Song of Solomon 1



1 “The song of songs, which is Solomon’s.”  This is certainly the

title of the book which follows, although in our present Hebrew Bible it is

the first verse of the book preceded by the shorter form, ‘The Song of

Songs.’ The Septuagint has simply the title Ασμα Asma – Song. 

So that our English title in the Authorized Version, ‘The Song of Solomon,’

has no ancient authority. It is well altered in the Revised Version to ‘The

 Song of Songs.’ The word “song” (שִׁיר) does not necessarily convey the

meaning. composed to be sung to music. If the performance of the words were

chiefly in view, the word would have been מִוְמור, carmen, “lyric poem,”

hymn,” or “ode.” The Greek Ασμα ἀσμάτωνAsma asmatonSong of Songs,

and the Latin of the Vulgate, Canticum canticorum, accord with the Hebrew in

representing the work as taking a high place either in the esteem of the Church or,

on  account of the subject, in the esteem of the writer. Luther expresses the

same idea in the title he attaches to it, ‘Das Hohelied,’ that is, the chief or

finest of songs. The reference may be to the excellence of the literary form,

but probably that which suggested the title was the supreme beauty of the

love which prompted the songs. The title may be regarded as applied to the

whole book, or to the first portion of it giving the name to the whole. If it

be a collection of separate songs strung together, as some think) by mere

resemblance in style and subject, then the words, “which is Solomon’s”

(לְִשל מו אֲשֶׁר) apply to the first song alone. But the unity which is clearly

to be traced through the book to the end makes it probable that the title is

meant to ascribe the work to the authorship of Solomon. This is the

opinion of the majority of critics. It must have come either from the wise

king himself, or from some one of his contemporaries or immediate

successors. The preposition is the lamedh auctoris. If the meaning were

referring to,” another preposition (עַל) would have been employed. It has

been remarked by Delitzsch that the absence of any description of Solomon

as “King of Israel” or “son of David,” as in Proverbs and Ecclesiastes,

confirms the view that Solomon himself was the sole author. Some have

argued against the authenticity of the title on the ground that the longer

form of the relative, אֲשֶׁר, is used in it, whereas in the book itself the

shorter form, שְׁ, is found, but no dependence, can be placed on that

argument regarded by itself, for the same writer employs both forms, as

e.g. Jeremiah, who uses the longer form in his prophecies and the shorter in

Lamentations. The shorter form is, in fact, the elder, being Old Canaanitish

or Phoenician, אשׁ, which is a lengthened form of שׁ, and afterwards

became אֲשֶׁר. One writer, however Fleischer), holds that the relative

pronoun as a substantive origin, and compares it with the Arabic ithe and

the Assyrian asar, meaning “track” or “place,” like the German welcher,

which comes from wo. But whether this be so or not, it is certainly unsafe

to date any book by the form found in it of the, relative pronoun. We know

that in poetry the abbreviated form is common. It was probably a North

Palestine provincialism, as we see in the Book of Kings. It became

common in prose writings after the Captivity because of the degradation of

Hebrew, but it was not unknown before that time either in prose or poetry.

With regard to the exact description of the poetic form of the Song of

Songs, the difference among critics is considerable, but the question is

scarcely worth discussing. There undoubtedly is unity of conception in the

songs which are brought together, but it cannot be of importance to prove

that there is dramatic unity strictly speaking; there is no dramatic

procedure, nor can we suppose that there is any ultimate aim at dramatic

representation. But the Exposition which follows will suffice to show that

there are facts of history in the background of the poem; if the suggestions

of the language and scenery be followed, the facts are very beautiful and

even romantic — the love of the great king for one of his own subjects, a

lovely northern maiden, whose simplicity and purity of character are a

great attraction and lend much force to the religious sentiment of the song.

In I Kings 5:12 we read that “the Lord gave Solomon wisdom, as He

promised him.” That divinely inspired wisdom enabled him,

notwithstanding his own personal errors, to idealize and sanctify the lovely

episode of his lifo which lies at the foundation of his poem. And the

Church of God in every age has appreciated, more or less widely, the

inspiration, both of matter and of form, which breathed in it. We are told

that Solomon composed one thousand and five songs (I Kings 4:32);

whether this is a part of that collection or not we cannot certainly say, but

that it is a mere fasciculus, or collection of separate songs, strung together

by their general erotic character, is what we cannot believe. No doubt, as

Dr. Mason Good has observed, the Arabian poets were accustomed to

arrange their poems in what they compared to a string of pearls, but we

can scarcely carry such a fact into the Bible, and deal with sacred books as

mere literary remains. There must be a deep religious meaning in such

language, and it is in accordance with Eastern usage that amatory songs

should be so employed. What the meaning is we must persistently ask, and

however much has been wrongly said in the past, while we believe in the

Divine authority of the Old Testament we must not renounce the

endeavor to find the Song of Songs worthy of its title and its place.



Holy Lyrics (v. 1)


There are many songs in Old Testament Scripture:


o       the song of deliverance from the Red Sea (Exodus 15.);

o       the song of the well (Numbers 21:17-18);

o       the song of Moses (Deuteronomy 32.);

o       the song of Deborah (Judges 5.);

o       the song (pre-eminently such) of David, in Psalm

18.; and

the song of Isaiah (5).


But this of Solomon is described as the Song of Songs, i.e. of all the most excellent,

as it is the richest in imagery, the intensest in feeling, the most complete in poetic

form. Although there is something dramatic in the structure of this poem, inasmuch

as several speakers are introduced, uttering varying moods of feeling, still the poem

is mainly lyrical, inasmuch as its spirit is prevailingly sentiment. Song expresses:



PREEMINENT PLACE IN RELIGIOUS LIFE. True religion has its root

in knowledge and belief; a God not known cannot be truly worshipped, a

religion not understood cannot be acceptably practiced. Yet religion is not

merely an exercise, a possession, of the intellect. Our strongest convictions

are naturally accompanied by our deepest emotions. The measure of feeling

will, indeed, vary with individual temperament, but a religion with no

sentiment is mechanical and unlovely. Now, it is in accordance with human

nature that feeling should break forth into song. Cheerfulness finds

utterance as in the carol of the lark, and melancholy as in the plaintive

warble of the nightingale. The Bible without the Canticles would not

correspond with the whole constitution of man.


“The Church delights to raise

Psalms and hymns and songs of praise.”


The words of inspiration, exact or paraphrased and adapted, have ever

given shape and form and utterance to the profoundest emotions of God’s




RELIGIOUS LIFE. Human love is the copy, always faint and imperfect,

yet not illusive, of love Divine. The love of the Hebrew king and his

mountain bride figures forth, as does all true wedded affection — the love

which exists between the Eternal and his intelligent creatures, between the

Church and the adorable Bridegroom who deigns to address her as His

spouse. The language of the Canticles has often seemed to cold natures

extravagant, and so unreal. “Love’s language is a foreign language to those

who do not love.” We have the foundation of the Song of Songs laid in the

forty-fifth psalm — the “song of love.” Christianity is admitted to have

introduced into religion an element of deeper personal feeling than was

known before. The love of Christ is declared to “pass knowledge”

(Ephesians 3:19); and love which passes knowledge, which cannot express

itself in propositions, must pour itself forth in song. The nuptials of the soul,

of the Church, with Christ, demand a poetic epithalamium. How thoroughly

in place, so regarded, seems the “Song of Songs”!



The history of love is not always one of uninterrupted prosperity and

gladness. “Our sweetest songs are those which tell of saddest thought.”

And even in the Canticles we have varying moods; shadows lie upon the

land for a season as clouds obscure the face of heaven. Yet the main

current of feeling throughout this book is a current of gladness; the music

is of the nature of a carol of spontaneous sweetness, a chorale of

triumphant delight. The king and the bride alternately give utterance to

their joyful emotions, for heart finds heart. So with the relations with THE

REDEEMING LORD  and those whom He has saved. God rejoices over

that which was lost but is found (Matthew 18:12-13); and man rejoices in

the great salvation. It is thus that the lyrics, though sacred, are glad,

breathing a “joy unspeakable and full of glory.”  (I Peter 1:8)


Part I.


Song of Shulamith in the royal chambers.

Chorus of ladies, daughters of Jerusalem. (v.2-ch.2:7)


2 “Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth: for thy love is better

than wine.”  Whether we take these words as put in the lips of the

bride herself, or of the chorus as identifying themselves with her, is of little

consequence. It is certain that the idea intended to be expressed is that of

delight in the approach of the royal bridegroom. The future is used

optatively, “Let me be taken up into the closest fellowship and embrace.”

All attempts to dispense with the amatory phraseology are vain. The

“kisses” must be interpreted in a figurative sense, or the sacred character of

the whole book must be removed. The words may be rendered, with one of

his kisses; i.e. the sweetness of his lips is such that one kiss would be

rapture. Some have thought that allusion is intended to the custom among

idolaters referred to in Job 31:27, “My mouth hath kissed my hand;”

but the meaning is simply that of affection. The great majority of Christian

commentators have regarded the words as expressive of desire towards

God. Origen said, the Church of the old dispensation longing after higher

revelations, as through the Incarnation, “How long shall He send me kisses

by Moses and the prophets? I desire the touch of His own lips.” It is

dangerous to attempt specific applications of a metaphor. The general truth

of it is all that need be admitted. If the relation between God and His people

is one that can be set forth under the image of human affection, then there

is no impropriety in the language of Solomon’s Song. “To kiss a kiss”

(נָשָׁק נְשִׁקָה) is the ordinary Hebraic form (cf. “to counsel a counsel”). Thy

love is better than wine. The plural is used, “loves,” as in the word “life”

(חַיִים) — the abstract for the concrete, perhaps in order to indicate the

manifestation of love in many caresses. The change from the third person

to the second is common in poetry. The comparison with wine may be

taken either as denoting sweetness or exhilarating effects. The intoxicating

power of wine is but rarely referred to in Scripture, as the ordinary wine

was distinguished from strong drink. Some, as Hitzig and Bottcher, would

read יַשְׁקֵנִי, changing the pointing, and translating, “Let him give me to

drink;” but there is no necessity for a reading so forced and vulgar. The

Septuagint, altering the vowels of the word “love,” turn it into “breasts,”

and must therefore have supposed it addressed to the bride. The word is

connected with the Arabic, and runs through the languages, dodh (cf.

Dada, Dido, David). Perhaps the reference to wine, as subsequently to the

ointments, may be explained by the fact that the song is supposed to be

sung while wine is presented in the chamber, and while the perfumes are

poured out in preparation for the entrance of the royal bridegroom. We can

scarcely doubt that the opening words are intended to be the utterance of

loving desire on the part of the bride in the presence of the daughters of

Jerusalem. Some have suggested that vs. 1-8 are from a kind of

responsive dialogue, but the view of the older interpreters and of Ewald,

Hengstenberg, Weissbach, and others of the moderns, seems more correct,

that all the first seven verses are in the mouth of Shulamith, and then v. 8

comes in naturally as a chorus in reply to the song of the bride. The use of

the plural, “We will run after thee,” etc., is easily explicable. The bride is

surrounded by her admiring companions and attendants. They are

congratulating her on the king’s love. She speaks as from the midst of the

company of ladies.


3 “Because of the savor of thy good ointments thy name is as

ointment poured forth, therefore do the virgins love thee.” There is

some slight difference among critics as to the rendering of this verse, but it

does not affect the meaning. Lovely and delightful thou art. As thy

perfumes are so precious, so is thy name; the more it is spread, the more

delight is found in it. The idea is that the person is the sweetest, and that

his communications are elevating and inspiring. The “virgins” may be taken

generally, “Those who are full of the sensibility of youth appreciate thy

attractions.” The word almah is much disputed about, but the meaning is

simply that of “young woman,” whether virgin or married. “Thou art the

delight of all the young.” Mason Good renders the verse —


“Rich thy perfumes; but richer far than they

The countless charms that round thy person play;

Thy name alone, more fragrant than the rose,

Glads every maid, where’er its fragrance flows.”


4 “Draw me, we will run after thee: the king hath brought me into his

chambers: we will be glad and rejoice in thee, we will remember

thy love more than wine: the upright love thee.”  This

is best taken as all spoken by the bride. It is the language of the purest

affection and adoring admiration. “I drew them,” God says (Hosea 11:4), “

with cords of a man, with bands of love.” “The Lord appeared of

old unto me,” says Jeremiah (Jeremiah 31:3), “saying, Yea, I have

loved thee with an everlasting love: therefore with loving kindness have I

drawn thee.” In the same sense the Greek word ἐλκυεῖν - helkuein  -

draw - is used by our Lord Himself of the Father drawing to the Son, and

of the Son, uplifted on  the cross, “drawing” all men unto Him (John 6:44;

12:32).   If the spiritual meaning of the whole poem is admitted, such

language is quite natural. The king’s chambers are the king’s own rooms

in the palace, i.e. his sleeping, rooms and sitting rooms — the penetralia

regis. We may take the preterite as equivalent to the present; i.e. The

king is bringing me into closest fellowship with himself, not merely as a

member of his household, but as his chosen bride.” The concluding words

have caused much discussion. The meaning, however, is the same whether

we say, “The upright love thee,” or “Thou art rightly loved.” The intention

is to set forth the object of love as perfect. The plural, מֵישָׁרִים, is used

to signify the abstract of the word, thought, or act; i.e. “righteous,”

for “rightly”;  but the best critics think it could not be the abstract

for the concrete plural, as in the Vulgate, Recti diligunt re. The same use

of the word is seen in ch. 7:9, “The best wine that goeth down smoothly for

my beloved” (compare Proverbs 23:31). Before going further in the song, it

is well to observe how chaste, pure, and delicate is the language of love;

and yet, as Delitzsch has pointed out, there is a mystical, cloudy brightness.

We seem to be in the region of the ideal. It is not a mere love song, though

it may have been the commemoration of an actual past. The Eastern form

of the words may be less suited to our taste than it would be to those who

first embraced Christianity, and to the nineteenth century than to the first;

but the loving rapture of the Church in fellowship with the Saviour is

certainly seeking a more vivid expression in song, and there are many of

the most simple-minded and devoted Christians whose joy in Christ pours

itself out freely in strains not much less fervid and almost as sensuous as

anything to be found in Solomon’s Song. Some are beginning to

remonstrate against this freedom of devotional language, but the instinct of

the Church seems to justify it as the demand of the heart under the

influence of the Word of God itself. Perhaps there is a state of religious

feeling coming into the experience of Christians which will remove the veil

from such a book as the Song of Songs, and we shall yet find that its

language is needful and is not extravagant.




                                                The Prologue (vs. 1-4)




Ø      The title. We are told (1 Kings 4:32) that the songs of Solomon were

a thousand and five. This is the chief of all, the Song of Songs. It stands

alone in the Old Testament. It is a pastoral drama of singular loveliness. It

shows a delight in the beauties of nature such as we might look for in him

who spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon even unto the

hyssop that springeth out of the wall; of beasts also, and of fowl, and of

creeping things.” (ibid. v. 33)  It exhibits a touching picture of early affection

gradually ripening into the blessed love of wedlock — that love which, when

pure and unselfish, tends more than anything that is of this world to elevate

and refine the soul. And it has a higher meaning. Holy men of widely different

times have seen in it the spiritual Converse of the Church, or of the

individual soul, with the heavenly Bridegroom. A famous Jewish rabbi,

after saying that all the books of the Hagiographa (the  books of the Bible comprising

the last of the three major divisions of the Hebrew scriptures, other than the Law and the Prophets.

The books of the Hagiographa are: Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon,

Lamentations, Daniel, Esther, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles) are holy, describes the

Song of Songs as a holy of holies; and a great Father of the Church says

that in this book the perfected, who have the world beneath their feet, are

joined to the embraces of the heavenly Bridegroom. Thus it combines all

the elements which give a charm to poetry;


o        beauty of form and elevation of thought;

o        a delicate appreciation of the attractions of external nature;

o        a deep sense of the sweetness and power of the most universal,

     the most dominant, of human affections; and

an uplook to higher things, an uplook from that love which is of God -

            for such surely is the love of husband and wife (see Ephesians 5:25-28) -

to God who is love.


Thus the title is abundantly justified. There are great difficulties here and there;

but yet much of the Song of Songs has ever sounded to believing souls like

far-off echoes of the new song which only the redeemed from the earth

could learn (Revelation 14:3). There are few passages of Holy Scripture

sweeter to the Christian heart than those thrice-repeated words, “My

Beloved is mine, and I am His.” (ch. 2:16)


Ø      The authorship. Which is Solomon’s. The Hebrew preposition may be

translated “of” or “for.” In the titles of Psalm 72, and 127. it is rendered in

our Authorized Version “for Solomon,” “of Solomon” standing in the

margin. Psalm 127., like the rest of the “songs of degrees,” is almost

certainly post-Exilic (after the Captivity); and in Psalm 72, the Septuagint

translators are probably right in regarding Solomon as the subject, not the

author, of the psalm. If the Song of Songs was written by Solomon himself,

we have in it a most awful warning of the fickleness, the sinfulness, of the

human heart.  Solomon, who knew so well what is the sweetness of pure

and holy love, was led astray by that sensual passion which usurps the name

of love.  Solomon, who was called Jedidiah, “the darling of the Lord,” whom

the Lord loved” (II Samuel 12:24), who himself “loved the Lord” (1 Kings

3:3) — that same Solomon “loved many strange women” (ibid.  ch. 11:1),

and “when he was old, his wives turned away his heart after

other gods.” (ibid. v. 4)  “Let him that thinketh he standeth take heed

lest he fall” (I Corinthians 10:12);  “Ye that love the Lord, see that ye

hate the thing that is evil.” (Psalm 97:10)  The soul that

would live in the love of Christ must hate, and reject with horror and

loathing, the very smallest beginnings of that sin of impurity which

separates a man from God utterly and with a fearful rapidity. If, on the

other hand, it was written by some prophet or poet of Northern Palestine in

Solomon’s time, we have an explanation of those peculiar words which

some scholars regard as Aramaic, others as dialectic peculiarities of the

Lebanon country; and we have a warning not to trust too much in human

leaders. We must not put our trust in man, but only in God. When men,

once honored and esteemed, fall into sin, we cannot but be distressed; but

we must not allow our faith to waver. God is the truth; He continueth

faithful; we must trust in Him. The internal evidence of the song itself

points to a time anterior to the separation of the northern and southern

kingdoms; this is not the place to discuss the arguments for a later origin.


Ø      The meaning. The song seems to rest on an historical basis; its many

details, its geographical notices, its many references to circumstances of

Solomon’s time, to its peace and prosperity (such a period of peace and

prosperity as perhaps never occurred again during the checkered history of

Israel), to its commerce, its magnificence, point to a groundwork of actual

fact. It relates the love of the great king for some innocent country maiden

a love that was returned, that for a time at least brought happiness to

both, and seemed to refine and elevate the characters of both, as a pure

love which leads to a blessed marriage ever does. But holy men of old were

led by the Spirit to incorporate this beautiful narrative into the canon of

Holy Scripture. That fact invests the song with another and a higher

meaning. Jewish rabbis regarded it as a parable of the relations between

God and Israel. Many of the Christian Fathers have seen in it the love that

is between Christ and his Church; the longings of the Christian soul for the

presence of the heavenly Bridegroom; the vicissitudes of the spiritual life;

the blessed union of the bride, the Lamb’s wife, with the Lord of her

redemption at the last. There are great difficulties in the spiritual

interpretation of some passages; but when we consider the position of the

song in the sacred book; when we remember that “every Scripture inspired

of God is also profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for

instruction which is in righteousness” (II Timothy 3:16); when we remember

the great value which many of God’s saints have set upon this book, the great

spiritual benefit which they have derived from it, we feel that it must be right

to regard it as A PARABLE OF DIVINE LOVE  to see under this earthly story

a deep and holy heavenly meaning.






Ø      The Brides Longing for the Beloved.   Vs. 2-4 are often regarded as

      the song of a chorus of virgins, the companions of  the bride; perhaps

the mingling of the singular and plural pronouns seems rather to suggest

that we have in this first song the voice of the bride herself blended

with the strains of her virgin friends. The bride yearns for the embrace of

love. In the pure love of Christian man and maid, the maiden long desired

gives at last the full treasure of her love in answer to that love which had

with earnest devotion sought for her affection. Ancient writers see in these

words the longing of the Jewish Church for a closer union with God, for

the fulfillment of the promise given through the prophet (Hosea 2:16),

In that day, saith the Lord, thou shalt call me Ishi [‘my Husband’], and

shalt call me no more Baali [‘my Lord ‘].” The Christian Church, the

Christian soul, longs for the enjoyment of the Saviour’s love. We notice the

abrupt beginning, “Let him kiss me.” The bride is speaking of one well

known, greatly loved. There is no need of exact description; the pronoun is

enough; there is only One whose image is ever present to that loving heart.

When the Christian, taught by the Holy Ghost, is learning, slowly and

imperfectly (as, alas! it must be here), to fulfill the first of all the

commandments, he will yearn above all things for that manifestation of

Himself which the Lord promises to them that love him (John 14:21, 23).

The traitor’s kiss, treacherous as it was, shows that such a token of

affection was usual in the company between our Lord and His apostles.

His love is unchanging, everlasting; still the Christian soul may say, “The

Son of God loved me, and gave himself for me  (Galatians 2:20); still the

soul longs for the sense of that blessed love; “the love of Jesus, what it is,

none but His loved ones know.” The woman that was a sinner kissed the

Saviour’s feet  (Luke 7:37-50).  The kiss of peace was in apostolic times the

token of the love which Christians had one towards another. The kiss of pure

and holy love is a parable of the blessed love which is betwixt Christ and His

Church. That love is better than wine. Now the bride speaks to the Lord.

“Thy love,” she says; she feels that he is coming in answer to the call of love.

Earthly joys are poor indeed when compared with that joy which is in the Lord.

Paul contrasts them in the Epistle to the Ephesians (Ephesians 5:18-19).

Excess in wine brings degradation, misery. The Christian soul needs not

this spurious excitement; it has a source of joy higher beyond all

comparison. It is filled with the Spirit, and the fruit of the Spirit is joy!

joy which manifests itself in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs.


Ø      The response of the chorus. The attendant virgins assent. The love of

the Bridegroom is better than wine, better than the fragrance of the

sweetest of perfumes, sweeter than ointment poured forth which sheds its

scent around. The odor of the precious ointment which Mary poured

upon the Saviour’s head filled the house; the sweet odor of the name of

Jesus fills the whole Church; it sheds its penetrating influence everywhere

throughout the Church; “therefore,” the chorus sings, “do the virgins love

thee.” The plural number seems to remind us that the love of Christ is

personal, individual. The bride, the Lamb’s wife, is, indeed, the whole

company of the elect. But the Lord’s love is not only general; it does not

bless only the Church as a whole, an aggregate; He loves all and each; the

whole Church and each separate Christian soul; therefore each separate

Christian soul, all who take their lamps and go forth to meet the

Bridegroom, rejoice in the Bridegroom’s love, and desire above all things

to return it. “We love Him, because He first loved us.”  (I John 4:19)


Ø      The blended voices of the chorus and the bride.


o        The request: “Draw me, we will run after thee.” The bride is listening

for the bridegroom’s call; she is ready to answer. Her virgin companions

join in assenting chorus; they will accompany her. The Christian soul

longs for the fulfillment of the Divine Word, “I drew them with cords

of a man, with bands of love” (Hosea 11:4); it pleads that gracious

promise, “I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto

me.”  (John 12:32)


“Break up the heavens, O Lord! and far,

Thro’ all yon starlight keen,

Draw me, thy bride, a glittering star,

In raiment white and clean.”


It seems too much to ask; none feel their unworthiness, their guilt, so

keenly as those whom the Lord is calling nearer to Himself. But faith

hears His voice and believes in His power. If only He will draw us,

we shall run after Him. Love is the magnet of love. When God deigns

to shine into His people’s hearts to give the light of the knowledge of

the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ (II Corinthians 4:6),  when

the blessed word,  “We have seen the Lord,” is realized in the heart,

then the soul runneth in ever-deepening desire to respond to that

condescending love. None can come to Christ, we know, “except the

Father who hath sent me draw him” (John 6:44); therefore that prayer,

“Draw me, we will run after thee,” is often in the Christian’s

heart, often pleaded by the Christian’s lips. We are weak and helpless;

but when He draws us with that holy invitation, “Come unto me,”

we must arise, we must run after Him. To look back is ruin.

“Remember Lot’s wife.”  (Luke 17:32).  And His call giveth strength

to follow, to run after Him.


Ø      The answer. The prayer is heard; we hear the voice of the bride: “The

King hath brought me into his chambers.” Christ loved the Church,

and gave Himself for her, that He might present her to Himself a

glorious Church.   (Ephesians 5:25-27).  The chorus answers,

“We will be glad  and rejoice in thee.” Individual believers make

up the great Church of Christ. Once we were afar off; now we are

brought near; we are “fellow citizens with the saints, and of the

household of God.” (Ibid. ch. 2:19).  In proportion as we realize

our Christian privileges of access unto God we learn to rejoice in

the Lord. The fruit of the Spirit is joy; that joy passes all earthly

pleasures. Believers will remember the tokens of the Saviour’s love,

dwelling on them in holy thought; they will leave no place in their

hearts for sensual delights;  they will love the Lord in uprightness,

in sincerity, and truth.



Desire after God (vs. 2-4)


Translated into language more congenial to our ordinary Christian thought,

these verses may be taken as a parabolic setting forth of the blessed truth

contained in the well known words of the psalm, “My soul thirsteth for

God,  for the living God; when shall I come and appear before God?”

(Psalm 42:2)  It surely would be speaking blasphemy, and an abasement of

the Bible, if we were to look on the sensuous words with which these verses

begin as meaning nothing more than they say in their ordinary plain and literal

meaning. We, therefore, feel bound to lift them up from such low level, and

to look upon them as telling — no doubt in a vivid, Oriental way — of the

soul’s desire after God, the holy thirst of which the verse from the psalm is

the expression. And we observe:



THE SOUL’S DEEP NEED AND DESIRE. Men try all manner of other

delights, but they turn out mere apples of Sodom. He who wrote the Book

of Ecclesiastes had left untried no single source of earthly joy. All were

within his power, and he did his best to get their best out of them. And no

doubt he succeeded. But what then? Was he satisfied? did they content

him? “Vanity of vanities; all is vanity!” — that is his verdict upon them all.

And his experience is that of myriads more, all which goes to prove that

the love of God alone can satisfy.  And the soul’s desire for that love is the

fruit of that love. “I, if I be lifted up, will draw all men unto me,”  (John

12:32) said our Lord; and it is because of His gracious drawings, the mighty

lure with which He attracts our wills, that we are possessed by this desire.



“Thy love is better than wine” (v. 2).  “Be not drunk with wine, but be

filled with the Spirit,” says Paul (Ephesians 5:18); and he thereby teaches us,

as does the text, that there is a likeness between the two — wine and the

Spirit of God. And the resemblance lies here — in the stir and joy of heart

which wine for a while causes; and this, though in no mere physical sense,

is the blessed effect of the Spirit of God. For His office it is to shed abroad

the love of God in our hearts, and that causes joy indeed.



perfume poured forth” and it fills “all the house.”


  • THE PURE IN HEART LOVE IT.Therefore do the virgins love

thee.” The desire for the Divine love is not universal — far from it. But

“the pure in heart” “see God” (Matthew 5:8), and hence their desire.



`                                               Divine Attraction (v. 4)


There is evidence of attraction throughout the physical universe. The earth

draws all things upon it towards its center; it draws the moon and keeps it

revolving round itself. The sun draws the planets, which in their regular

orbits unconsciously yield to the influence which he unconsciously exerts.

We cannot study any bodies, however distant and however vast, without

perceiving the power of attraction. And this power is as manifest in the

molecule as in the mass; there is attraction in the smallest as in the greatest

of material bodies. (I highly recommend Fantastic Trip – You Tube –

CY – 2014).  As the planets by gravitation are held in their courses by

the sun, so are souls led to feel the attraction of our Saviour God. But

whilst material things obey unwittingly, it is for spiritual natures

consciously and voluntarily to yield to the spiritual attraction of Him who is

the Center, the Law, the Life of all.




Ø      The language reveals a dread of being far from God. The soul cries,

“Quicken me! lest I remain in death; turn me! lest I continue in

error;  Draw me! lest I live at a distance from thee.”


Ø      The language reveals a recognition of authority. The cry is to the King.

Many are the attractions of the world. Trahit sua quemque voluptas.

Every man to his taste.  Yet these attractions should always be suspected,

should sometimes be resisted.  But when God draws, His is the drawing

of royalty and of right.


Ø      The language reveals the power of love. “I drew them with cords of a

man, with Bands of love” (Hosea 11:4).  “I will draw all men unto

myself”  (John 12:32).  Such are the declarations of infinite grace. Those

whose souls they reach and touch cannot but seek to be laid hold of by

the silken chains, and led and kept near their Lord.


“O Christ, who hast prepared a place

For us beside thy throne of grace,

Draw us, we pray, with cords of love

From exile to our home above.”





Ø      The drawing of the King proves its own effectiveness. “With loving

kindness have I drawn thee.” The charm is felt, the summons is

obeyed, the presence and society which bring spiritual blessing are



Ø      There is eagerness and haste in the response.


“He drew me, and I followed on,

Glad to confess the voice Divine.”


Running denotes interest and zeal. The willing following becomes a

Diligent and strenuous race. The soul finds in Christ a Divine Friend

and Lover and Spouse, and in His society satisfaction that never cloys,

and joy that never fails.


  • APPLICATION. Here we have the history of the Divine life in man,

related in a few words. In providence, in revelation, in the incarnate Word,

in the power of the spiritual dispensation, in all this God is drawing us.

And every movement of the spirit, every impulse towards holiness, every

true endeavour after obedience, may be regarded as the practical yielding

to the Divine attraction. God’s work on earth is just “drawing” us; our

religious life is just “running” after Him.


5 “I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, as the

tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon.” The word “black” (hr;wOjv])

does not necessarily mean that the skin is black, but rather sunburnt, dark

brown, as in Lamentations 4:8, where the same word signifies the livid

or swarthy appearance of one who has suffered long from famine and

wretchedness. There is certainly no reason to take the word as an argument

for the bride being Pharaoh’s daughter; but it points to what is confirmed

by the rest of the poem — the rustic birth and northern blood of the bride.

She has been living in the fields, and is browned with the ruddy health of a

country life. The best explanation of the words is that they are drawn out

by the fact that the bride is surrounded by her ladies. Some think that they

look askance at her, or with indignation at the boldness of her words; but

that is quite unnecessary, and would be inconsistent with the dignity of the

bride. The country maiden feels the greatness of the honor, that she is

chosen of the king, and with simple modesty, in the presence of courtly

ladies around her, sets forth her claim. The simile is not uncommon in

poetry, as in Theocritus and Virgil. Comely; i.e. attractive, agreeable.

Kedar (whether from the Arabic, meaning “powerful,” or from the

Hebrew, “black”) designates the tribes of the North Arabian descendants of

Ishmael (Genesis 25:13; Isaiah 21:17), Kedareens, referred to by

Pliny, and remaining in Arabia until the time of the Mohammedans. The

Bedouin still calls his tent his “hair house;” it is covered with goat’s-hair

cloth, mostly black or grey. Whether the reference is to the color of the

goat’s hair or to the tents being browned or blackened by the heat of the

sun, we cannot doubt that the allusion is to the complexion, and the rest of

the simile would then be applicable to the lovely shape and features of the

maiden, the curtains of Solomon being the curtains of a pavilion, or

pleasure tent, spread out like “a shining butterfly,” i.e. the beautiful cloth

or tapestry which formed the sides of the tent or the tent coverings, the

clothing of the framework, or tent hangings (see Isaiah 54:2;

Exodus 26:36; II Samuel 7.; I Chronicles 17.). Egyptian

hangings were particularly prized. The custom prevailed among Eastern

monarchs of sojourning once in the year in some lovely rural district, and at

such times their tents would be very magnificent. The Septuagint has “as the

skins of Solomon;” but this is a mistake. The word is derived from a root

“to tremble,” i.e. “to glitter in the sun.” Those who desire to find an allegorical

interpretation think there is an evident allusion here to the sojourn of Israel in

the wilderness, or the admission of the Gentiles into the covenant; but there is

no reason for any such strain upon the meaning. The simile is merely poetical.

The soul realizes its own acceptance before God, but ascribes that acceptance

to HIS GRACE!   “The bride, the Lamb’s wife,” sees the beauty of the Lord

reflected in herself, and rejoices in her own attractions for his sake. There is

no immodesty in the consciousness of merit so long as that merit is ascribed

to Him from whom it comes. There is often more pride in the assumption of

humility than in the claim to be acknowledged. The same apostle who

declared himself less than the least of all saints also maintained that he was

not a whit behind the very chiefest apostles.  (II Corinthians 11:5)


 6 “Look not upon me, because I am black (swarthy) , because the sun hath

looked upon me: my mother’s children were angry with me; they

made me the keeper of the vineyards; but mine own vineyard have

I not kept.”  The meaning seems to be — Do not let the swarthiness of my

complexion lower me in your eyes. Literally the words are, Do not see me

that I am; i.e. do not regard me as being, because I am. There is no

necessity to suppose any looks of the ladies to have suggested the words.

They are the words of modest self-depreciation mingled with joyful sense

of acceptance. It is difficult to render the Hebrew exactly. The word

translated “swarthy” (shecharchoreh) is probably a diminutive from

shechorah, which itself means “blackish;” so that the meaning is, “that my

complexion is dark.” The reference to the sun explains the word still

further, as pointing, not to a difference of race, but to mere temporary

effects of an outdoor life: “The sun has been playing with my complexion;”

or, as the Septuagint renders it, “The sun has been gazing at me.” So other

Greek versions. Some, however, include the idea of burning or scorching,

which is the literal meaning of the verb, though in Job 3:9 and 41:10 it is

used in the sense of looking at or upon. The sun is the eye of the heavens

(see II Samuel 12:11), and with delicate feeling it is spoken of here as

feminine, the bride playfully alluding, perhaps, to the lady seen in the

heavens preceding the ladies of the court in gazing on her beauty. It is

difficult to explain with perfect satisfaction the next clause of the verse.

Doubtless “mother’s sons” is a poetical periphrasis for brothers —

not “step-brothers,” as some have said. Perhaps the mother was a

widow, as no father is mentioned. The best explanation is that the

bride is simply giving an account of herself, why she is so browned in the

sun. The brothers, for some reason, had been incensed against her, possibly

on account of her favor in the eyes of the king, but more probably for

private, family reasons. They would not have her shutting herself up in the

house to take care of her complexion; they would have her in the

vineyards. In the word “keeper” (noterah instead of notzerah) we have an

instance of the northern dialect — a kind of Platt-Hebrew — hardening the

pronunciation. My own vineyard have I not kept no doubt refers simply and

solely to her complexion, not to her virginity or character. She means — I

was compelled by my brothers to go into the vineyards in the heat of the

sun, and the consequence was, as you see, I have not been able to preserve

the delicacy of my skin; I have been careless of my personal beauty. The

sun has done its work. The reference helps us to recognize the historical

background of the poem, and leads naturally to the use of the pastoral

language which runs through the whole. The king is a shepherd, and his

bride a shepherdess. Without straining the spiritual interpretation, we may

yet discover in this beautiful candor and simplicity of the bride the

reflection of the soul’s virtues in its joyful realization of Divine favor; but

the true method of interpretation requires no minute, detailed adjustment

of the language to spiritual facts, but rather seeks the meaning in the total

impression of the poem.


7 “Tell me, O thou whom my soul loveth, where thou feedest

thy flock, where thou makest it to rest at noon: for why should I be as

one that turneth aside by the flocks of thy companions?” These words

carry on the associations suggested by the previous verse. The bride is

longing for the bridegroom; but she cannot think of him yet in any other

light than as a companion of her simple country life — he is a shepherd,

and she a shepherdess. “Take me into closer fellowship with thyself; let me

not remain still only one amongst the many.” Perhaps there is intended to

be an allusion to the common metaphor — the king as the shepherd and the

people as his flock; but the uppermost thought of the bride is separation

unto her husband. The soul which longs for the enjoyment of fellowship

with God desires to be carried away out of all distractions, out of all

restraints, lifted above reserve and above doubt into the closest and most

loving union. The idea of the veil may be either the veil of mourning or the

veil of modesty and reserve. Probably the latter is the true reference. The

Septuagint has ὡς περιβαλλομένηhos periballomeaen – one who

is veiled. There is some difference of opinion  among critics. Ewald thinks

it refers to strangeness — “like one unknown,” and therefore veiled; Gesenius

says, “one fainting;” others connect the word with the root “to roam,” “to wander

(see Isaiah 22:17), which is confirmed by Symmachus, the Vulgate, the Syriac,

the Chaldee, Jerome, Venetian, and Luther. The simplest explanation is that the

bride compares herself, in her absence from her lord, among the ladies of the

court, to a veiled woman traveling beside the flocks of the shepherds, seeking

her friend, but not yet brought to him.


8 If thou know not, O thou fairest among women, go thy way forth by the

footsteps of the flock, and feed thy kids beside the shepherds’ tents.”  

(Chorus of ladies.) That another voice is here introduced

there can be no doubt; and as it is not like the voice of the bridegroom

himself, which is heard in the next verse, we must suppose it to be the

chorus of attendant ladies. Delitzsch suggests very plausibly that they are

pleasantly chiding the simplicity of the country maiden, and telling her that,

if she cannot understand her position, she had better return to her country

life. In that case, “if thou know not” would mean — If thou canst not rise

up to thy privilege; the knowledge referred to being general knowledge or

wisdom. The delicate irony is well expressed, as in the reference to the kids

— “feed thy kids,” like a child as thou art. But there may be no intentional

irony in the words; rather a playful and sympathetic response to the

beautiful simplicity of the bride — If thou art waiting to be brought to thy

beloved, if thou art seeking thy shepherd, thou most lovely woman, then go

quietly on thy way, like a shepherdess tending the kids beside the

shepherds’ tents; follow the peaceful footsteps of the flock, and in due time

the beloved one will appear. This is better than to suppose the ladies

presuming to indulge in irony when they must know that Shulamith is the

king’s favorite. Besides, the first scene of the poem, which is a kind of

introduction, thus ends appropriately with an invitation to peaceful waiting

for love. We are prepared for the entrance of the beloved one. The spiritual

meaning is simple and clear — Those that would be lifted up into the

highest enjoyments of religion must not be impatient and doubt that the

Lord will reveal himself, but go quietly and patiently on with the work of

life,  (and I should think that this has implications to delay sexual activity

until marriage –  whether this is accurate or not, the whole Bible promotes

virginity before marriage - CY – 2014) - “in the footsteps of the flock,” in

fellowship with humble souls, and in the paths of peace, in the green pastures

and  beside the still waters, ready to do anything assigned them, and the time

of rejoicing and rapture will come.



How to Find God (v. 8)


The daughters of Jerusalem — the inmates of Solomon’s harem — who

scornfully addressed these words to the faithful girl who was mourning

after her beloved, never meant to utter a great spiritual truth when they

thus spoke; any more than Caiaphas did when he said, “It is expedient that

one man die for the people” (John 18:14).  The doctrine of the atonement

is in Caiaphas’ speech; and so, sacred suggestions for souls that seek their Lord

are found in these words of Jerusalem’s daughters. The parallel passage, or

comment on this verse, is Hebrews 11:12, “Be ye followers of them

who through faith and patience inherit the promises.”  Now, it is suggested

 by this verse that if we would find God:


  • WE MUST GO FORTH. (Compare Hebrews 13:13, “Let us go forth unto

Him without the camp, bearing His reproach.” ) We cannot stay:


Ø      in the world; or

Ø      in any known sin; or

Ø      amid the common religionism of the day.



PEOPLE. We must go by “the footsteps of the flock.” As to who the flock

are, compare John 10. They are the true sheep of Christ; those whom He calls

“my sheep.” They consist not of those who are indifferent, still less

strangers, and, least of all, hostile to Him; but of those who have followed

Him, and do follow Him “whithersoever He goeth  (Revelation 14:4).  It is

good, oftentimes, when we are in doubt as to what we should do, to ask

ourselves what some sincere follower of Christ whom we have known

would have done in like circumstances. Such people leave footprints,

and they are clearly discernible, and if we track them we shall come

where they are.



LORD’S SHEPHERDS. (Compare Hebrews 13:7, “Remember those who

have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the Word of God,” etc.)

Such words are spoken in the Scriptures, and from many a Christian pulpit,

and they who seek the Lord have ever found strength and help in the

preaching of the Lord’s true pastors. It is easy to joke and jibe at the

pulpit, and to say it is time that it were put away amidst old lumber; but let

the pulpit be filled by a real Christ-given pastor, the words that are uttered

from it shall still feed the flock of God. But especially let us feed upon the

Word of Him who is “the good Shepherd.”  We shall never find Him whom

we seek unless we obey these counsels.



HIM. The speaker had addressed him as “thou whom my soul loveth,” and

now he addresses her as the “fairest among women.” She had said of

herself, “I am black,” but he says to her, “Thou fairest,” etc. All this

suggests what so many Scriptures teach as to the children of God being

“beautiful” in His sight, and as to His rejoicing over them  (Zechariah




Dialogue Between the Bride and the Chorus (vs. 5-8)




Ø      I am black. The country maiden loved by the great king feels her own

imperfections; she artlessly describes her misgivings to the daughters of

Jerusalem, who constitute the chorus; she has been accustomed to rustic

occupations; she has been ill-treated; the sun has embrowned her cheeks

till she is black as the tents of Kedar, the tents of goat’s hair in which the

wandering Arabs lived. The Christian soul knows its guilt. Worship

begins ever with confession; when we draw near to Christ, we are most

sensible of the plague of our own hearts. Christians will find help and

comfort in communion with the like minded; they will tell them their

spiritual troubles; but such holy communion can be held only with the

like minded, with the daughters of Jerusalem. Christians sometimes

have home troubles; they seem unable to keep their own vineyard,

to attend to their own spiritual needs, because other work is forced

upon them, because their time is taken up in matters which seem not

to belong to their peace; they must be patient and meek, and wait

for the Bridegroom’s call.


Ø      But comely. In her artless simplicity she mentions her own beauty: she

is fair as the curtains of Solomon. The king, we may suppose, had a stately

pavilion in the Lebanon country, near the dwelling of the bride. The

Christian recognizes with humble and adoring thankfulness the working of

the Spirit of God within his soul. “By the grace of God I am what I am:

and His grace which was bestowed on me was not in vain; but I labored

more abundantly than they all: yet not I, but the grace of God which was

with me” (I Corinthians 15:10).  If God is drawing us nearer to Himself

we must know it. True unaffected humility recognizes His working in our

unworthy hearts, and longs to be found in Christ, “not having mine own

righteousness, which is of the Law, but that which is through the faith

of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith”  (Philippians 3:9).

The bride compares herself to the curtains of Solomon; the Christian

owes whatever he may possess of the beauty of holiness to his

communion with the King of saints.




Ø      Her seeking love. He is not with her now, but her soul goeth forth to

him; she apostrophizes her absent lord, and pours forth her yearning

in the presence of her companions.


o       The address: “Thou whom my soul loveth.” It is an expression

of intense affection, repeated several times in the song (ch.3:1-4).

The love of Christ is the life spring of the Christian heart.

That love, when real and true, makes the Christian seek always,

every day and every hour, the blessed presence of the Saviour.

That love is the soul’s love. It is not a thing of words and phrases,

not a matter of outward form and observance; it is treasured deep

in the heart; it is the mainspring of life and action; it comes to

Christ with the question, “Lord, what wilt thou have me to do?” 

(Acts 9:6) and that in the ordinary concerns of life, in the trifles,

the little joys and sorrows of everyday life, as well as in the

emergencies that come now and then, the dangers and distresses

which cross our path from time to time. That true, deep love is

exceedingly precious;  it is the perfect love that casteth out fear  

(I John 4:18); it can answer like Peter, “Lord, thou knowest all

things; thou knowest that I love thee” (John 21:17).  It is of all

graces the holiest and the best; it is the first of the fruits of the

Spirit; it is granted to the believer in answer to fervent persevering

prayer. May we whose hearts have long been so cold and dead

seek it, and gain it to be our own through the forgiving mercy

of our God!


o       She asks where he feeds his flock. The King of Israel is

represented as a shepherd like his father David. The bride thinks

more of his love than of his magnificence; she would have loved

him with the same entire devotion had he been in her own lowly

position. Perhaps it was a relief to her to regard him sometimes

not as a king, but as a shepherd; perhaps the great king had been

pleased to assume such a character for a time to give pleasure to

his beloved one. The bride seems sometimes to hint that this

description is figurative (ch.2:16; 6:2-3); she speaks of the son

of David in language like that which David himself had used of

Almighty God (Psalm 23:1-2). The Lord Jesus Christ is the good

Shepherd; He laid down His life for the sheep; He knoweth His

own, and His own know Him. He is King of kings and Lord of

lords (John 10:14-15, 27; Revelation 19:16), but it is a relief to

the soul, dazzled by the awful glory of the Godhead, to remember

that He laid His glory by that He might save us; and to think of

Him as made like unto us in all things, sin only excepted, and

therefore touched with the feeling of our infirmities, and able

to succor them that are tempted.  (Hebrews 2:16-18; 4:14-15).

She asks where he feeds his flock. It is like the aspiration of Job,

“Oh that I knew where I might find Him! that I might come

even to His seat!”  (Job 23:3)  The Christian soul yearns for the

good Shepherd, to draw ever nearer to Him, to share His love

and mercy. He maketh His sheep to lie down in green

pastures; he leadeth them beside the waters of rest. He feeds

them; for He is the Bread of life — the Bread that came down

from heaven to give life unto the world. (Psalm 23:1-2; John

6:50; Their prayer is, “Lord, evermore give us this bread.”  (Ibid.

vs. 33-34).  They feed on Him in the daily life of faith, and in the

blessed sacrament. His presence in the heart is the food, the life

of the soul. “He that cometh unto me,” He saith, “shall never

hunger, and he that believeth on me shall never thirst.”  (Ibid.

v. 35).  And he maketh his flock to rest at noon. In the hot sultry

noon of life, amid troubles and anxieties and cares, he giveth rest.

The weary and the heavy laden accept his gracious invitation;

they find rest — rest for their souls. (Matthew 11:28-30). There

is no other rest for this restless, anxious soul of ours BUT ONLY


He can give rest in the midst of trouble, rest even in the busy noon

of life; such rest as Daniel found in his many cares, when he

kneeled upon his knees and made his supplications three times a

day (Daniel 6:10); such rest as Paul found when he had

learned to count all things as loss for the excellency of the

knowledge of Christ Jesus his Lord.  (Philippians 3:8)


o       Her years. Compare Gesenius, s.v., “Lest I be as one who

faints by the flocks of thy companions; lest I should wander

in search of thee from flock to flock, languid even to fainting

through the noontide heat.” The bride seeks the king himself.

His companions may be kind and good, but they are

not the beloved. The soul seeks the good Shepherd. Other

shepherds may be doing what they can to feed the flock of

God (see I Peter 5:2-4), but they can only bring the flock to

the chief Shepherd. He is the Desire of all nations; He only

is the Saviour; without Him we can do nothing. (Haggai

2:7;  John 15:5)   It is not safe to wander from flock to flock,

to heap up to ourselves teachers (II Timothy 4:3). We must seek

Christ Himself, for the true sheep are His; they hear His voice

and follow Him. They that are His shall never perish; no man

is able to pluck them out of his Father’s hand.   (John 10:27-29).

But they must not listen to other voices which are not His; they

must watch with earnest attention for the voice of the good

Shepherd, and attend to every intimation of His will;

they must ask Him with loving entreaty — “O thou whom

my soul loveth— by what way, in what path, he is to be found;

they must not weary themselves in wandering from teacher to

teacher, seeking always, like the Athenians, to hear some new

things (Acts 17:21); they must walk in the old paths, where

is the good way; and they will find rest, for they will find,

not Solomon, whose name means “peace,” but the Prince

of Peace Himself, who giveth peace, the peace of God,

to all who seek His face with faithful and true hearts.




Ø      The address. “O thou fairest among women.” The bride is addressed by

the chorus in the same words in two other places (ch. 5:9; 6:1). She

had described herself as “black, but comely.” The daughters

of Jerusalem see in her the fairest among women. Jerusalem was the

holy city, the dwelling place of the great King. Her daughters are the

saints, the children of the kingdom. The true Christian knows his own

sinfulness, though he feels with thankfulness the work of grace within

his heart; other Christians recognize in him the beauty of holiness. There

must be no jealousies among the people of God; they must not dispute

among themselves, as even apostles once did, who should be the

greatest in the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 18:1); they must gladly

acknowledge the workings of the grace of God in other Christian

souls; they will do so the more generously, the nearer they themselves

are to the Lord.


Ø      The direction. “If thou know not,” they say; as if to intimate that

one so highly favored must surely know the way herself. They

can but guide her to the old way where all the saints have walked;

she must follow the tracks of the sheep, the footsteps of the flock.

They have followed the good Shepherd; she must do the like.

“Be ye followers of me,” said the Apostle Paul, “even as I also

am of Christ” (I Corinthians 11:1).  It is good to read the lives

of the saints, to study the graces of holy men. Holy Scripture

bids us to follow their faith, considering the end of their

conversation (Hebrews 13:7).  But the bride is also told to feed

her kids beside the shepherds’ tents. We shall most surely find the

Lord in faithful work for Him. It He is to us what he was to the bride,

“O thou whom my soul loveth;” if we can say in truth, “Lord, thou

knowest all things; thou knowest that I love thee”  (John 21:17),

we shall surely hear His voice speaking in our hearts, “Feed my

 lambs;” “Feed my sheep”  (Ibid. vs. 15-17).  Those who,

like Paul, labor most abundantly for Christ (if only that labor is

wrought in faith and love) are sure, like Paul, themselves to win Christ

and to be found in Him. “He that watereth shall be watered also

himself” (Proverbs 11:25);  “They that turn many to righteousness

shall shine as the stars forever and ever” (Daniel 12:3).  Christ is

most surely found by those faithful servants who do their

best to bring others to the Lord.


9 “I have compared thee, O my love, to a  company of horses (steed) in

Pharaoh’s chariots.”  (Entrance of the bridegroom.)  There can be no reasonable

doubt that these words are put into the mouth of the king. The “steed” is in the

feminine (סוּסָה); some would point the word with the plural vowels, that

is, “to my horses,” or a “body of horses.” There is no necessity for that.

The reference to a particular very lovely mare is more apt and pointed. In

I Kings 10:26 we read in the Septuagint Version of τεσσάρες χιλίαδες θηλειαὶ

ἵπποι,tessares chiliads thaeleiae hippoifourteen hundred

horses -  which Solomon had for his chariots — fourteen hundred

war chariots and twelve thousand horsemen. The Pharaoh chariots were

those which the king had imported from Egypt (I Kings 10:28-29;

II Chronicles 9:28). It may be that the reference is to the splendid

decoration of the trappings. Delitzsch very rightly sees in such a figure a

confirmation of the view that Solomon himself was the author. The horses

from Egypt were famed at that time as those of Arabia became afterwards.

The names both of horses and chariots in the Egyptian language were

borrowed from the Semitic, as they were probably first imported into

Egypt by the Hyksos, or shepherd kings. Other examples of the same

comparison are found in poetry, as in Horace, Anacreon, and Theocritus.

In the last (‘Idyl.,’ 18:30, 31) occur the following lines, rendered into

English verse:


“As towers the cypress ‘mid the garden’s bloom,

As in the chariot proud Thessalian steed,

Thus graceful, rose-complexioned Helen moves.”


The idea is that of stately beauty and graceful movements. The old

commentators see the Divine love of espousals (Jeremiah 2:2), as in the

wilderness of the Exodus, and afterwards in the wilderness of the world.





Seeking and Finding (vs. 7-9)


The Christian pilgrim has to pass through a variety of fortunes in his

passage to the celestial city. His fluctuations of joy and sorrow, hope and

fear, resemble an April day. Sunshine alternates with storm. Now he is on

the mountain top; now in the valley of humiliation. Now he looks into his

Master’s face, and sees a smile of heavenly love; now that gracious face is

hid, like the sun during eclipse.


  • WE HAVE A SENSE OF DESERTION. This is a matter of personal

feeling, not an external reality. God does not undergo any change, nor does

He ever forsake His friends. But it sometimes happens that we cease to

realize our vital interest in Jesus; we lose for a season the enjoyment of His

favors. The sun is as near the earth — yea, nearer — in December as in

June; yet, because our northern hemisphere is turned away from the sun,

flowers do not bloom, nor do fruits ripen, on our side the globe. So we

may unintentionally have drifted away from Christ; our hearts may have

flagged in devotion or in zeal; the bloom of our love may have vanished;

some cloud of earthliness may have intervened, some mist of doubt may

have risen up, and we no longer see the radiant face of our Beloved. In

proportion to our appreciation of our heart’s best Friend will be the sorrow

we shall endure. No earthly good will compensate for the loss. No other

joy can take its place. It seems as if the natural sun were veiled; as if earth

were clad in mourning; as if all music had ceased, because Jesus is not a

Guest in the soul.



OF HOPE. We find yet, within the soul, strong love to Jesus, although we

no longer realize His love to us. This is solid comfort; for it is evident that

our love is real, and not simply a desire for self-advantage. It is not a

refined form of selfishness, inasmuch as our love to Him abides, although it

brings no enjoyment. And we still perceive and appreciate His office. We

still regard Him as the great Shepherd of the sheep. As such He will not

allow a single lamb to stray. It is the part of a good shepherd to care for

each member of the flock, and to restore the wanderer. Though we no

longer bask in the sunshine of his favor, we are sure that others do, and

we love Him for His compassion to them. Further, we are sure that He is not

far away. He is busy with His flock, feeding them, caring for their needs; so

we will seek Him out. We will not sullenly wait until He shall come to us;

we will search for Him, for we are sure that He will approve our search. If

we heartily desire Him, this is hopeful.  (“Ask and it shall be given you;

seek and ye shall find; knock and it shall be opened untop you:  For

every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth; and to him

that knocketh it shall be opened.”  - Matthew 7:7-8)


  • WE HAVE ALSO AN EAGER INQUIRY. “Tell me where thou

feedest, where thou makest thy flock to rest at noon.” So fully conscious is

the soul of its loss and injury, that it longs to end this sad experience. Its

main difficulty is what to do, what step to take. No hindrance in the way

of finding Jesus shall be allowed to remain. If we have been guilty of any

misdeed or neglect, we will confess it honestly. One question only

perplexes us — Where shall we find our Well-beloved? We want

information, guidance, light. Yet this same JESUS IS OUR ALL IN ALL!

He is our Light. He will reveal Himself. In due time He will give us light.

So we speak to Him directly, and we employ a very discreet argument:

“For why should I be as one that turneth aside by the flocks of thy

companions?” In other words, “Why should I seek for satisfaction

elsewhere BUT IN THEE?”   If I seek, I shall find only disappointment.

These fancied joys will be as apples of Sodom, as the grapes of Gomorrah.

I must have some object on whom to expend my love. Let it be no other

object, no inferior object, THAN THYSELF!   Only show me thy chosen

haunt, and I will find. thee out. Distance shall be annihilated. Mountains

shall be leveled.


  • A GRACIOUS RESPONSE. “Go thy way forth by the footsteps of

the flock, and feed thy kids beside the shepherds’ tents.” Prayer for light is

especially acceptable to God. In Him is no darkness, and nothing is further

from Him than to keep us in darkness. Most of all does He delight in the

prayer which yearns after Him. It has been His business all through the past

eternity to reveal Himself, and to come into nearer union with the human

soul (I am of the opinion that He is so great that it will take eternity for Him

to reveal HIMSELF AS HE IS!  – CY – 2014);  hence our prayer is only the

echo of His own wish, our desire is His desire, and response is ready. How

tender is His rebuke of our ignorance!  “If thou know not.” It is as if He said,

“Yet surely you ought to know. You have found the way to me aforetime.

It is the same way still, for I change not.” Or, “If thou canst not find the way

to me directly, then act as my friends act. Learn from the successes of others.

I have instructed others how to find me. They have found me, and now they

are patterns and helpers for all seekers. Observe the ‘footsteps of the flock.’”

If we are earnest in our search after Christ, we shall use all and every means

likely to ensure our success. Very often it is not more light we want, but a

humble and diligent readiness to use the light we have. Unfaithfulness to

our light is a common failing. The instruments employed to convey the electric

current must be scrupulously clean, and every law must be delicately

observed, or the mystic force refuses to act. Our spiritual sensibilities are

far more delicate, and a neglect, which may seem minute or insignificant,

will defeat our purpose, and rob us of our joy. They who desire intimate

fellowship with Jesus must be companions of the friends of Jesus, and must

learn lessons in the humblest school. The footprints of other pilgrims we

must carefully note and faithfully follow. Jesus is no respecter of persons.

Others have found Him: why should not we? They have not exhausted His

love; they have merely tasted a sip of the infinite ocean. I may, if I will,

drink more deeply than any mortal yet has done.


10 “Thy cheeks are comely with rows of jewels, thy neck with chains

of gold.  11 We will make thee borders of gold with studs of silver.”

This language may be suggested by the comparison first employed

— the trappings of the horse. “The head frame of the horse’s bridle and the

poitral were then certainly, just as now, adorned with silken tassels, fringes,

and other ornaments of silver. Torim, ‘round ornaments,’ which hang

down in front on both sides of the headband or are also interwoven in the

braids of hair in the forehead.” The strings of jewels were necklaces —

three rows of pearls. The ornamentation is, however, quite in accordance

with female dress. The king makes the promise of gold and silver

decoration as an expression of his personal delight in his bride and

acceptance of her. Gold and silver were closely connected; hence silver

was called, in the Old Egyptian language, “white gold.” The idea seems to

be that of silver points sprinkled over golden knobs. The Septuagint and

Vulgate have mistaken the word torim for a similar word for “doves,”

 taking the simile to be the beautiful colors of the dove’s neck.

The bride does not seem to reply immediately to the king; but

we may suppose that the king takes his bride by the hand, and leads her

into the banqueting chamber. But the next three verses, which are certainly

in the lips of the bride, may be taken as her expression of delight in her

husband, either while he feasts in the banquet or when it is over. The

banquet is a familiar emblem of the delight of mutual love. Hence the feasts

of love in the primitive Church were regarded, not only as seasons of

fellowship between Christians, but times of rejoicing, when the soul

entered into the full appreciation of THE SAVIOUR’S PRESENCE!


12 “While the king sitteth at his table, my spikenard sendeth forth the

smell  thereof.  13 A bundle of myrrh is my well-beloved unto me; he

shall lie all night betwixt my breasts.  14 My beloved is unto me as a

cluster of camphire in the vineyards of Engedi.”  The preterite is best

taken poetically for the present. The words are evidently a response to

those of the king. As such they refer to present feeling and not to a past

state. The bride expresses her delight in the king. The table is used

generally. The Hebrew word is from a root “to sit round.” The habit of

reclining at table was introduced much later, during the Persian, Greek, and

Roman period. The spikenard was a powerful perfume, probably of Indian

origin, as the Indian word nalada, meaning “that which yields fragrance,”

shows. The Persian is nard, the Old Arabic nardu. It was made from an

Indian plant, the Valeriana, called Nardo-stachys Gatamansi, growing in

Northern and Eastern India. The hairy part of the stem immediately above

the root yields the perfume. That it was “very precious” we see from the

account of Mary’s offering, which was worth more than three hundred

denarii  (Mark 14:3-5; John 12:3-5). Horace promised Virgil a whole cask, i.e.

nine gallons, of the best wine in exchange for a small onyx box full of the

perfume. The metaphor represents the intense longing of love. Myrrh was an

exotic introduced into Palestine from Arabia, Abyssinia, and India. Like

frankincense, it is one of the amyridae.  The Balsamodendron myrrha is the

tree itself with its leaves and flowers.  From the tree came a resin or gum

(Gummi myrrhae), which either dropped from the leaves or was artificially

obtained by incisions in the bark. The natural product was the more valuable.

It was much prized as a perfume, and employed for many purposes. The

Hebrew women were accustomed to carry little bags or bottles of myrrh

suspended from their necks and hanging down between the breasts under

the dress, diffusing an attractive fragrance round them. The word tseror is,

properly, “a littlebag,” sacculus, “that which one ties up,” rather than a “bundle.”

The meaning, of course, is rhetorical — He is at my heart and delightful to all

my thoughts as the fragrance to my senses. The henna flowers, or cypress,

in the vineyards of Engedi, is a very beautiful figure. Copher, the cypress

cluster, — in Greek, κύπροςkuproscypress -  in Arabic, al-henna

(Lawsonia) — grows in  Palestine and Egypt, as we are told by Pliny

(‘Nat. Hist.’ 12:24). It is a tall shrub reaching to eight or ten feet, exceedingly

beautiful in appearance, and giving forth a delightful odor. It is named from a

root “to be white or yellow-white.” The Moslem women stain their hands and

feet with it to give them a yellow tint. Engedi was a lovely district on the west

of the Dead SeaHazezon Tamar, now Ain Tidy, where Solomon made

terraces on the hillsides and covered them with gardens and vineyards. The

allusion confirms the date of the writing as contemporary with Solomon, as

the gardens would then be in their perfection. The figure is, perhaps,

intended to be an advance in rhetorical force upon that which preceded —

the fragrance diffused and almost overpowering, as of a blossoming tree.



What Christ is to His People (vs. 13-14)


He is here said to be as:


  • “A BUNDLE OF MYRRH.” See Exposition for explanation of ancient

customs alluded to by this “bundle,” or small box, or other such receptacle

for perfumes. Its religious teachings are such as arise from the fact’ that:


Ø      Myrrh was used in the “anointing oil” with which Aaron and the

Priests were anointed (Exodus 30:23). It was “the oil of gladness”

with which  Christ was anointed above His fellows (compare Psalm

45:7-8).  The teaching, therefore, is that Christ is the Joy of His people.

Compare  “Then will I go unto the altar of God, unto God my

exceeding Joy” (Ibid. ch.43:4). Then:


Ø      Myrrh was largely used for incense. See in the Revelation the vision of

the angel to whom “was given much incense” (Revelation 8:3).  It

represented the acceptableness of the prayers of God’s saints. And it is

Christ’s Name that gives worth and validity to our poor prayers. We join

them on to His all-availing  intercession, and we find ourselves

“accepted in the Beloved.”  (Ephesians 1:6)


Ø      Myrrh was used for embalming, so as to prevent corruption and decay.

And this is just what Christ is to us. He prevents the moral corruption

which would destroy our souls having power over them. It would fasten

upon them as it does on those in whom Christ is not; but He arrests its

power, and preserves our souls in life. And He will, He does, stay the

corruption of the grave. That does, indeed, fasten on the poor cast-off

garment of the soul; but on the soul itself Christ suffers corruption to have

no power, for He clothes it with the spiritual body, so that “mortality is

swallowed up of life”  (II Corinthians 5:4), and “this corruptible

puts on incorruption”  (I Corinthians 15:54).  But note:


Ø      In order to be all this to us, Christ must ever abide in our hearts.

(“He shall lie always on my bosom.”) So speaks the maiden who

is the type of the believing, Christ-loving soul. Can we each, then,

say of Christ, He is “my Beloved”?   If so, we may go on and say,

“He is unto me as myrrh.”


  • “A CLUSTER OF CAMPHIRE.” (v. 14.) Such flowers were used

for the decoration of rooms and for personal adornment. It is not easy to

fix what precise flower is meant. We are told its habitat, but not its special

characteristics, amongst the many flowers amid which it is found. But its

name is very significant.]t is the same word that elsewhere is rendered

“propitiation,” or “atonement.” The Jewish rabbis took it as A TYPE OF

THE MESSIAH!  Hence they rendered this verse thus: “My beloved is

unto me the man who propitiates all things.” And is not this a most true

and beautiful rendering? For is not this just what our blessed Lord does

for us? Is not His cross the antitype of that tree which Moses had shown

to him, and which, when he had cast it into the bitter waters of Marah,

made those waters sweet? The cross of Christ is the sweetener of life’s

bitter waters. Well, therefore, might the flower which bore the name of

“the propitiation” be taken as telling of Him. Is it not He who, by His grace:


Ø      propitiates the worries and cares of life, so that they no longer irk and

fret my will; and


Ø      the perplexities and mysteries I everywhere meet with, so that

they no longer bewilder and beat down my faith; and


Ø      the temptations which would defile my soul, so that they no more

work me such harm; and


Ø      the sin  for which I might have been condemned, so that it is silent

forever against me; and


Ø      the grave and its corruption, so that they will not hold me therein?


True, His gracious work is done on me; but it is as if the mouths of the lions

themselves were stopped, so powerless to do me harm are they if Christ be

to me MY PROPITIATION!   Oh, most sweet and blessed flower! May it

ever beautify my home, my life, my heart!


15 “Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art fair; thou hast doves eyes.”

literally, thine eyes are doves. The king receives the worship of his bride and delights

in her. She is very sweet and fair to him.  The dove is a natural symbol of love; hence

it was attached by the classical nations to the garden of love, together with the myrtle,

rose, and apple, all of which we find introduced in this Hebrew poem. Hence the

Arabic name for a dove, Jemima, as we see in the Book of Job, was the name of a

woman (compare Columbina). The language of the king is that of ecstasy; hence

the interjection and repetition. The enraptured monarch gazes into the eyes

of his beloved bride, and sees there only purity, constancy, and affection. In

ch.7:4 the eyes are compared to fish ponds, no doubt for their clear, liquid

depth and serenity. Some have thought that the allusion is to the very lovely

eyes of the doves; but there is no need of the limitation.


16 “Behold, thou art fair, my beloved, yea, pleasant; also our bed is green.

17 The beams of our house are cedar, and our rafters of fir.

2:1 I am a rose of Sharon, a lily of the valley.”  We take these

three verses together as being, in all probability, the address of the bride to

her royal husband. This was the view taken by the Masoretic editors and

preserved in our present pointing of the Hebrew, as we see in the

masculine form of the first word, הִגֶּך, which replies to the feminine form

in v. 15, הִגָּך.  The seventeenth verse is apparently abrupt. Why should

the bride pass so suddenly from the general address of affection, “Thou art

fair, thou art pleasant,” to a particular description of a rural scene? The

explanation suggested by some of the critics is not farfetched, that

Solomon whispers to her that she shall go back with him to her country life

if she pleases, or she reminds him of his promise made at some other time.

Undoubtedly the point of Shulamith’s response lies in ch. 2:1, “I am not at

ease in this palatial splendor; I am by nature a rose of Sharon, a lily of the

valley. Take me to the green couch, and let me lie under the cedars and the

firs.” The couch is the divan (compare Amos 6:4), from a root “to cover

over” (like “canopy” in Greek, κωνωπεῖονkonopeion, so called from its

protecting the person under it from the κώνεπες - konopes - gnats). It is not

that the nuptial  bed is particularly intended, or even the bridal bower, but the

home itself as a bowery resting place. “Our home is a sweet country home; take

me, there, beloved one.” The word “green” is very suggestive in the Hebrew. It

is said to “combine in itself the ideas of softness and juicy freshness,

perhaps of bending and elasticity, of looseness and thus of overhanging

ramification, like weeping willow.” Beams, from a root “to meet,” “to lay

crosswise,” “to hold together.” But the meaning depends upon the idea of

the whole description. Some would render “fretted ceilings,” or “galleries;”

but Dr. Ginsburg gives it, “our bower is of cedar arches,” which excludes

the idea of a formal structure made of cedar beams. The same meaning is

conveyed in the last clause, “our rafters are firs.” The word rendered

rafters” (יָחִיט) literally signifies “a place upon which one runs” (like שׁוּק,

a “street”), i.e. a charming or pleasant spot. The beroth is the cypress tree,

an Aramaic word, or one used in the north of Palestine. The meaning is,

“our pleasant retreat is cypresses” — is beautiful and fragrant with the

cypress tree. The bride is not describing a splendid palace, but a country

home. “I am a tender maiden,” she says, “who has been brought up in

retirement; take me to a forest palace and to the green, fragrant

surroundings, where the meadow flower, the valley lily will be

happy.” We are so accustomed to the rendering of Song of Solomon

2:1, which our Revised Version has adopted from the Authorized, that it

would be wrong to destroy the effect which it borrows from long

familiarity unless it were absolutely necessary. The word chavatseleth,

however, has been differently translated; it is literally any wild flower —

rose, saffron crocus (Colchieum autumnale), tulip, narcissus, lily. The

crocus is, perhaps, nearest . to the meaning, as the name is probably

derived from a root “to form bulbs” or bulbous knolls. It occurs only once

again, in Isaiah 35:1, where it is rendered “rose” in the Authorized

Version; Septuagint - ἄνθος - anthos  - flower; blossom - Vulgate, flos.

Some derive it from the root chavaz,  “to be bright,” with l as termination.

Sharon may be here a general denomination of the open field or plain,

from יָרַשׁ, “to be straight, plain.” There was a district called Sharon on

the coast from Joppa to Caesarea. There was another Sharon beyond the

Jordan (see I Chronicles 5:16). According to Eusebius and Jerome, there was

yet another, between Tabor and Tiberias, and this, as being in the north, may

 be referred to. Aquila renders “a rosebud of Sharon.” The lily (shoshannah)

is only found as here in the feminine form in the Apocrypha. The red and

white lily were both known. Some would derive the word from the numeral

(shesh) “six,” because the liliaceae are six-leaved, while the rosaceae are

five-leaved; but it is probably akin to shesh, “byssus,” shayish, “white marbles”

(compare Hosea 14:5, “He shall bloom as a lily”). Our Lord’s reference to “the

lilies of the field” (Matthew 6:28) reminds us that they were in Palestine both

very beautiful and very abundant. Zockler thinks it is not the strongly scented

white lily (Lilium candidam) to which reference is made, but the red lily (Lilium

rubens); but either will convey the same idea of a flower of the field which

is meant. “My beauty is the beauty of nature — artless and pure.”



             The Communion of the Bridegroom and the Bride (vs. 9-17)




Ø      His address. He compares the bride to a beautiful mare of his own in the

chariots of Pharaoh. The words come fitly from the lips of the speaker. He

was the first king of Israel who took delight in horses and chariots, and he

imported them from Egypt. The words are thought to have suggested a

similar comparison in Theocritus (‘Idyll,’ 18:30); they indicate the

stateliness of the bride’s beauty; they remind us of Psalm 147:10-11,

“He delighteth not in the strength of a horse .... The Lord taketh

pleasure in them that fear Him, in those that hope in His mercy.”

(The Bible is perfect and meets every need.  In 1997 this scripture

meant a lot to me as I was diagnosed with a peripheral neuropathy.

I was having trouble with my legs and the part not quoted above

said “He taketh not pleasure in the legs of a man” – where I was

having trouble but that “The Lord taketh pleasure in them that fear

Him, in those that hope in His mercy.”  - CY – 2014)  Men like Solomon

take delight in horses; the Lord in the graces of His people. The king calls

the bride “my love,” or “my friend;” the word is derived from a verb

which in its secondary sense means to take delight in the companionship

of those whom we love. We are reminded of the Lord’s gracious words,

“Henceforth I call you not servants; for the servant knoweth not what

his lord doeth: but I have called you friends; for all things that I have

heard of my Father I have made known unto you” (John 15:15). The

king proceeds to commend the graces of the bride; he promises costly

gifts. She was wearing the simple ornaments of a country maiden (the

words “jewels”and “gold” are not in the original of v. 10). “We will

make thee,” he says (that is, his servants will make at his order),

“borders of gold with studs of silver.” Whatever graces the Church

possesses come from the gift of the heavenly Bridegroom; it is He

who will “present her to Himself a glorious Church, not having

spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing;” but holy and without blemish

(Ephesians 5:27). It is only God who can “keep us from falling,

and present us at the last faultless before the presence of His

glory with exceeding joy” (Jude 1:24). The fine linen, clean and

white, the wedding garment of the bride, is the Bridegroom’s gift

(Revelation 19:8).


Ø      The brides delight in the bridegroom. The king is come; he sitteth at

his table in the midst of the circle of his friends. We are reminded

that the presence of his father David was once required to complete

such a circle. “We will not sit around” (the literal translation of

Samuel’s words) “till he come hither” (I Samuel 16:11). The bride

(like Mary afterwards) anoints Him with “ointment of spikenard

very costly;” the house is filled with the odor of the ointment.

While the heavenly Bridegroom is present in the blessed sacrament,

or in the circle of true worshippers, whenever two or three are

gathered together in his Name, the sweet odor of prayer

and adoration giveth forth its fragrance. Such worship, worship in

spirit and in truth, is always acceptable. “My Father,” He saith in His

condescending love, seeketh such to worship Him” (John 4:23).

It is His presence which draws forth that holy worship. While He is

with us, in the circle of worshippers, the heart goeth forth unto Him.

“Lord, it is good to be here” (Matthew 17:4); “Thy Name is as

ointment poured forth” (v. 3).  It is sweet to the believer; it refreshes

his soul in sorrow, and in the hour of death; therefore do thy

people love thee. The King’s presence is very sacred; those whom

he deigns to visit must respond with their heart’s love, with the

sweet odors of true spiritual worship.


Ø      What the bridegroom is to her. The odor of her spikenard is pleasant to

him; he is to her as a bag of myrrh, or a cluster of henna flowers. So, in

Psalm 45:8, the royal Bridegroom’s garments smell of myrrh, aloes,

and cassia. The bag of myrrh was kept in the bosom for its sweetness and

its medicinal properties; the henna flowers which grew abundantly among

the vines of Engedi were highly esteemed for their fragrance. The Savior’s

presence in the heart sheds a fragrance through the soul. “He that hath

the Son hath life” (I John 5:12); a principle of life which preserves the

soul from the corruption of sin, which heals its diseases, which prepares

it for the hour of death. The Saviour’s body lay for a while in the mixture

of  myrrh and aloes which Nicodemus brought; that holy body needed not

the earthly unguent.  The Christian needs the preservative virtue WHICH

THE SAVIOUR GIVETH!  No flowers of earth, no earthly fragrance or

beauty, can compare for one moment with the blessedness which His

presence bringeth.




Ø      The voice of the beloved. He commends the beauty of the bride; her

eyes, as they look on him, are like doves, gentle, innocent, loving. So, in

Psalm 45., the king greatly desires the beauty of the bride. She “is all

glorious within: her clothing is of wrought gold.” The Lord would have

the Church, His bride, to be “a glorious Church, not having spot, or

wrinkle, or any such thing;” but holy and without blemish. Alas! in

the visible Church the evil are ever mingled with the good, and there

is none that sinneth not.  But just in proportion as the Christian walks

in the light (in the light of His presence who is the Light of the world),

 the blood of Jesus Christ is cleansing him from all sin, and he

becomes in his poor measure a light, shining with the reflected

light of the  Saviour’s holiness. Christ is made unto His people wisdom,

and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption; (I Corinthians

1:30) whatever beauty of character they possess comes only from

communion with  Him. “Beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord,

they are changed into the same image from glory to glory.” (II

Corinthians 3:18).  They must be harmless as doves (Matthew 10:16),

gentle, humble,  innocent. The Lord in His condescending love accepts

their imperfect service. “I know thy works, and thy love, and faith,

and ministry, and  patience; and that thy last works are more than

 the first.”  (Revelation 2:20). 


Ø      The answer of the bride. Perhaps they have now gone forth into the air;

they are sitting together, as the words seem to imply, on a green couch, on

some grassy slope in the Lebanon country, under the interlacing boughs of

cedars and fir trees. The bride enjoys the fair prospect around her; she

delights still more in the presence and love of the bridegroom. She calls

him “my beloved;” the Hebrew word is another form of the name of the

king’s father, David, which means “beloved.” He is very fair in her eyes;

yea, pleasant. The Lord is fairer than the children of men; to the Christian

there is no vision of earthly beauty which will bear one moment’s

comparison with the tender loveliness of the Saviour’s character, the

exalted beauty of His self-sacrificing love. The Christian soul delights in the

fair beauty of the Lord; it is to him the one thing to be desired above all

others. “One thing have I desired of the Lord, that I will seek after; that I

may dwell in the house of the Lord all the days of my life, to behold the

beauty of the Lord” (Psalm 27:4). So Isaiah, who alone of the prophets

uses the bride’s word of endearment, “my Beloved” (Isaiah 5:1), has

the blessed promise, Thine eyes shall see the King in his beauty:  they

shall behold the land that is very far off” (Ibid. ch. 33:17). The king is

pleasant also; not only fair to look upon, but possessed of every charm,

of all spiritual grace. We have the same word applied to God in Psalm

27:4 and 90:17. May God “shine into our hearts, to reveal to us the

light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ”! 

 (II Corinthians 4:6)



Reciprocal Esteem (vs. 12-17)


Love, manifested and known, will always beget love. As every plant has in its womb

seed of its own kind (Genesis 1:11-12), so, too, love has within itself generative

power. If any human heart does not love our Immanuel, it is because that heart is

ignorant of Him, its eyesight is blurred, its vision is obscured. No sooner is Jesus

known as a true and substantial Friend, than love in some form springs up. In the

form of gratitude it first appears; then in the form of admiration; then in delight;

then in intimacy; then in passionate devotement. Jesus known is Jesus loved.





Ø      The soul esteems Him as its SOVEREIGN KING! As love is the mightiest

force in the human breast, love’s object is at once promoted to the supreme

place. No elevation is too great for our Beloved. It would be a restraint

upon our love — yea, a pain — if we did not give to Jesus the highest

throne. We perceive that He has all the qualities of a king, and that it is for

our own advantage that He should rule within. And when we make the

experiment we find such rest, such security, such triumphs, that we would

fain exalt Him to a higher place. To be the servant — ay, the slave — of

such a King is honor infinite, joy ineffable.


Ø      The renewed soul desires to have THE CLOSEST FRIENDSHIP WITH

      JESUS!  Where the heavenly King comes, he always spreads a feast for the

soul.  Out of his fulness he freely bestows. As a fountain spontaneously sends

up its limpid waters, so doth Christ our Lord. To be in his presence, to listen

to his ripe wisdom, to realize all the advantage of his friendship, this is a

spiritual feast. The wisdom he has, he gives. His everlasting righteousness

he shares with us. His heavenly peace he conveys to us. His own love is

shed abroad in our hearts. All the wealth of his kingdom he conveys to his

chosen. We are “heirs of God, joint heirs with Jesus Christ.” The friendship

of Immanuel is a perpetual feast. They who daily eat at the same table

enjoy the closest intimacy with each other.


Ø      The presence of Jesus Christ draws out our hidden graces. “My

perfume sends forth its sweetest odors.” Just as the summer sun draws

out the essence of our garden flowers, so the energy of the Saviour’s love

stirs into activity the hidden forces of our souls. In every man is a principle

of imitation. If we see a splendid deed of generosity, we are impelled to

copy it. When the heart is free from sinful bias, it aspires to imitate every

excellence it beholds. So, when the glories of Christ’s nature are unfolded,

like graces begin to unfold in us. Repentance, gratitude, humility, faith,

patience, devoted love, are drawn out in the sunny atmosphere of Jesus’

presence. Fragrant flowers and spicy herbs, which had lain long hidden in

the frozen soil, spring up and send out a rare perfume. When Jesus dwelt in

the house, Mary was constrained to break the alabaster box, and to set free

the delicious odor; and when Jesus dwells in our hearts, every restraint

gives way, and the essence of our graces yields a sweet perfume.


Ø      We esteem the love of Jesus for its constancy. The bundle of myrrh

abides with us “all night.” Our beloved Friend is not easily offended. “He

hates putting away.” In darkness as well as at noon, in times of pain and

calamity as in days of prosperity, His love remains unchanged. If for a

season we should neglect Him, and be absorbed in other pursuits, He does

not abandon us. He may visit our folly with chastisement, and to the soul

there may be temporary night, yet the remembrance of His love will be a

sweet and reviving cordial. It will have a healing efficacy. We shall be

touched with a sense of shame; and as myrrh soothes and quiets pain, so

will the fragrant breath of our Immanuel heal us.


Ø      The friendship of Jesus satisfies every want. “My Beloved is unto me as

a cluster of camphire in the vineyards of Engedi.” The cluster of camphire

flowers had a renown both for beauty and for fragrance. So the excellence

of Jesus has a fascination for every sense of the renewed man. Every organ

is a channel through which Christ’s life flows. We look unto Jesus, and we

are charmed with the beauty of His character. We listen, and His words of

promise kindle in us a holy rapture. His deeds and sacrifices for us have a

sweet-smelling savor. His intercession for us is like the temple incense.

“We taste that the Lord is gracious.” He is to us heavenly manna — “the

Bread of life.” The coming of Christ is like autumn abundance.


o        “He is all our salvation and all our desire;”

o        “My God shall supply all your need, according to His riches

      in glory by Christ Jesus;”  (Philippians 4:19)

o         “He that cometh to me shall never hunger; he that believeth on

      me shall never thirst.”  (John 6:35)


Nothing so enchants and satisfies the soul LIKE JESUS!   Amongst the

verdant and generous vineyards of Engedi, the cluster of camphire was

distinguished for fragrance and for usefulness; so among the charms of

nature, among the genial society of human friends, Jesus stands out

prominently the most precious and the most prized of all. There is nothing

on earth we can compare with Him. He is without a rival.





Ø      He fully esteems all the good there is in them. Behold, thou art fair, my

love.” The eye of friendship will discover many virtues in a man which the

eye of malice can never find. It is not love that is blind; it is malice that is

blind. Love has eyesight keener than an eagle, keener than an archangel.

The eye of Jesus sees in us excellences which He Himself has created; and

though as yet these are only in tiny germ, yet, with the magnifying power

of love, Jesus beholds them as they shall be, full-orbed and beautiful. There

is no future to Him. What to us is in the future is with Him present. He

looks with tenderness upon the tiny blade of pious love, and lo! already ‘tis

a cedar of Lebanon, among whose branches the feathered minstrels sing. If

only a heavenly ambition begins to stir within the breast, He hastens to

foster it. Says He, “It is well that it was in thine heart.” (I King 8:18)


Ø      He repeats the commendation in order to confirm it. “Thou art fair;

thou art fair, my love.” The conscience of the Christian, filled with light

from heaven, is painfully sensible of its faults, and asks in astonishment,

“Lord, didst thou call me fair?” Then, to banish doubt and to pierce to the

heart unbelief, Jesus repeats his approval, “Behold, thou art fair, my love.”

“Though it may be that our hearts condemn us, God is greater than our

hearts, and knoweth all things.” Full clearly He sees the young germ of

newborn love, and this He will make to grow until it shall fill the soul with

beauty. Hence He already says, “Thou art fair, my love.” Under the magic

wand of love, the nature that had sunk into a beast becomes incarnate

beauty. Love creates. Love transfigures.


Ø      Love makes like unto itself. Because Christ our Lord is beautiful, we

shall be beautiful. Because Christ is pleasant, we shall be pleasant. Every

quality of mind and heart that Jesus possesses He will communicate unto

us. “He emptied Himself” that he might fill us. It is a special pleasure to

discover a new excellence in our Immanuel, inasmuch as that excellence

shall be ours. “We shall be like him when we see him as he is.”  (I John 3;2)


Ø      Jesus identifies Himself completely with His ransomed ones. The couch,

or resting place, in the palace garden is said to be “ours.” “Our bed is

green.” It is a verdant oasis in this world’s desert. Or, if the palace is

described, it is our house. To all the possessions of the Bridegroom the

bride is encouraged to lay claim. It is always the result of the marriage tie

that the interests and fortunes of the two are identical. One is the

complement of the other. Neither is complete ALONE!  There could be no

shepherd unless there were sheep. There can be no bridegroom without a

bride. There can be no king without subjects. Nor can there be a Saviour

UNLESS THERE IS ALSO THE SAVED!   The glory of Jesus Christ is

seen nowhere but in His ransomed Church. Therefore JESUS COMPLETELY


possessions are to be our possessions. All His noble qualities are to be our

noble qualities. His purity is to be our purity. His throne is to be our throne

likewise. (Revelation 3:20)  It is His everlasting purpose that we shall be

joint heirs.” (Romans 8:17)  “They shall have my joy fulfilled in

themselves.”  (John 17:13)




v. 3 insert somewhere

“His Name is as ointment poured forth.” We apply the text to Christ. It

cannot be shown that such application is wrong. Perfumes largely used in

the East — in acts of worship; in entertainments, as marks of favor to

honored guests (compare Psalm 23.; John 12.). The Name of Christ is here

likened to such precious perfume, the sweet odor of which fills the whole

house, as did that which Mary poured on the Lord. The “Name” stands for

all that Christ is to us.



The homilies below are not color-coded or thoroughly proof-read as I have

the above.  We go through the Bible every nine years and it is unknown

whether I will live through another cycle, when in trying to keep current,

I would have time to do them as I would like.  Also, Christ may come

tonight and there will be no need of finishing them.  CY – 2020)



                        “The Song of Songs, which is Solomon’s.” (v. 1)


What does this mean?


I. AS TO THE TITLE? “The Song of Songs.” It affirms that this song is

the most excellent of all songs, the incomparably beautiful song, a song

beside which, as one writer says, “all others hide their heads.”


II. AS TO THE NAME AFFIXED TO IT? Not that Solomon was the

author. For the very title would convict him of egregious vanity. A writer

would hardly thus speak of his own productions. But it would be quite

lawful that another should so speak; hence the poem might be Solomon’s

and the title be added on by another writer. But even then we question his

authorship of this song. For:


1. If we take the literal interpretation of it, as well nigh all modern

competent Bible scholars do, in greater or less degree (cf. Ginsburg,

Ewald, Maurer, Stanley, ‘Speaker’s Commentary,’ Hartwell Horne’s

‘Introduction,’ etc.), — then, since it represents Solomon as foiled and

frustrated in his endeavours to persuade the maiden Shulamith, whose

constancy and fidelity the poem celebrates, to become his bride, it is hardly

likely that he would depict himself in such an unlovely light, or in such

undignified guise as that in which, in this song, he certainly appears. Or, if

we take the most ancient and most common interpretation of the song, the

spiritual and allegorical, which affirms that the bride — though there is no

bride in the song at all, but only one who is betrothed — represents the

Church; and that Solomon, whom this interpretation identifies with “the

beloved,” is a type of our Lord Jesus Christ; and that the poem is intended

to set forth the mutual love of Christ and his Church; — then we say that

Solomon is in no sense a fit type of the Lord Jesus Christ, for he was not a

man after God’s own heart, but very far from it. Moreover, he was not the

man to write a spiritual poem of such exalted character. They were “holy

men of old” whom the Spirit inspired. But, certainly, Solomon can lay no

claim to that character. Then:


3. David and Solomon are both spoken of in such manner as would hardly

be likely if Solomon were the writer. (Compare ch. 3:9, 11;

8:11, 12.) It is the manner of one speaking of them, telling facts concerning

them; but it is not as they would. speak themselves.


4. And even if the words, “which is Solomon’s,” be held to mean that he

was the author, such ascription need have no more value than the titles of

many of the psalms, which are allowed to be of no authority.


5. But we read the words as “concerning Solomon.” True, the poem

literally understood has nothing to say in his favour; for what was there to

say? But if he be a type at all, and we think he is, it is of that greedy,

selfish, soul-corrupting world, which would draw away the faithful from

the pure love of God, and seek to replace that pure love by its own.

Shulamith loved and was beloved. Solomon tried by all manner of

enticements to draw her from that love. But he utterly fails. So that the

poem is a parable of the faithful soul and its constancy to its true Lord. By

means of a beautiful earthly story, the yet more beautiful fidelity of the soul

truly affianced to God is set forth — a fidelity tried so as by fire, and

therefore more precious than all gold (compare I Peter 1:6, 7), which might

be taken as a text for the interpretation of very much in this book. It was

written, probably, near the age of Solomon, but we think subsequently; and

by some Israelite belonging to the northern tribes; and from the absence of

all praise of Solomon, and the conduct it ascribes to him, the writer was

probably hostile to him, perhaps one of those who in Rehoboam’s day

raised the cry of “To your tents, O Israel!” and broke away from the

kingdom of Judah altogether. The poem is sensuous, but not sensual,

unless it be where Solomon is to be understood as speaking, when such

speech would be in character. It is Oriental, of course, and not to be

interpreted by those far different canons of taste which prevail in our more

Northern and Western lands. And it is not a mere story of a maiden’s

constancy. Were it so, however beautiful (and for remarks on its beauty cf.

Isaac Taylor’s ‘Spirit of the Hebrew Poetry’), still it would not, we think,

have found a place amongst the sacred writings. We hold it to be an

allegory or parable of the souls true love to God, and, so read, it is like the

rest of Holy Scripture, “profitable for doctrine, for reproof,” etc. He who

has no love of God in his heart, or even little, will never understand it, and

had better leave it alone. But to the pure, devout, and Christ-loving heart

the vision of him who is for them the “altogether lovely” is seen

everywhere in it, and delighted in wherever seen. That vision may we see!




                                                Christ’s Name (v. 3)


“His Name is as ointment poured forth.” We apply the text to him. It

cannot be shown that such application is wrong. Perfumes largely used in

the East — in acts of worship; in entertainments, as marks of favour to

honored guests (compare  Psalm 23.; John 12.). The Name of Christ is here

likened to such precious perfume, the sweet odour of which fills the whole

house, as did that which Mary poured on the Lord. The “Name” stands for

all that Christ is to us. The comparison is appropriate if we consider

concerning such perfumes —


I. THEIR COSTLINESS. They were on this account exceeding precious,

large sums of money being demanded for them (John 12:3). But does

not this tell of the “precious blood of Christ,” and how “God so loved the

world “? Think of the cost of the “unspeakable Gift” of Christ:


1. To the Father. Was the heart of God unmoved by the sorrows of the

Son? Is not the touching story of Abraham’s offering up of Isaac, and of

his anguish at having to surrender his son, his only son Isaac, “whom thou

lovest,” brought before our minds when we read how “God so loved the

world, that he gave his only begotten Son”? Does it not tell of the anguish

of the Divine mind in that sacrifice? A God that cannot know sorrow or

joy, that is not “touched with the feeling of our infirmities,” is not the God

of the Bible, “our Father which art in heaven.” Therefore what of

uttermost sorrow must he not have known when he beheld the “beloved

Son, in whom he was well pleased,” expire in agony on the cross?


2. To Christ himself. Was he not “the Man of sorrows, and acquainted

with grief”? “Come, see if ever there was sorrow ‘like unto my sorrow” —

to whom do these words apply as to him? Cf. Psalm 22., that psalm which

was in the mind and on the lips of our Lord as he hung upon the cross. The

parable of the pearl of great price and of the treasure hid in the field may

have other meanings than those commonly given to them. May they not tell

of our salvation, and how our blessed Lord was set upon obtaining this,

and therefore, though “he was rich, yet for our sakes he became poor,” that

he might obtain this, to him, most precious pearl, this treasure of untold



3. To the Holy Spirit. For he it is who takes of the things of Christ and

shows them unto us; who seeks men, and woos and wins them for Christ.

The whole of the Passion of our Lord is patterned forth and perpetuated in

the grievings and outrages, in the Gethsemane-like “groanings which

cannot be uttered” (Romans 8.), which tell of what he suffers to save men.


4. And if we think of the Gift itself, the very Son of God — no creature, no

man, no angel or archangel, but he who was one with the Father — that

sacrifice was the cost of our redemption. All comparison fails, no matter

what of worth and value in earthly things are thought of; they can but

faintly image the worth and preciousness of Christ.


II. THEM COMBINED EXCELLENCE. The choicest perfumes were

composed of many ingredients. Cf. the sacred anointing oil (<023031>Exodus

30:31-38). And so Christ is “made unto us,” not one thing only, but many

- “wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption” (I Corinthians 1:30).

Whether we think of the combined excellences that are

in his own nature and character, or of those which he bestows upon us —

so many, so manifold, so precious all of them — the comparison is true.



ARE POURED. To this day Orientals delight in such perfumes. They deem

them to be as healthful as they are pleasant; and still they are given to

honoured guests, as Simon should have given them but did not, but as the

Magdalen and Mary of Bethany also did to our Lord. “Thou anointest my

head with oil,” tells in the twenty-third psalm of the exuberance of joy that

the believer has in his Lord. “How sweet the Name of Jesus sounds!” so

still his people love to sing. And what they sing is true.


IV. THEIR DIFFUSIVE FRAGRANCE. “Poured forth,” released from

the vessel which contained it, and in consequence spreading its sweet

odours all around. Again the comparison is just. Has not human life

become sweeter in innumerable places because there the Name of Christ

has been poured forth? Heaven is heaven because there his “Name is above

every name.”



THEMSELVES. By this may we know whether we are Christ’s. If

character, temper, spirit, life, be of ill odour, how can we have known

Christ’s Name?




              The Christian Soul, Its Trials and Triumphs (vs. 4-8)


The maiden who speaks has been separated unwillingly from her beloved,

after whom she incessantly mourns; she is kept in the king’s chambers, the

apartments of the women in his palace at Jerusalem. They ridicule her

swarthy look, and she tells how her half-brothers had been unkind to her,

and had made her work in the drudgery of the vineyards, beneath the

scorching sun. Those about her wonder and scoff at her persistent

affection. The story may be taken as telling of the Christian soul, its trials

and triumphs.


I. ITS TRIALS. The Christian soul may be:

1. Unwillingly deprived of conscious enjoyment of her Lord’s presence.

How often in the psalms do we find the complaint of the Lord being “far

from me,” of the failure to realize his presence and his love! And how often

the same thing occurs now! Our sun is hidden behind a cloud, and the soul

grieves over her absent Lord.


2. Despised. This is another though a less trial. The child of God is a poor

kind of creature in the world’s esteem, and it is not slow to let the believer

know and feel its contempt. And with many this is a terrible thing. Not a

few who would lead a forlorn hope and do any deed of daring that required

only physical courage, will shrink and quail beneath the world’s scorn.

3. Persecuted and ill-used also, as she was who is spoken of here. So, too,

is it and has been with the Christian soul. And often a man’s foes are they

of his own household. Our Lord told us it would be so, and so they have

found it; but have found also, as here, that he knows how to sustain his

servants in this trial,


4. Mockery likewise has to be reckoned with. For though ver. 8 tells a truth

which has very real and blessed. meaning in regard to the soul’s way to

God, yet it seems to us to have been spoken mockingly, bidding her to

whom it was spoken track the footprints of the sheep if she wanted to

know where her beloved was, if she would persist in being so foolish. Such

is the force of the words rendered, “If thou know not.” They are

contemptuous, and contain a sneer. But “cruel mockings” have been the lot

of Christ’s people in all ages, and when we have to bear them we are not to

be surprised “as if some strange thing had happened” unto us. But these

verses tell not of trials alone, but of —




1. Her soul still clave unto her beloved. (Ver. 4.) And so, notwithstanding

the Christian soul may be by one cause or another held in captivity and

“walk in darkness,” yet it will all the more cry out after him whom it

loveth, and remember his love more than any of the joys of earth. Thus the

very design of her adversary is baffled, for her heart beats true to Christ



2. She is certain that Christ delights in her. Those about her may despise

her because she is “black,” because she seems contemptible in their sight.

But she knows that the Lord looks upon her with different eyes, that in his

sight she is “comely.” Others may think what they wilt, but his estimate is

everything to her, and that is as she would have it be.


3. She desires and obtains yet more of happy communion with him. (Vers.

7, 8.) Often is it with the faithful soul that as the frown of Christ’s foes and

her own deepen, the light of Christ’s countenance shines on her more

steadily, brightly, and fully than ever. He drew her (ver. 4) by her need of

his grace, and she ran after him, seeking that grace and finding it.


4. She knows that her present for of hardship and trial is not her true

portion. “Why should I be as one that is veiled?” (margin), that is, one

despised and despicable. She knows that such portion is not hers.


5. She cannot be moved. She is conqueror. So will it ever be. — S.C.



Vers. 4-7.


The soul’s joy in the love of God.

“The king hath brought me into his chambers,” etc. If we may take this

book as only an allegory, we find suggested in these verses this subject of

the soul’s joy.



opened for her the unsearchable riches of his grace, “filled with all pleasant

and precious riches” (compare ch. 24:4).


II. IS VERY GREAT. She will be glad and rejoice. She will “remember”

his “love more than wine.” That is, the soul’s joy is more than any earthly

means of delight and exhilaration can afford.



thee.” “No good thing will he withhold from them that walk uprightly.”

Our joy is heightened by the fact that those whom we most esteem count it

their joy also.



FROM IT. “I am black.”


“Since therefore I can hardly bear

What in myself I see,

How vile, how black, I must appear,

Most holy God, to thee!

“But oh! my Saviour stands between,

In garments dyed in blood;

Tis he instead of me is seen

When I approach to God.”


The remembrance of her own unworthiness serves as a foil to set off the

comeliness with which inwardly he has endowed her. “The king’s daughter

is all glorious within” (compare Ezekiel 16:14). And as she thinks of her

unworthiness she tells how it came to be so with her — by the cruelty of

others and her own neglect. They made her serve in such way that she

became “black.” How often our foes are they of our own household! But

she, too, was neglectful. “My own vineyard have I not kept.” Nevertheless,

the king loved her.



HIMSELF. “Tell me where thou feedest?” etc. (ver. 7). She appeals to him

to bring her where he is. She desires to know the rest he can give. His

“companions” will not compensate for him (cf. “Whom have I in heaven

but thee?” etc.; compare Psalm 42:9; Ezekiel 34.; Psalm 25:4, 5; 16:2, 3).





                                    The Pastor’s Peril (v. 6)


“They made me… I have not kept.” If we were to understand these words

literally, then what is told of might be without either blame or loss. For if,

as seems to have been the case, the speaker’s neglect of her own vineyard

was forced upon her in order that she might keep the vineyards of others,

then no fault attached to her. She could not help herself; she was made to

work for others. She might grieve, as it is plain she did, to see her own fair

vineyard neglected, and, in consequence, overgrown with weeds, and all

prospect of fruit gone; but no blame belonged to her, though there might

be loss. And it is quite comprehensible that there might be neither blame

nor loss, although her own vineyard was neglected. For it might be far

more profitable to cultivate the vineyards of others than one’s own; and if

so, why should there be blame, and how could there be loss? But when we

come to the spiritual suggestions of our text, when we look upon it as

telling of those whose office and duty it is to cultivate the vineyard of the

soul, then the conduct told of here can never be without blame and loss

both; blame to the vineyard keeper who kept not his own whilst keeping

others, and loss both to him and them. For —


I. MEN’S SOULS ARE GOD’S VINEYARDS. They were created to

bring forth fruit for his glory, and for the strengthening, cheering, and

every way helping of the souls of their fellows. For this purpose, also, were

they redeemed, and for this end are they supplied with manifold Divine

gifts — the influences of the Holy Spirit, the aid which the Church, the

Scriptures, and the ministers of Christ are appointed to render. Now, such


to watch over them continually. They are to cultivate them with all diligent

care. They are to aim ever to render help to those committed to their care

in the formation of that character, and in the exercise of those graces which

God regards and rejoices in as fruit. They are to remember always that the

vineyards are for fruit, and that whatever else they may yield, if they yield

not this, their work has failed. Now, this verse suggests that —



OF THE VINEYARDS. It is this, that whilst keeping the vineyards of

others, their own they should not keep. Now, that this is a very real peril is

evident from:


1. Their own confessions. The words of our text are a confession, and a

sorrowful one. And they have been adopted by such vineyard keepers again

and again. Before God, on their knees, they have owned how marred and

faulty their work has been, owing to the ill-prepared condition of their own

souls. Pastors, teachers, and all who toil for Christ, in striving to tell of him

to their fellow men, and to persuade them to come to him, have mourned

— oh, how often! — that their lips have outrun their hearts; that they have

uttered words to which their hearts often gave but faint response. They

have declared truths which, alas! they have failed to realize. They have

spoken of the love of Christ, and had but little consciousness of it within

them. As we read the biographies of such men, or as, in the confidence of

friendship, they confess how it has been with them, or as we think over our

own experiences, who is there of us that may not make the confession of

the text cur own? It is the perpetual struggle of the right-minded servant of

God to maintain the balance between the spoken words and the inward

thought; and the struggle is never easy, but often the reverse. These facts

show how real the peril is.


2. And it is evidently possible to be guilty of that which is here said. For

words and work are both external to us, and they can be assumed and

adopted even when there is but little or even no spiritual reality behind

them. A man can drill himself into saying or doing almost anything. He can

become official, perfunctory, and a mere actor in the way of expressing

sentiments in which his soul has no share. This is a dreadful possibility,

from which may God graciously deliver us all! And our Lord, and the

Scriptures generally, declare and denounce such conduct. God says to the

wicked in the fiftieth psalm, “What hast thou to do to declare my statutes?”

It is certain, therefore, that wicked men can do this and have done it. Our

Lord utters his awful warning to those who say “Lord, Lord,” prophesy in

his name, and in his name do many wonderful works, to whom at the last

he will say, “I never knew you.” Yes, God’s Word is very plain as to the

possibility of this sin and its fearful results.


3. And it is without excuse. There is no need for it. No amount of busy

activity in keeping the vineyards of others need hinder our duly keeping

our own. On the contrary, diligent care here will help us mightily when we

strive to do good to others and to keep their vineyards. For when we

remember that it is the spirit which breathes through what we say or do,

rather than the words and deeds themselves, which more than aught

besides influences our fellow men, it is evident that the right cultivation of

our own spiritual life is of unspeakable importance. As one has said, “A

holy minister is a mighty instrument in God’s hand for the conversion and

sanctification of souls.” Therefore whatever of time and energy we give to

the keeping of our own vineyard is the very best preparation and aid in

keeping the vineyards of others. Moreover:


4. Not to give this is fatal to our work. There is nothing men detect so soon

or despise so much as unreality, want of sincerity. The words may be true

and well ordered, and lit up with fine imagination and beautiful illustration;

be very interesting to hear, and command rapt attention; but if they be

lacking in the indispensable quality of sincerity, they will be nothing but

words after all, and will have no real effect. Religion must be a reality to

ourselves, or we shall never persuade others to become religious men. “Si

vis me flere dolendum est.” And not to be thus real ourselves is:


5. Most perilous for our own souls. Being so busy in keeping others’

vineyards, caring for the interests of others’ souls, what can we lack? Must

it not be well with us? And people praise and flatter us, and count us to be

all we should be: what wonder, then, that we should be deceived? And all

the while the holy truths we tell of, like the heated iron that the blacksmith

handles, affect us less and less; we scarcely feel them though we talk so

fluently about them. And we have already referred to Scripture which make

plain the mind of God on this matter. “The sacrifice of the wicked is an

abomination unto the Lord.” Such is the perpetual language of the Word of

God. May he help us to remember it, and that always!



Christ, who called us to keep and cultivate the vineyards, our own and

others’, which he has entrusted to our charge, will help us therein if

continually we look to him. Without him, indeed, we can do nothing; but

with him what cannot we do? Therefore, see to it that our souls are

committed to him, that day by day we do our all unto him. Only let us

abide in him, and then all our outer service will be the natural product of

our inner life; not mere fruit fastened on, but fruit grown, produced

naturally by our life. And so shall we find that the inner and the outer act

and react one upon the other for the mutual good of each. So, whilst we

keep the vineyards of others, our own vineyard will also be kept.



                                    Not Faithless, Yet not Faithful (v. 6)


“They made me the keeper of the vineyards… kept.” Text a sorrowful

confession, but it is not the most sorrowful of all. That will come from

those who cannot say even as much as is said here. For there was, we may

readily suppose, the keeping of the vineyards of others, though the

speaker’s own was not kept. But the confession suggests sin of a deeper

dye, a condition of things more sad than this. Let us speak of it first, and



I. THOSE WHO KEEP NEITHER — the vineyards of others nor their

own. We take (see previous homily) the vineyard to represent the soul of

man. Now, we are all of us, and some especially, appointed to keep the

vineyards of others — to watch and tend the spiritual interests of those

entrusted to our care; such as our children, our class, our congregation.

And all of us, not merely some, are appointed to keep our own vineyard, to

care for our own souls. Now, our text speaks of those who did fulfil one

part of this duty — they kept the vineyards of others, though they did not

keep their own. But partial failure is less terrible than entire failure. And it

is of this we speak; of those who keep neither the souls of others nor their

own, who neglect both alike. Deplorable is it for those for whom they were

appointed to care. What chance have such neglected ones? The mightiest

influence that can possibly bear upon them — I speak especially of our

children — the influence of parental love and care to train their souls for

God, is kept back. What wonder that in such neglected vineyards “ill weeds

grow apace”? But yet more deplorable will it be for those thus guilty to

such neglect. What will they say when at the last great day it is asked of

them what they have done with the vineyards they were appointed to keep?

And of course such persons, as a rule, keep not their own vineyards. The

same indifference to spiritual things which made them neglect the vineyards

of others makes them neglect their own. They have no hunger after God,

no thirst for the living water which Christ alone can give. They care not for

any of these things. And so the rank undergrowth which the world, the

flesh, and sin propagate, spreads over all their spiritual being, and over that

of those whom they were appointed to keep. Godless parents have godless

children; they have not sought that it should be otherwise. And the teacher

who knows not Christ for himself will never persuade his class to yield

themselves to Christ. And the unholy minister — ah! what will his

congregation be? Oh, dreadful will it be for those who have kept neither

the vineyards of those others that have been entrusted to them, nor their

own. But our text tells especially of —


II. THOSE WHO HAVE KEPT BUT ONE. They have kept the vineyards

of others, but not their own. Or it might have been, for it often is, the other

way — They might have kept their own, but not others. Let us speak of

these first. There are many of them. They think only about their own poor

wretched souls, and how they can make them secure. For this they keep up

certain religious habits and do many things. But it is all self-contained; it is

mere selfishness, for it all centres in the man’s own soul. This is the sin of

the Church today. Its members are so busy keeping each their own

vineyards that they care but very little indeed for those of others. But such

selfishness brings with it its own proper punishment, as it ought to and

cannot but do. “The liberal man deviseth liberal things, and by liberal things

he shall stand.” But the churlish common Christianity of our day fails to

devise liberal things, and therefore does not stand. For is it standing high in

men’s esteem? Is its odour fragrant; its name, like his of whom we read in

ver. 8, as “perfume poured forth”? And does it stand strongly, firmly on its

faith? Is not that faith faltering in many places? and do not many fall away,

and that daily? If we would have our own vineyard yield large luscious fruit

to our Lord, care for the vineyards of others as well as our own.


2. But the text tells chiefly of those who kept others and not their own. Of

this we have spoken already in the former homily. Therefore we come to

speak of that most desirable and blessed condition which is found in —


III. THOSE WHO KEEP BOTH — the vineyards of others and their

own. Yes, the one we should do, but the other we should not leave

undone. Certainly begin with your own. It may be an awful peril to begin

with others. But having committed your own soul into Christ’s blessed

keeping, and found him your very Lord and Saviour, now go straight away

and try and persuade others to do just what you have done. Then you shall

find fulfilled for you that parable of reward which all nature is full of. See

that running brook. How merrily it prattles over the pebbles that form its

bed, as it speeds away to render up its little tribute to the larger river,

which will bear it on to the great and wide sea at last! The miry pond hard

by the brook sneers at it, and says, “You haven’t got so much water that

you can afford to let it all run away in that wasteful fashion; you should

take care of what you have got as I do.” But the brook took no heed, and

went on singing merrily just as before. And the hot summer came round at

last, when, lo! the pond was dried up almost to its last puddle; but the

brook went on as before, bright and clear and merry, sparkling and dancing

along its appointed way. And we all know the reason why. The brook gave

up its strength to the river, and that to the sea; but the sea gave back in

vapour all that she had received, and so the fountains from which the brook

flowed forth were filled again, and the brook was glad and not sorry that

she had given her strength to others, for now her waters had not failed like

those of the pond, but were renewed to her day by day. And so, when the

water of life flows into our souls, if we let it flow out again to bless the

souls of others, be sure that he who first gave us of this grace will give us

yet more grace, and we shall find that there is that which scattereth and yet

increaseth. The life of the merry healthful child spends itself in the vigorous

activity of which it never seems to tire; but that active exercise replenishes

the child’s life, and it makes increase in strength daily. So, then, as to the

vineyards of your own soul and those of others, resolve and pray that you

may not be found amongst those who keep neither. Pray, too, that you be

not so unhappy as to be a keeper of but one, and especially if that one be

not your own. But let this last condition of which we have been telling be

yours. Keep your own vineyard and your brother’s too.




                        Love Assailed, but Steadfast (v. 9-ch. 2:7)


According to the interpretation we have taken of this poem, Solomon is

here introduced as endeavoring to win the maiden’s consent to become

his wife by flatteries and promises of rich gifts of jewels and adornments;

but he altogether fails. The above-named subject is therefore suggested.

Note, therefore —




1. By flatteries. Solomon compares her to whom he is speaking to the

“horses of Pharaoh’s chariot.” This comparison is not so coarse as it

sounds. It was not unusual amongst the ancients to compare beautiful

women to splendid horses (cf. Exposition). The ideas intended are those of

grace in form and movement, courage, generosity, rare beauty. Then (ver.

15) he tells her that her eyes are like “doves’ eyes.” Then (ch. 2:2)

he disparages all other women in comparison with her. They

are as thorns, whilst she is amongst them as the lily. All this is just such

flattery as Solomon may be well conceived as employing. And it suggests

how the soul affianced in God is often assailed. The world seeks to flatter

it, that so it may be the more readily bent to evil. What is the self-satisfaction,

the pride, the serene content with itself, in which many souls

are weak, but just the effects of the world’s flatteries? Satan suggests them

to the soul, and his servants repeat them continually, and his victims believe

them. Flattery, what harm has it not wrought? So seductive, so powerful,

so ruinous always when listened to. If we believe what the world, the flesh,

and the devil whisper to us about ourselves and our own excellences, such

as they are, we shall never think we need the grace of God, or, if for a

while we have thought so, we shall soon give up such thoughts altogether.


2. By promises that the world makes of its pomps, adornments, and

wealth. So Solomon here tries to win her to whom he speaks. “Rows of

jewels,” for headdress, strings of pearls for her neck, gold chains studded

with silver (vs. 10-11). Such gewgaws and finery would he give her.

Homer tells (‘Odyssey,’ lib. 15.) how attractive and tempting such things

are —


“A man of theirs, subtle and shrewd, produced

A splendid collar, gold with amber strung.

With deep delight my mother and her maids

Gazed on it.”


And thus Solomon appealed to the natural love of adornment in a young

maiden all unused to such rich presents. How many a woman’s heart has

been won by them! how the love of them has made many a home miserable

by the extravagance to which they have been the temptation! how many a

fair character has been blasted and lives ruined by their deceitful glitter!

And are not such facts parables of one of the chief temptations of the soul,

whereby it is sought to seduce it from God? Jewels and pearls and gold,

how they flash and sparkle] how they dazzle and delight poor human

nature! Types are they of more terrible things still — the pomps and

vanities of this wicked world, for the sake of which all too many men are

only too ready to sell their souls. How Moses was tempted by them! How

brilliant was the career offered him! he, the cast out child of a slave, to be

adopted into the house and family, the possessions and honours, of the

imperial dynasty, the Pharaohs of Egypt! How our Lord was tempted in

like manner! “All these things” — all the kingdoms of the world and the

glory of them — “will I give thee if,” etc.


II. LOVE STEADFAST. Solomon did not prevail with her whom he tried

to win. All his flatteries and fineries failed. Not one word such as the royal

tempter would fain have heard did she address to him, though many to her

absent beloved. As showing her steadfastness, note here:


1. How at once her heart turns to him she loved. (Ver. 12.) The king has

left her alone, has gone to his banquet. At once the sweet memories of her

beloved fill her soul as with the fragrance of myrrh (ver. 13). “While the

king is in his circle, my spikenard sendeth forth,” etc. Her heart is always

perfumed with these memories, and is bright therewith as well as fragrant,

as with fair flowers and myrrh.


2. See, too, how she transfers all praise from herself to him. The king had

told her she was fair (ver. 15). Her thoughts fly away to him whom she

loves, and she gives the praise to him (ver. 16).


3. And her love consecrates all the scenes where she has been with him.

The soft green turf (ver. 16), on which they had cast themselves down

beneath the cedars and fir trees, whose branches over them were as the

beams and rafters of a house.


4. And makes her think all lowlily of herself but very loftily of him. She is

so she says — but as a common field flower (compare ch.2:1), just

nothing at all. But he, her beloved, was as the citron tree,

fragrant, stately, fruitful, affording refreshing shade (v. 3). Travelers tell

of the beauty of this tree. And amid the leafy arcades of the vine, and

beneath its o’erarching branches, she had loved to linger with him (v. 4);

for with him, because of his dear love for her, she was safe as if under the

protection of an army, following the banners of a mighty chief.


5. And these are ever the effects of a steadfast love. “Not I, but the grace

of God which was in me:” so does Paul transfer praise from himself to

God. Places where fellowship with Christ have been enjoyed are

consecrated by that fact. And love is lowly. “Less than the least of all

saints:” so speaks Paul of himself. But of Christ, what does he not say of

him? What is not Christ to him, and all such? Fruit, and shade, and

safeguard sure.


III. THE SECRET OF ALL THIS. The heart possessed by the love of

Christ. There is no other antidote that will serve as does this against the

flatteries and the bribes of the world. Nothing else will make us so deaf to

its appeals, so blind to all its blandishments.


“Lord, let thy fear within us dwell,

Thy love our footsteps guide;

That love shall all vain love expel,

That fear all fear beside.”




              Characteristics of those Whom Christ Loves (ch. 9-11, 15)


We need not mind who said what is written in these verses; or why it was

said, according to their literal interpretation. But we may consider what is

said, for it is true of all people who are “of the Lord beloved.”


I. THEY ARE HIS BELOVED. This more than justice; for that would

have regarded them as they were in themselves — the reverse of well

pleasing to him. It is more than mercy; for that, though it may have spared

the wrong doer, would not have received him into affection. It is grace

abounding. And Christ does thus regard his people. “Henceforth I call you

not servants, but friends.” What rich store of consolation to all cast-down

souls there is in this!



CHARIOT.” (compare Zechariah 10:3, “The Lord hath visited his flock, and

hath made them as his goodly horse in the day of battle.”) And such

comparison is frequent both in the Scriptures and in the ordinary literature

of that age. In this song the ideas intended are their alacrity and vigour,

swiftness, strength, grace, courage, etc. The image suggests:


1. The alacrity and vigour of the believers service. (compare  Psalm 119., “I

will run in the way of thy commandments when thou shalt enlarge my

heart.”) And what so enlarges the heart, so causes it to swell with

delightful emotion, as the consciousness that the Lord’s love rests upon us.


2. Their courage. (Compare  Job’s description of the battlehorse — how he

paweth in the valley,” and “rejoiceth in his strength,” “mocketh at fear,

and is not affrighted;” “suffereth the quiver to rattle against him, the

glittering spear and the shield.”) And how often the dauntless courage, of

which the horse is a symbol, has been found in God’s servants (cf. Daniel;

the three Hebrew youths; Paul; and many more)! Think of the martyrs who


“Mocked the cross and flame.

They met the tyrant’s brandished steel,

The lion’s gory mane.”


And in less marked and tragic, but in equally real way, has this courage

been shown — is shown — in our own day. Illustrate: Arthur kneeling in

prayer before the whole room at Rugby (see ‘Tom Brown’s School days’).

And such courage is yet needed, and, thank God, is yet found.


3. The exquisite symmetry of form for which the choicest Arabian steeds

were famous tells of that moral symmetry and harmoniousness of character

which will one day, and should now, distinguish his Church and people. It

is the same idea as in St. Paul’s image of the symmetry of the perfected

Church. Hence he tells of its “breadth, and length, and depth, and height,”

which “all saints” are to “comprehend,” because they shall share in and

exhibit it.


4. His peoples unity is also suggested by the comparison with “a

company” of horses. The Church is militant here upon earth, and therefore

the idea of a war chariot is appropriate. But the company of steeds who

draw it, are they not so esteemed because of their ordered obedience? Not

struggling hither and thither as each wills, nor each struggling to get its

own way and so pulling in different directions. Alas! it is a sarcasm to liken

the Church of our day to “a company of horses in Pharaoh’s chariot.”

Would to God it were not, and that what is may not much longer be!



ch. 1:8-9, “My son hear,… For they shall “be an ornament of

grace unto thy head, and chains about thy neck.”) What, therefore, these

adornments are is evident. They are the graces wrought by the Spirit; what

St. Paul calls, “the fruits of the Spirit” — love, joy, peace, etc. These are

the golden links of the chain, added one by one, each connected with and

dependent on its fellow. Frequently is the adornment of the soul set forth in

Scripture under the imagery of the adornment of the body. We read of “the

ornament of a meek and quiet spirit,” etc. And thus Christ will array his

Church and each individual believing soul.



upon grace — grace in addition to grace already given (cf. ver. 11, “We

will make thee,” etc.). And this is so. We are bidden “grow in grace;” and

the soul does thus advance, does receive more and more of those beautiful

adornments which are the Spirit’s workmanship, those good works for

which we were created in Christ Jesus.



This the suggestion of v. 15, “Thine eyes are doves’.” We read of the

evil” eye (Matthew 20:15); of “eyes full of adultery” (II Peter

2:14); and of the “high look and proud heart” (Psalm 101:5). But what

a contrast to all these have we here! Eyes of gentleness, of purity, of

heavenly mindedness; eyes through which the Holy Spirit — whose chosen

emblem is the dove — looks and is seen. What a description! Would that

all we who profess and call ourselves Christians corresponded to it far

more than we do!



                                    Holy Communion (v. 12)


The form of expression in this verse has suggested thoughts on this theme

to so many devout students of this book that, whilst not admitting their

interpretation as correct, we may nevertheless avail ourselves of such

suggestions in order to set forth some precious and important truths

concerning it — the soul’s communion with Christ. And we note —



Revelation 3:20, “If any man will open the door, I will come in to him,

and sup with him, and he with me.”) In such communion we have the

“feast of fat things full of marrow” of which the prophet speaks (cf. also

our Lord’s words, “Come, for all things are ready; my oxen,” etc.), Now,

such communion is had:


1. In prayer. Not mere saying prayers, but in true prayer.

2. In the worship of the Church. How often have we found this to be so!

On the sabbath, and in the sanctuary, how often we have there found that


“The cares which infest our day

Have folded their tents, like the Arabs,

And as silently steal away!”


3. The table of the Lord is especially the King’s table. Hence to our service

there the name of “holy communion” has been pre-eminently given. All

these are opportunities of such communion, and were designed so to be.

But —



PRESENCE. “While the King sitteth,” etc. How poor and wretched are

our prayers if there be no realization of the presence of Christ! And the

worship of the Church, what an empty form! And at the table of the Lord

not to “discern the Lord’s body,” that is to make the service worse than

useless; it is to incur his judgment and condemnation. Let us never come to

this or to any season of communion without invoking his presence.



spikenard sendeth forth,” etc. “It is in seasons of communion with the Lord

that the graces of the Spirit are called forth in most lively exercise.” A holy

fragrance, a “sweet smell,” well pleasing and acceptable, is yielded at such

seasons by the heart of the Lord’s servants. And:


1. To the Lord himself. Our prayers rise up before him “as incense, and the

lifting up of our hands as the evening sacrifice.” He is well pleased. He told

Nathanael, “When thou wast under the fig tree I saw thee;” there, where he

had poured forth his fervent prayer. And in our assemblies for worship,

where that worship is real, the Lord loveth such “gates of Zion.” Of such

worshippers it is written, “The Lord hearkened and heard, and a book of

remembrance was written before him.” And of them he says, “They shall be

mine in that day when I make up my jewels.” And at his table, if we do

indeed commune with him, the faith and hope and love, the contrition and

humility and self-surrender, all which the soul then and there offers to him,

these are fragrant indeed, sweet and precious as were the anointings of his

sacred body by the penitent Magdalen and by Mary of Bethany.


2. And many others are conscious of, and share in that fragrance. Our

fellow guests. What a source of true blessing and manifold help to any

Church is the presence of those who live in constant communion with their

Lord! What a hallowed influence such exert! what real good they do l Like

their Lord’s, in their measure and degree, the name of such is “as ointment

poured forth.” And all those with whom such persons have to do — their

children, servants, neighbors, associates, and the world generally — will,

as it was with the apostles, “take knowledge of them that they have been

with Jesus.”


3. And they themselves are blessed. For is it not good to have all that is

pure and holy and Christ-like in us quickened, confirmed, strengthened, as

is the case through communion with our Lord? Moses’ face shone after he

had been in the presence of the Lord. The spiritual help which comes to the

real worshipper is so great, and has always been so recognized, that for the

sake of having opportunity for such communion Christ’s people have

risked everything. If they would only have kept their religion to themselves

no one would have said anything; but they would not. They would come

together for worship and for communion; and hence, all over the world,

they have been led “as sheep to the slaughter,” and for Christ’s sake they

“have been slain all the day long.” What proof and evidence this is of the

real blessedness of communion with Christ! May he help us to add each

one our testimony to this same sure truth!


                        The House of the Lord (vs. 16-17 and ch. 2:4)


Before the soul delightedly tells of the house of her Lord, she speaks:


I. OF THE LORD OF THE HOUSE. She declares not only that he is fair,

but pleasant also. How many of his people fail here! Some are fair, but not

pleasant. Some are pleasant, but not fair. Alas! some are neither. But of

him supremely can it be said that he is fair and pleasant. Not only fair in

outward seeming, but pleasant in his spirit, temper, and demeanor.


II. OF HIS HOUSE. The soul says “our” in speaking of his abode. And so

closely are we united with him, that his people may, though out of

reverence they seldom do, speak of that which is his as theirs also. The

picture drawn in these verses (16-17) is one of rural delight — the soft and

verdant turf, the o’erarching and umbrageous trees, the noble cedar, the

stately fir, beneath which those spoken of have cast themselves down. The

ideas suggested are those of happy rest. Psalm 23., “Thou makest me to lie

down in green pastures,” etc., tells substantially of the same spiritual rest.

And the house of the Lord is the place of such blessed rest of heart and

soul and mind. Because of this, we find those many impassioned

expressions in the Psalms as to the psalmist’s delight in the house of the

Lord; how he had rather be a doorkeeper there than hold any place of

worldly honour or pleasure, however exalted (Psalm 84.). The agitations

and cares of the mind hush themselves to rest there. The psalmist tells in

one place how the mystery of the Divine rule over men — wicked men

often prospering and good men cast down — how this distressed,

dismayed, and all but destroyed his faith in God, “until,” he says, “I went

into the sanctuary; then I understood.” Yes, the house of the Lord should

be, and often is to his people, what this beautiful picture of rest on the

green grass, beneath the cool, refreshing shade of fragrant and stately trees,

presents to us — a place of pure delight, rest, and refreshment of heart.


III. ITS PROVISIONS. It is a “banqueting house.” It is so when the Lord

brings us there and is with us there (compare on v. 12).


IV. ITS DEFENCE. “His banner over me is love.” That is, the soul’s

protection and guard, so sure and strong as that of a banner-led host, is the

Lord’s love. Is it not so? What guards us there and everywhere but his

love? What is the defence of the home but the father’s love? What the

safeguard of the wife but her husband’s love? Love is always a mighty

protector, a sure defence, a strong bulwark. “How doth the hen protect her

brood,” but by her love? And love ever guards the beloved ones. And so

with our souls, the Lord’s love is their defense.




                        The Bridegroom and the Bride (vs. 1-4)


Love’s native language is poetry. When strong and happy feeling

dominates the soul, it soon bursts into a song. As young life in a fruit tree

breaks out into leaf and blossom, so the spiritual force of love unfolds in

metaphor and music. Among the lyrics composed by King David, those

which celebrate the Messiah-Prince have the richest glory of fervor,

blossom most into Oriental imagery; and inasmuch as Solomon inherited

somewhat the poetic genius of his father, it was natural that he should pour

out in mystic song the heart throb of a nation’s hopes. The deep and

inseparable union between Christ and his saints is by no one set forth so

clearly as by Jesus the Christ; hence love is strong and tender, because

love’s Object is noble, winsome, kingly, Divine.




1. The love of Christ is incomparably precious. “Thy love is better than

wine.” All true love is precious — a sacred thing, a mighty force. The love

of Jesus is absolutely perfect, without any admixture of alloy. Love is the

mightiest force in the universe, a magnet whose attractive power reaches

from the throne of God to the very gates of hell. And love is as precious as

it is potent. It makes a desert into a paradise; changes base metal into gold;

transforms foul rebels into loving sons. It is a banquet for the heart; a

perpetual feast; a fountain of purest joy. What the rarest wine is for a

fainting body, that the love of Jesus is to a burdened soul.


2. The love of Christ is diffusive. It is as “unguent poured forth.” The love

of God’s Son existed long before it was manifested. That love is seen in all

the arrangements of creation. That love is unfolded in all the methods of

daily providence. “By him all things consist.” That love is shed abroad in

the believer’s heart “by the Holy Ghost.” As the flowers in our gardens

pour out their essential life in their sweet fragrance, so the love of Christ is

Christ’s life poured out for us. All the love which angels cherish is Christ’s

love diffused. He is the “Firstborn of the creation of God.” All the parental

love that has ever glowed on the altar of human hearts is the love of Christ

diffused. All practical benevolence for the well being of mankind is the

outflow of Immanuel’s love. The love that constrains me to compassionate

deeds and to intercessory prayers is the love of Christ diffused.

Discovering the heavenly savour inspires our hearts with joy. Heaven is

knit with silken cords to earth.


3. The love of Christ is condescending and gracious. “The King hath

brought me into his chambers.” Had we been told that God admitted into

his presence chamber the unsinning angels, we should not have been so

profoundly moved. They are meet for his service. But to admit the base

and degenerate sons of men into his intimate friendship, this reflects a

singular glory upon his kindness; this is a miracle of love. By such familiar

intercourse he trains us in kingly conduct, communicates to us Divine

wisdom, moulds us into his own image. Beyond this deed of grace not even

God can go. As there was no depth of humiliation to which he was not

willing to stoop for sinners, so there is no height of excellence from which

he would exclude us. Such love no human thought can measure. It is

higher than heaven: how shall we scale it? It is deeper than hell: how shall

we fathom it?




1. Her love originates in the high renown of his love. Thy Name is as

ointment poured forth.” So long as this strong force of love was confined

within the heart of Christ, no human soul could suspect its existence. On

what ground could any dweller on earth conjecture or imagine that he was

the object of Immanuel’s love? That love must be unfolded, declared, made

clearly known. And this is what Jesus has done. Not content with warm

protestations of his affection, he has stooped to perform impressive deeds

of kindness — yea, prodigies of compassion. All the romantic stories of

heroic love Jesus has immeasurably surpassed. His renown is sung in all the

courts of the heavenly palace. He has made for himself a “Name above

every name,” human or angelic... This high reputation warrants our

approach, our admiration, our trust, our responsive love. “We love him,

because he has first loved us.”


2. Our love craves a closer fellowship with his Person. “Draw me!” We

have made such discoveries of excellence in our Immanuel that we long for

larger acquaintance. To us he is a vast mine of spiritual wealth, and the

deeper we go the rarer jewels do we find. His charms seem infinite, and no

fear troubles us that we shall exhaust them. We are troubled that our own

love is so inadequate, so unworthy; hence we desire a closer approach, that

his spiritual beauty may .quicken our languid affection. Feeling the

magnetic power of his love, we too may be magnetized. We cannot

command, by a mere volition or a mere resolve, that our love shall flow

out. So the only way to intensify our love is by coming into fuller contact

with his. Only life can generate life, and only the love of Christ can stir into

activity the principle of true love in us. Therefore we pray, “Draw us into

nearer fellowship, into more vital union!”


3. Our love desires a prompt obedience. “We will run after thee.” We love

to walk in his footsteps, and when we discover where his haunts lie, we run

to seek him there. So sincere is our love, that we long to do his will

promptly and heartily. We wish to hear every whisper of his commands.

We deprecate that anything on our part should chase the smiles from his

face. We long that his thoughts may be our thoughts, his dispositions our

dispositions, his purposes our purposes; so that between Christ and us

there may be perfect concord. As said Ruth to Naomi, so say we, “Whither

thou goest, I will go; and where thou dwellest, I will dwell.” We can do

without food, we can do without friends, we can do without health, but we

cannot do without Christ. Wrote Samuel Rutherford to a friend, “If hell fire

stood between you and Christ, you would press through in order to reach

him.” All service is delight when the feet are winged by love.


4. Love brings us into the best society. “The upright love thee.” The love

that draws the best men near to Christ likewise draws them near each

other. As the spokes of a wheel get near to the hub they get into closer

proximity to each other. The more love we give out the more substantial

good we get. The friendship of the pious is a precious treasure; their

wisdom enlightens, their piety stimulates, their love enkindles, ours. In

their society we are elevated and gladdened. The story of their experience

inspires us for new endeavour; their triumphs awaken our most sacred

ambitions. With Moses, we learn meekness; with Elijah, we learn how to

pray; with Job, we learn endurance; with Martin Luther, we learn courage.

The society of saints throws into the shade the society of sages or of kings.


5. Love treasures up the recollection of past favors. “We will remember

thy love more than wine.” What Jesus Christ has done for us in the past he

will do again. Since his love is infinite, he has not exhausted his love tokens

in the past; he has more costly things yet to give, richer dainties yet to

place on his banquet table. Still, there are times when we cannot realize a

present Saviour, when the conscious possession of his love is suspended,

and at such times it is a cordial to our spirits to bring out the memorials

and tokens of past affection. Our memory is a vast chamber, hung round

with ten thousand mementoes of Immanuel’s love. Thus, in a dark hour of

depression, King David sang, “Yet will I remember thee from the land of

Jordan, and of the hill Mizar.” In winter’s dark days we will feast upon the

fruits of well remembered summer.


6. Love creates the purest joy. “We will be glad and rejoice in thee.” Joy

arises when a felt want is satisfied; but so long as we are sensible of needs

and cravings for which no supply is at hand we are miserable. A thirsty

man upon a scorching desert, leagues removed from any well, is a stranger

to gladness. The misery of lost spirits, doubtless, arises from passionate

cravings for which there is no supply. On the other hand, when we can feel

that Christ is ours — ours in bonds which nothing can sever — we feel that

every want is met, every ambition is realized, every aspiration fulfilled.

“Then shall I be satisfied, when I awake, in thy likeness.” Therefore,

although outward surroundings may tend to depress, we can always find in

the fulness of Christ sources of hope and joy. “With him is the fountain of





                                    Low Estimate of Self (vs. 5-6)


A genuine Christian will take a modest estimate of himself. “He has learnt

not to think more highly of himself than he ought to think.” Many

Christians undervalue themselves; and though this practice is not so

obnoxious in the eyes of others as over valuation, yet this also is a fault. It

is better to pass no judgment on ourselves; it is seldom called for; it is often

a folly.


1. EXTERNAL BLEMISH. “I am black.”


1. This blemish (if it be one) is very superficial; it is only skin deep. A

strong comparison is employed to convey more vividly the impression —

“black as the tents of Kedar.” These were manufactured from camel’s hair,

and, from long exposure to sun and dew, were in colour a dingy black. So

when a Christian views himself as he appears externally to others, he sees,

perhaps, his ignorance, his poverty, his imperfections, his obscurity, the

contempt with which he is regarded by others, If the heavenly Friend

should view him only in his outward appearance, he is devoid of attraction,

destitute of ordinary beauty.


2. This blemish arises from the hard treatment of others. “My mother’s

children were angry with me; they made me keeper of the vineyards.”

Compulsion was used. The speaker had been coerced into employment

which was menial and exhausting. It demanded long exposure to scorching

sun and to chilling dews. The effect was to mar the beauty of the

countenance. Yet the eye of love would detect beneath the surface a richer

beauty — the beauty of patient obedience and unmurmuring submission.

Men of the world may oppress and persecute; they cannot injure character.

Earthly kings and magistrates may scourge and imprison the bride of

Christ; they may despoil her of much external comeliness; but in the eye of

reason — in the eye of God — she is more comely than before. Only the

dross is consumed; real excellence of soul comes clearer into view.


3. Or this may be a real blemish through self-neglect. “My own vineyard

have I not kept.” Possibly, in the endurance of such hardships, it might

have been possible to escape the blemish. Suitable precautions were not

taken. Under stress of cruel compulsion, there had been a feeling of self-

abandonment — a weak yielding to despair. It is hard to maintain a

heavenly tempor under daily provocations; yet it can be done. It is hard to

cultivate the Christian graces amid scenes of suffering and mockery; yet it

ought to be done. The King Omnipotent has said, “My grace is sufficient

for thee.” We shall render the most faithful and useful service to others

when we maintain in vigour our own piety. The healthful face of a holy

character must under no circumstances be neglected.


II. INTERNAL BEAUTY. Though black (i.e. sun-browned), she was yet

“comely” — yea, beauteous “as the curtains of Solomon.” Likely enough,

there is in this poetic drama a conversation, the parts of which are not

distinctly marked. Likely enough, the daughters of Jerusalem here interject

the remarks, “comely;” “as the curtains of Solomon.”


1. The judgment of others respecting us is often more equitable than selfjudgment.

Some persons, confessedly, have a sad habit of overrating their

virtues; but others are diffident and over-modest — they are given to selfdepreciation.

Through a jealousy for truth, or through a fear of selfdelusion,

they underrate their real goodness. As we can judge the merit of

a painting or a statue a little distance removed, so a judicious onlooker can

often more accurately judge us than we can judge ourselves. It is better for

our comfort and for our usefulness neither to underrate nor to overrate

ourselves. Very precious is the inward spirit of truth.


2. Internal beauty is preferable to external. It is not so apparent to the eye

of man, but it is more prized by God, by angels, and by the best class of

men. It is superior in itself, because it belongs to the soul. It is more

influential for good. It brings more joy to the possessor. It is permanent,

and outlasts all changes of time and pain and death. The genuine Christian

may be poor in earthly wealth, but he is endowed with the treasures of

heaven. He may wear coarse and homespun apparel, yet his soul is clothed

in a robe of perfect righteousness. His face may be marred with suffering

and ploughed with the effects of arduous toil, yet is he comely with

holiness and beautified by the hand of the great Artificer.


3. Internal beauty is obtained through self-sacrificing service. The bride

was really comely, though she had been compelled to work, like a slave, in

the vineyards; yea, she was comely in character, as the result of this toil.

Very true is it that no persecution can injure us; it brings, sooner or later,

real advantage. The noblest characters have been fashioned and burnished

in the furnace of suffering. Even of the Son of God we are told that “he

learned obedience by the things which he suffered.” The statue is not

perfected until it has felt ten thousand strokes of the chisel. The diamond

does not sparkle at its best until it has been well cut on the wheel of the

lapidary. The pearl of great price is the fruit of pain. The verdict of

experience records, “It was good for me that I was afflicted.” Suffering is

God’s lancet, whereby he produces health. A vital lesson is here taught.

Without personal piety there can be no permanent usefulness. A man’s

character is the mightiest instrument for recovering and elevating others. If

we long to see the vineyards of others fair and fruitful, our own vineyard

must be a pattern of good culture. Our first duty is respecting ourselves. If

we are full of light, we can lead others along the path to heaven. Personal

holiness is the great desideratum.




                                    Love Better than Wine (v. 2)


The desire of the soul awakened to the higher life is a desire which earth

cannot satisfy; it is a desire for God, for the manifestations of Divine

favor, the proofs of Divine affection. As one has said, “The Christian is

not satisfied, like Mary, to kiss the Master’s feet; he would kiss the

Master’s face.” The enjoyment of God’s kindness enkindles a desire for

more knowledge of God, a closer intercourse with God. This is the result

of a sense — an imperfect but genuine sense — of the incomparable

preciousness of Divine friendship and favor. “Thy love is better than



I. GOD’S GIFTS ARE GOOD. He is good unto all. Every good gift and

every perfect boon must be traced to his bounty. Wine is used here

poetically as one of the evidences of Divine provision for man’s needs.

Wine maketh glad the heart of man, oil maketh his face to shine, bread

strengtheneth his heart. Heaven bestows in abundance gifts which men

often accept with ingratitude or misuse to their own detriment.


II. GOD’S LOVE IS BETTER. Material possessions, temporal

enjoyments, the pleasures of sense, are contrasted with what enriches,

purifies, and rejoices the spirit. To the spiritual man the favor of Heaven

yields more true joy than he experiences in the time when corn and wine



1. This follows from the very nature of man, who is a being made originally

in the Divine image, endowed with an immortal nature. Such a being

cannot find satisfaction in any lower source of happiness.


2. It follows especially from the fact of man’s sin and salvation. As a

dependent being, man is a recipient of Divine bounty; but, as a being who

has departed from God, and has been restored by forgiving mercy to

favour and fellowship, he is especially in need of constant revelations of

Divine love. And as Christians we gratefully recognize that, in bestowing

upon us his own Son, God has given unto us that love which is better than



3. In partaking of Divine love we are in no danger of excess. It had been

better for many a professing Christian had God’s providence withheld the

gifts which have by the abuse of worldliness been prized above the Giver

himself. Not wine only, but the wealth and luxuries of life generally, have

too often been the occasion of forgetting and departing from God. But

Divine love is a draught of which none can drink in excess.


4. The love of God is a lasting blessing, a perennial joy. The gifts of Divine

bounty perish, for they are of the earth. The love of God is imperishable as

God Himself.



                                    The Fragrant Name (v. 3)


The sense of smell furnishes much of the imagery of this poetical book.

Perfumes not only gratify the smell, they awaken the emotions, and have a

remarkable power of reviving, by association, bygone scenes and far distant

friends and companions, in whose society the fragrant wild flowers

or blooms of the garden have been enjoyed. Perfumed unguents were in the

East employed for anointing the body, for health and comfort. Their use

was associated with hospitable reception and entertainment. The Name of

our Saviour is as the unguents poured upon his form, diffusing sweet

fragrance abroad.



SENSE OF HIS PEOPLE. In fact, the Christ is “the Anointed,” who, by

his appointment and devotion, is marked out as the beloved Son of God,

and the honored Saviour of the world. The perfume of Divine grace,

treasured up from eternity, was poured forth in abundance upon the Word

when he “became flesh, and dwelt among us.”



FRAGRANCE. It is well known that large sums of money were lavished

on the scented unguents stored in vessels, bottles, and vases of alabaster

and other expensive materials. The perfumes used were brought in many

cases from distant lands; they were distilled from rare and beautiful

flowers; they were purchased by the wealthy and used by the luxurious.



REFRESHING FRAGRANCE. As the mere mention of the king’s name

was welcome to the bride and to her companions, so is the Name of our

Saviour, when pronounced in the hearing of his friends, the occasion of

delight. The Name of Jesus is music to the ear, and is as “ointment poured

forth.” It dispels the lassitude, the discouragement, the despondency, which

are sometimes apt to steal into the soul of the disciple during the Master’s

bodily and temporary absence. It is a “Name above every name.”

“Ointment and perfume rejoice the heart.”



FRAGRANCE. The penetrating power of odours is well known. Poets tell

of the “spicy breezes” that “blow soft o’er Ceylon’s isle;” how “filled with

balm the gale sighs on, though the flowers are sunk in death.” Thus the

precious Name of Christ sheds its sweetness far and wide, bringing life,

hope, and salvation to those in remotest lands. The Plant of Renown which

was bruised upon the soil of Palestine has given forth perfume of blessing

which has reached the uttermost ends of the earth, reviving those ready to

perish with its refreshing and reinvigorating power.



PERMANENT FRAGRANCE. It is known that some perfumes, such as

musk, will continue to pour forth their sweetness day after day and year

after year, diffusing effluvia unceasingly, and. yet suffering no perceptible

loss of bulk, no diminution of power to give forth their special odour.

Similarly .is it with the power of Christ to bless mankind. Generation after

generation has found healing, life, and blessing in the gospel; yet is its

freshness undimmed and its power undiminished. And today more are

rejoicing in the ever-fragrant Name than at any former time. Nor shall that

Name ever lose its sweetness or its power.




                        The Joyful Celebration of Divine Love (v. 4)


The king is represented as conducting his friends and guests into his

splendid palace, admitting them to the apartments reserved for his most

intimate and favored courtiers, and thus revealing to them his

condescension and affection. Such treatment awakens their joy, and calls

forth the celebration of his love. The whole scene is symbolical of the

privileges and the sacred delights of those who share in the “shining of

God’s countenance.”




1. It is undeserved love, and therefore love of pure compassion.

2. It is condescending love, on the part of the King of heaven

towards poor, ignorant, and sinful man.

3. It is too often ill-requited love.

4. Yet it is bountiful and beneficent love.

5. It is sacrificing love — love to display which costs God much.

6. It is forbearing, patient, constant love.





1. Its pre-eminence may be maintained. There may be other prerogatives

and privileges which we may be tempted to make our boast and cause of

rejoicing, but we must ever keep before our minds the supreme excellence

of the love of God; “more than wine,” and more than blessings far more

desirable and precious than this.


2. Its most glorious proof may be commemorated. First and foremost

among the meanings of the eucharistic meal celebrated in the Church of the

Redeemer is its beauty and justice as a memorial of that love “whose

height, whose depth unfathomed, no man knows.”


3. Its natural power to awaken joy and praise should be practically

confessed. To “be glad and rejoice” in God is only just and becoming; and

Christians should not so steadfastly contemplate their own unworthiness as

to lose sight of the infinite worthiness of him to whom they owe their



4. Love may be celebrated in the exercise of willing obedience. There is on

our part no response to God’s kindness so acceptable as consecrated

service. “The love of Christ constraineth us;” this is the practical principle

of the new life. There is a world of meaning in the language of the text, “In

uprightness do they love thee.”



                                    The Keeper of the Vineyards (v. 6)


Men have put into their charge responsibilities concerning others, and these

they may to some extent worthily observe. They may promote the interest

of their family, the comfort of their household and dependants. They may

even give time and money to advance schemes of benevolence and religion.

But the question suggested by the language of the text is this — What are

they the better for regarding the welfare of others if they neglect their own?

if, being guardians of vineyards, they must acknowledge in all sincerity that

their own vineyard they have not kept?






1. The very position of Britain among the nations of the world favours this

view. Our range of influence is immense, our power is vast, our work of

colonizing and of governing is heavy and serious. How can we serve our

generation according to the will of God?


2. Add to this, the efforts which are called for on behalf of the ignorant and

irreligious millions around us, and which seem to demand all the attention

and zealous energies of the Church of Christ.


3. Hence a conception of the Christian life as one of constant activity and

progressive usefulness.





action of this principle it may be remarked:


1. When we care for others, we naturally take it for granted that all is well

with ourselves. In any work and enterprise, if we are engaged in teaching

and in leading others, it is natural that we should overlook the importance

of examining our own qualifications.


2. The opinion of others acts as an auxiliary in bringing about this state of

feeling. Not only do we take it for granted that all is well with ourselves;

others do the same, and their attitude encourages us in our good opinion of



3. Time and thought may be so taken up in the service in which we are

engaged, that attention is drawn away from our own condition, our own

obligation to ourselves. A man may awaken to the fact of his own foolish

and sinful neglect of his own spiritual state, and may cry aloud, in anguish

and remorse, “They made me keeper of the vineyards, and mine own

vineyard have I not kept!”




SPIRITUAL SAFETY AND GROWTH. One duty does not conflict with

another. It is in the cultivation of our own hearts that we gain strength and

wisdom to be of benefit and service to others. Works of Christian

benevolence are to be undertaken, not under the influence of superficial

excitement, not under the contagion of enthusiastic example, but from

sober conviction, and with a clear understanding of the law that only those

who themselves have received can to any purpose give to others.


APPLICATION. Let those whose position is described in the text bestir

themselves at once, apply with diligence to their proper work, restore the

hedges, dig about the vine roots, take the “foxes that spoil the grapes,” and

climb the watch tower, that they may discern the approach and resist the

incursions of their foes. Then shall they be privileged to present, even from

their own vineyard, some fruit which shall be acceptable to the Divine

Master and Lord, to whom all must at last give in their great account.




                                    The Shepherd’s Care (vs. 7-8)


As the beloved maiden or bride seeks her shepherd lover who is yet the

king, she makes use of language which gives an insight into pastoral duty

and care, and which serves to suggest the relations borne by the flock to

the good Shepherd who gave his life for the sheep.



















                                    Love and Admirations (vs. 9-15)


It requires imagination and a knowledge of Oriental habits of thinking fully

to appreciate the language of this passage, which otherwise to our colder

and less fanciful natures may appear extravagant. But expressions which

may be open to the charge of extravagance as applied to ordinary human

affection, may well come short of the truth if interpreted as indicating the

emotions which distinguish those spiritual relations of absorbed delight

subsisting between Christ and his spouse, the Church. Beneath the rich

metaphors of the poet we discern certain principles which are of deepest

moment and beauty.




descriptions of the charms of the beloved, couched in the figurative

language of Eastern poetry, can only be applied in any sense to the Church

of the Lord Christ upon the distinct understanding that whatever

excellences she may possess she owes to the Divine care and munificence

of the heavenly Spouse. She owes her existence to his power, her safety to

his faithful watching, her gifts and excellences to the provision of his love

and care, her position to his compassion. Nothing has she which she did

not receive from him; nothing of which she can be vain, of which she can

boast. For all, her lowly acknowledgments of gratitude are forever due to

her Almighty Lord.





1. She admires him for what he is in himself. In him is all that is excellent

and valuable, sweet and lovable. His beauty is spiritual, incomparable,

delightful, unfading, and unwearying.


2. She adores him for his treatment of herself and his regard for her. The

Church knows, from her Lord’s own revelation, that he holds her dear,

precious, fragrant; that, having laid down his life for her redemption, he

never can or will forget her, or cease to cherish towards her the affection

of his Divine and loving heart.


3. Hence she commemorates his love in the Eucharist, honours him by her

obedience, and by her witness and her praise commends him to the world.





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