forgot the future; they

fought for the shell, and lost the kernel. How fine a description have we

here of many a successful merchant, or popular statesman; and it is, at first

sight, very showy and tempting, but in contrast with the glories of the

world to come, what are these paltry molehill joys?  Self, self, self, all these

joys begin and end in basest selfishness; but oh, our God, how rich are

those who begin and end in thee! From all the contamination and injury

which association with worldly men is sure to bring us, deliver thou us, O



15  As for me, I will behold thy face in righteousness:  I shall be

satisfied, when I awake, with thy likeness.” -  "I neither envy nor covet these

men's happiness, but partly have and partly hope for a far better." To behold God's

face and to be changed by that vision into His image, so as to partake in His

righteousness, this is my noble ambition; and in the prospect of this I

cheerfully waive all my present enjoyments. My satisfaction is to come; I

do not look for it as yet. I shall sleep awhile, but I shall wake at the sound

of the trumpet; wake to everlasting joy, because I arise in thy likeness,

O my God and King!  Glimpses of glory good men have here below to stay

their sacred hunger, (we have been blessed “with all spiritual blessings in

heavenly places in Christ” – Ephesians 1:3 – CY – 2010) but the full feast

awaits them in the upper skies.  Compared with this deep, ineffable, eternal

fullness of delight, the joys of the worldlings are as a glowworm to the sun,

or the drop of a bucket to the ocean.




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